Anda di halaman 1dari 22

# Unsteady Hydraulics and Model Selection:

## Johnathan Nault | Ph.D. Student

Tuesday October 6, 2015
Outline
Modeling Transient Hydraulics
Model Comparison and Selection
Other State-of-the-Art Research
Higher-Level Considerations
2
Waterhammer Phenomenon
Rapid changes in boundary conditions, such as rapid
valve closure, can induce surges:

3
4
Wave Dynamics and Fluids
Governing
pressurized hydraulics:
Momentum:

Continuity:

5
Fundamental Assumptions
1. Uniform, 1-D, and axisymmetric flow

2. Isothermal environment

3. Single-phase fluid

4. Pressurized conditions

## 6. Steady-state wall friction approximation

6
Modeling Approaches
Three key modeling approaches, each with different

7
Waterhammer Models
Assume that the advective terms , , and are
negligible
Simplified governing equations:
Momentum:
Continuity: Pair of
hyperbolic
PDEs

8
Rigid Water Column Models

## Presume that flows vary slowly enough such that

the fluid is approximately incompressible
Assume that is very large

, where

9

## Presume that flow changes occur very slowly such

that inertial effects are negligible
Assume that

## Momentum equation further reduces to:

, where

10
Which Model to Use?
Waterhammer models:
Consider compressibility effects, fluid inertia, and friction
Complex and require more computational effort
Assumption of slow changes often invalid

Accuracy Efficiency
11
Model Comparison
Consider a slow valve closure operation for a
reservoir-valve-reservoir system:

## 75% Uniform Valve Closure Over 500 s 12

Model Comparison (cont)
Next, consider a moderate valve closure operation:

## 75% Uniform Valve Closure Over 50 s

13
Model Comparison (cont)
Now, consider a fast valve closure operation:

14
Waterhammer MOC

## Wood, D.J. (2003). Waterhammer Analysis: Essential and Easy (and 15

Efficient). J. Environ. Eng., 131(8), 1123-1131.
Waterhammer WCM

## Wood, D.J. (2003). Waterhammer Analysis: Essential and Easy (and 16

Efficient). J. Environ. Eng., 131(8), 1123-1131.
Individual
models:
Solve:

OR
Hybrid models:
Solve:
where

17
Other Ongoing Research
Mixed flow conditions (i.e., free surface and
pressurized hydraulics)
Leak and obstruction detection via waves
Coupled 1-D and 3-D models

## Improving computational efficiency

18
Models, Models, Models
Why does this matter?
Appropriate model selection
Interpretation of results
Understand a system
Higher-level concepts:
Looking at vs. looking along a model
Underlying assumptions: are they reasonable? Valid?

19
Key Takeaways
1. Model selection AND underlying physics
2. Consider both the application of a model as
well as the model itself

## 3. Check the validity of assumptions

20
Ultimately
there will always be trade-offs as responsible
modelers, we must balance accuracy (quality),
efficiency (time), and complexity (cost) accordingly

21
Questions?

## Johnathan Nault | Ph.D. Student

johnathan.nault@mail.utoronto.ca

22