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# COURSE ON

## PROBLEM SOLVING THROUGH

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS (DOE)
USING SHAININ TECHNIQUES

## COUNDUCTED BY : Mr. Rajan Shringarpure

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS - COURSE OUTLINE

1. Introduction :
- Problem Solving Techniques, - Quality Gap - Why ?
2. Variation :
- Why variation Reduction, Sources of Variation, Methods of Variation
Reduction, Measurement of Variations, Variation Reduction Road Map, Design
of Experiments,
3. The Seven DOE ( SHAININ ) Techniques :
- Multi - Vari : To home-in on Red X Family
- Component Search : Easy, Sure shot clue generating Technique
- Paired Comparison : The Detective Method
- Variable Search : The Rolls Royce of Variation Reduction.
- Full Factorial : Quantification Technique for Main & Interaction Effects.
- B vs C : Validation Technique.
- Scatter Plot : Optimization of Realistic Tolerances
4. Post DOE Disciplines :
- Positrol = To control important variables
- Process certification : control of qualify peripherals
- Operator Certification : Training
- Pre-control : To maintain Zero Defect and 100 % yields.
5. Dart Chart :
- Mapping of process improvement
6. Six Sigma :
- Concept & understanding
7. Case studies.
PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES

* BASIC 7 TOOLS

* NEW 7 TOOLS

## * 10 POWERFUL QUALITY TOOLS

CHECK SHEET PARETO ANALYSIS ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM HISTOGRAM
90
80
70
III
60 IIII III

Problem
50
40 IIII IIII IIII IIII III
30
20
IIII II
10
Total 0
1st Qtr

Y SCATTER DIAGRAM

THE BASIC
7 TOOLS Positive Correlation X
GRAPHS & CHARTS
OF Q.C. 100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

STRATIFICATION
THE BASIC 7 TOOLS OF Q.C.
1. Plan, Do Study/check, Act (PDSA/PDCA)
2. Pareto Charts
3. Frequency Distribution / Histograms
4. Brainstorming
5. Cause & Effect Diagrams (Ishikawa)
6. Cause & Effect Diagrams With The
7. Control Charts
* ALL ARE KINDERGARTEN TOOLS WITH MINIMAL PROBLEM SOLVING POWER
THE 7 MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR QUALITY
1. Affinity Diagram
2. Interrelationship Diagram
3. Tree Diagram
4. Matrix Diagram
5. Matrix data analysis / Star Plot
6. Process Decision Program Chart(PDPC)
7. Arrow Diagram
All Are Management Tools - Not Applicable For Problem
Solving Or Quantum Leap Quality Improvements
THE 10 POWERFUL QUALITY TOOLS

## 1. Design of Experiments (DOE) - Problem

solving tool par excellence
2. Multiple Environment Over Stress Test
(MEOST) - The driver for Zero Field Failures
3. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) -
Captures the Voice of the Customer
4. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) -
Maximizes equipment / machinery productivity
5. Bench Marking - Identifies and Closes the gap
between you and the best in class company
THE 10 POWERFUL QUALITY TOOLS

## 6. Poka Yoke - Prevents operator controllable errors.

7. Next Operation as Customer (NOAC) and
Improves white collar quality, cost and cycle time
8. Total Value Engineering - Maximizes customer
loyalty at minimum cost
9. Supply Chain Optimisation - Maximizes profit
enhancement for both customer and supplier
10. Lean Manufacturing / Inventory and Cycle
Time Reduction - Maximizes inventory turns.
THE QUALITY GAP
THE QUALITY GAP BETWEEN
JAPAN AND THE OTHER
DEVELOPED and DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES IS INCREASING,
NOT DECREASING
REASONS FOR THE GAP

1. TOM PETERS :

AMERICAN MANAGEMENT IS
OUT OF TOUCH WITH :
ITS CUSTOMERS,
ITS EMPLOYEES,
ITS SUPPLIERS.
REASONS FOR GAP
2. WESTERN MANAGEMENT IS MIRED IN :
* Generalities : NATO ( No Action Talk Only )
* Poor Management Styles : Vertical Management,
Micro Management, Taylorism, Bossism,
Low Expectations, Little Push For Innovations
& Continuous Improvements.
* Poor Quality Systems : ( i.e., ISO-9000 Series )
* Direct Labour Focus.
* Support Services-Quagmire of Ineffectiveness.
* Employees as Pairs of Hands.
REASONS FOR GAP

3. WEAK TOOLS :
* The 7 Tools of Q.C.
* The 7 Management Tools for Quality.
( New 7 Tools )
* S.P.C.
What is Quality ?
100%
A Common View :
Satisfaction

If Product is within
Customer

Specifications -
1) Customer Satisfied
2) Ease of Production
3) No Loss

LSL USL

Conformance to Specifications /
Standards
What is Quality ?
Quality Loss in Rs.

Japanese View :
Regardless of Specifications
any departure from Target
Value is a Cost -
1) Cost of Inspection, Re-
Test and Re-work
2) Cost of Increasing
Customer Dissatisfaction

## LSL Target USL Quality Value

Value Characteristic
Customer
Satisfaction
100%
Then Quality is ...
Quality is a State in which Value Entitlement
is realised for the Customer and the Supplier
in every aspect of the Business Relationship.

## Value Entitlement : for Customer - A rightful

level of expectation to buy High Quality
products at Lowest possible Cost.

## Value Entitlement : for Suppliers - A rightful

level of expectation to produce Highest
Quality products at Highest possible Profits.
Then Quality is ...
Value - represents Economic Worth, Practical
Utility and Availability for both the Customer
and the Supplier / Company that creates the
Product or Service.
Economic Worth - refers to the fact that the
Customers want to purchase products and
services at the lowest possible cost, just as
the company wants to produce high quality
goods and services at the lowest possible
cost.
Then Quality is ...
Practical Utility - for Customers - the product
or service must possess a certain value -
form - fit - function
Practical Utility - for Company - their
processes must create value.

## Companies focus on Process Quality and

Customers focus on Final Product and
Service Quality
Then Quality is ...

## Quality is Highest when Costs are at the

absolute Lowest for both the Producer and
the Customer
Then Quality is ...

## Quality is never an accident, it is always

the result of :
* High intention,
* Sincere efforts,
* Intelligent direction, and
* Skillful execution.
Then Quality is ...

## Quality is not just a road

to Customer Delight ..
.. But, a trigger to use
other State - of - the - Art
Management Techniques
8 Attributes of Quality :
1. Performance
2. Feature
3. Reliability
4. Conformance
5. Durability
6. Serviceability
7. Aesthetics
8. Perceived Quality
VARIATION

## Total Process Variation

Expected Unexpected

## We must live This must be

with this eliminated

True Process
Capability
Variation is the cause of inconsistency
Variation is reason that components do
not always fit together.
Variations is the reason that quality
levels of same product ,produced on
the same machine using parts / materials
from same suppliers are different.
Our goal is to manage Variation
To manage Variation we must understand it.
Where from variation comes ?
Variation can come from different procedures

## used by a manufacturer or an operator.

Variation can come from different machines
Variation can come from wear in parts of
machine.
Variation can come from different batches of
material
Variation can be the result of endless reasons
VARIATION IS EVIL

## Economic Loss Caused By :

* Customer Dissatisfaction

* Poor Quality
SPECIFICATION LIMITS Vs. TARGET VALUES

## 100% A Common View

If Product is within Specs :
1) Customer Satisfied
2) Ease of Production.
Customer 3) No Loss
Satisfaction
0
%
Quality Characteristic
Lower Spec Limit Upper Spec Limit
A Japanese View
Regardless of Specs. any
100% Departure from targeted
The Loss Function value is a cost.
1) Cost of Inspection, test,
& rework
\$
2) Cost of increasing
Loss customer dissatisfaction
0
%
Quality Characteristic
Target
Lower Spec Limit Value Upper Spec Limit
SOURCES OF
VARIATION
Poor Management

## 85 % of Quality Problems are

caused by Management and only
15 % by workers on the line

## The Split is actually closer to 95 % : 5 %

Poor Management
Managements sins of omission & commission with
respect to Variation includes :
Lack of knowledge about impact of variation
on Quality & Cost
No coherent Policy on variation reduction
No allocation of resources or time for DOE
Lack of Leadership, involvement in variation
reduction
No training in DOE, follow up of implementation
No learning by doing
Poor Product / Process Specifications
Most Product Specifications are either :
Vague
Arbitrary
Wrong
Important Quality Characteristics /
Requirements missing. Process
Specifications are even worse.

## Major Cause of Variation lies between

Selling & Marketing

## Voice of Engineer is more dominant than the

Voice of Customer
Poor Component Specifications

## Inadequate conversion of Product Specifications

into Component Specifications. Reasons are :

## Reliance on previous component drawing

Besides Management, Product, Process,
Materials and Workmanship; Many Quality
Peripherals cause variation, such as :

Poor Instructions

## Variation in Test & Measuring Instruments

Poor Supplier Material
Next to Design of a Product, variation in
Supplier Materials contribute the most to
poor Quality

## Traditional approach of having multiple

suppliers for the same parts
Operator Errors
Workers Defects are only Effects of :
Poor Instructions, Goals, Training, Supervision
Poor Processes, Materials, Test Equipments
Poor Design for Manufacturability
Use of External Inspection
Assumption that Workers are but Pair of
Hands from neck down
Causes of Variation

## There are two causes of variation

Common Causes ( Chance Causes,
Random Causes ), and
Special Causes ( Assignable
Causes ).
Common Causes of Variation
Characteristics of processes with only common
causes of variation :
The processes are stable I.e. under control
Process outcomes are predictable
The effects of common cause variation can
only be eliminated by action on the system.

## Common causes of variation :

Are associated with the majority 85% of
process concerns
Arise from many small sources.
Common causes of Variation
If only common causes of variation are present ,the
output of a process forms a distribution that is stable
over time. It is predictable.

## Variation from common cause is predictable.

Variation from common cause is stable
The mean is unchanged over time
The spread is unchanged over time
The shape is unchanged over time
Special causes of variation
If special causes of variation are present ,the
output of a process forms a distribution that is not
stable over time. It is not predictable.

## Variation from special cause is unpredictable.

Variation from special cause is unstable
The mean changes over time
The shape varies over time
Common Causes and Assignable Causes
Common Causes Assignable Causes
Consists of many Consists of just one or
individual causes few individual causes
Any one cause results in Any one cause result in
only a minute amount of large variation, for
variation, for example : example :
- Slight variation in raw - Batch of defective
material material
- Lack of human - Untrained operator
perfection in reading - Faulty set-up
instruments & setting
controls
Common Causes and Assignable Causes
Common Causes Assignable Causes
Can not be Easy to detect and
economically eliminated generally economical to
eliminate
Action on system Local actions needed
needed to reduce to eliminate variation
variation
Process follows a No specific pattern
predictable pattern
GOK HAK
( God Only Knows ) ( Human Also Knows )
Stable Process
A stable process is the one with no
indication of special cause of variation.

## A process may be stable, but may produce

defective output.

## A stable process is not an end to

improvement.
MEASURE OF VARIABILITY

1. Range
- Difference between Maximum
and Minimum Value
2. Standard Deviation
- Average deviation from the mean
Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation is a statistical measure of
spread or variation that is present in the group
data.
The mathematics involved in calculating the
standard deviation are complicated,
compared to calculating the average. The
important thing is that, despite this apparent
complexity, the standard deviation is just a
form of average. It measures the average
deviation from the mean.
Variation

## Variation indicates inefficiency and

waste in the process. To deal with it you
must be able to quantify it. If you cannot
quantify it then you cannot tell if your
process improvement activities are
effective or not.

## How to Quantify Variation ?

MEASUREMENT OF VARIATION
Cp & CpK
Cp = PROCESS CAPABILITY
Specification width
=
Process width ( + 3 )
* No Upper limit for Cp
* Cp does not take into account any non
centering of the process
* Non centering reduces the margin of
safety
1. Accuracy & Precision

## 1. There are three separate concepts to deal with:

2. Accuracy : It combines precision and bias. It can
be called Cpk if tied to a specification width.

## Accuracy is the distance between the process

average and the target.

## 2. Precision is defined as the spread or range of a

parameter and can be called Cp, in other words :
Precision is the tightness of the grouping
1. Accuracy & Precision

## 3. Bias : It is defined as the deviation of the

average of a parameter from the target
value or design center.

## 4. Discrimination : It is the ratio of product

minimum ratio of 5 : 1
1. Accuracy & Precision

## Accuracy and precision are two separate and

distinct measures.

## They measure different things and improving

precision requires a different approach to
improving accuracy.
1. Accuracy & Precision

Range,
Cp ( with Specifications )
Bias = Deviation from Design Center D
X D, Where :
D = Design Center or Target Value
X = Average,

## Accuracy : It combines Precision and Bias

Cpk ( With Specifications )

## Discrimination It is a ratio of product spread :

A. Degree of Bias
Bias
High

## X D Range R, Precision, Cp all constant

Bias progressively less and Cpk
improves from top to bottom
X D

XD

Bias X=D
Zero
A. Degree of Bias B. Degree of Precision
Bias Precision
High Low

X D X=D

## Bias Constant = Zero

X D X=D
Precision progressively
higher from top to
bottom as are Cp and
XD X=D
Cpk ( which are always
equal )

Bias Precision
X=D X=D
Low High
A. Degree of Bias B. Degree of Precision C. Degree of Accuracy
Bias Precision Accuracy
High Low Low

X D X=D X D
Range /
precision,
X D X=D X D
bias,
accuracy
Cp, Cpk
all
XD X=D XD improve
from top
to bottom
Bias Precision Accuracy
X=D X=D X=D
Low High High
2.Relationship between Control Limits &
Spec. Limits
Control Limit Specification Limit
Inherent to the Process External to the process
Calculated from the Given by Customer
data gathered during the ( may be Internal
process Customer ) on Drawing,
Operation Sheet or other
Specification
Used to judge whether Used to judge
a process is in Statistical acceptability of individual
Control product
Measurement Of Variation
Cp & Cpk
Cpk = PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX

## Measure of variability & process capability

because it takes into account both spread
& Non centering of process.
Measurement Of Variation
Cp & Cpk
Cpk = ( 1 - K ) x Cp
No upper limit for Cpk
Cpk is used to combine Voice of Customer
with the voice of Product or Process
It is a convenient & effective method of specifying
supplier quality in place of AQL or PPM
Cpk = 2 : Milestone in the march past zero
defects to near zero variation
Measurement Of Variation
Cp & CpK
Penalty for non centering of the process

D - X X -D
K = or
S/2 S/2

## WHICHEVER MAKES IT POSITIVE

Cpk Formula For Single Sided Limit

## X - Nearest Specification Limit

Cpk = 1/2 Process Width

OR

## Nearest Specification Limit - X

Cpk = 1/2 Process Width

## WHICHEVER MAKES Cpk POSITIVE

PROCESS CAPABILITY
Cp - MEASURE OF VARIATION
A. (Upper Spec Limit = 40, Lower Spec Limit = 20
Process Width Defined as + 3 Sigma Limits = 30 )
20 40 What is the
significance of
Rejects Rejects * 30% of Processes are at
2.5% 2.5% or below this level
Sorting, 100%Inspection,
-2 + 2
Spec Width (S) Checking, Rework, Scrap
Cp = Process Width (P) Non-conformance is
20 inevitable
Cp = 30
= 0.67
PROCESS CAPABILITY
Cp - MEASURE OF VARIATION
B. (Upper Spec Limit = 40, Lower Spec Limit = 20
Process Width Defined as + 3 Sigma Limits = 20 )
20 40
What is the
significance of
Rejects
1300PPM
Rejects 60% of Processes are
1300PPM
at or below this level
-3 +3 Requires efforts to
Spec Width (S) reduce variation
Cp = Process Width (P) Keep mean and
Cp =
20 under strict control
= 1.0
20
PROCESS CAPABILITY
Cp - MEASURE OF VARIATION
C. (Upper Spec Limit = 40, Lower Spec Limit = 20
Process Width Defined as + 3 Sigma Limits = 15 )
20 40
What is the
significance of

## A better safety margin

-4 + 4
between Process limit &
Spec Width (S) Specification limits
Cp = Process Width (P)
20
Cp = 15
= 1.33
PROCESS CAPABILITY
Cp - MEASURE OF VARIATION
D. (Upper Spec Limit = 40, Lower Spec Limit = 20
Process Width Defined as + 3 Sigma Limits = 12 )
20 40

What is the
significance of
Better Process with wider
- 5 +5
safety margin.
Inspection can be reduced
Spec Width (S)
Cp = Process Width (P)
20
Possibility of squeezing
Cp = = 1.66 tolerance
12
PROCESS CAPABILITY
Cp - MEASURE OF VARIATION
E. (Upper Spec Limit = 40, Lower Spec Limit = 20
Process Width Defined as + 3 Sigma Limits = 10 )
20 40 What is the
significance of
* Important milestone in a march
towards variation reduction.
* Process width is half the
-6 +6 Specification width
Spec Width (S)
Cp = Process Width (P) * Minimum standard for own as
well as for suppliers for KEY
Cp =
20
= 2.0 Characteristics/ Parameters
10
PROCESS CAPABILITY
Cp - MEASURE OF VARIATION
F. (Upper Spec Limit = 40, Lower Spec Limit = 20
Process Width Defined as + 3 Sigma Limits = 2.5 )
20 40

What is the
significance of
Ideal with accompanying
- 24 + 24 Cost Reductions
Spec Width (S)
Open up tolerances
Cp = Process Width (P) No need to inspect
20
Cp = = 8.0
2.5
Variation
Measuring variation does nothing to
reduce it
Causes of variation should be analysed
before a systematic attack on variation is
mounted.
Variation is widespread like an epidemic
New Quality Mission is to Inoculate
products & processes against variation.
METHODS OF VARIATION DETECTION
AND REDUCTION

* Classical

* Taguchi

* Shainin
Shainin diagnostic tools can diagnose & greatly
reduce variations leading to zero defects beyond the
milestones of Cpk = 2 to near zero variability these
tools are :-
Simple to understand, no mathematics involved
Logical : based on common sense
Practical : easy to implement in production, design
& with suppliers
Universal in scope : applicable in wide range of
industries - big & small, process intensive as well
as assembly intensive.
Statistically powerful : in terms of accuracy
Excellent in terms of results : factorial improvements
Design of Experiments
CHARACTERISTICS CLASSICAL TAGUCHI SHAININ
Technique * Fractional Factorial, * Orthogonal arrays * Multi-Vari, Variable Search, Full
evolutionary Optimization Factorials
(EVOP)
Effectiveness * Moderate (20% to 200% * Low to Moderate (20% to * Extremely powerful (100% to
improvement) 100% improvement 500% improvement )
* Retrogression possible * Retrogression likely * No retrogression
Cost * Moderate * High * Low
* Average of 50 experiments * Average of 50 to 100 * Average of 20 experiments
experiments
Complexity * Moderate * High * Low
* Full ANOVA required * Inner and outer array * Experiments can be understood
multiplication, ANOVA by line operators
Statistical Validity * Low * Poor * High
* Higher order interaction * No randomization * Every variable tested with all
effects confounded with * Even 2nd order interaction levels of every other variable
main effects effects confounded with * Excellent separation and
* To a lesser extent,even main effects quantification of main and
2nd order interaction interaction effects
effects confused
Applicability * Requires hardware * Primary use as a substitute for * Requires hardware
* Main use in Production * Monte Carlo analysis * Can be used as early as prototype
& engineering run stage
Ease of Implementation * Moderate * Difficult * Easy
* Engineering & Statistical * Engineers not likely to use * Even line workers can conduct
knowledge required technique experiments
Based on Dorian Shainin Philosophy Dont let the
engineers do the guessing, let the parts do the talking
Addition of DOE to the expert technical knowledge of
the engineer is an unbeatable combination for solving
any chronic quality problem.
Clues can be generated with each DOE tool, each
progressively more positive, until the number one
culprit cause Red X is captured, reduced &
controlled.
Second most important cause is called Pink X
Third most important cause is called Pale Pink X
Variation Reduction Roadmap 20 - 1000 Variables

## COMPONENTS MULTI - VARI PAIRED

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

## SEARCH CHARTS COMPARISONS

VARIABLES 5 - 20
SEARCH Variables

FULL
4 or less
FACTORIALS
Variables

B vs C Validation

SCATTER
PLOTS Optimization
S.P.C.

## PROCESS POSITROL OPERATOR

CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION

PRECONTROL Maintenance
MULTI - VARI CHART

## Multi-Vari discovers assignable causes of

variation, as well as discovers many other
causes of variation that conventional SPC
classifies as random and therefore,
undiscoverable. It analyses independent
components of total variation in dimension,
hardness, strength or any other characteristic
while the item is produced repeatedly.
Variation is divided into families, the
largest of which leads to the source of the
problem.
MULTI - VARI CHART

OBJECTIVE :
- Reduces a large no.of unrelated
unmanageable causes to a family of smaller
and related causes, such as :
time- to-time,
shift to shift
part-to-part,
within part,
machine-to-machine,
operator to operator etc.
MULTI - VARI CHART cont..

WHERE APPLICABLE :
- Determines how a Product / Process is
running - a quick snapshot - without massive,
historical data that is of very limited use.

## - In some white collar applications.

MULTI - VARI CHART cont..

WHEN APPLICABLE :

## At engineering pilot run, production

pilot run or in production.
SAMPLE SIZE :

## Min. 9 - 15 or until 80% of historic

variation is captured.
MULTI - VARI

## TIME UNIT WITHIN

TO TIME TO UNIT UNIT

## Day to Day Lot to Lot Within Position

Shift to Shift Batch to Batch Within
Hour to Hour M/C to M/C Component
Line to Line
Tester to Tester
Operator to Operator
MULTI - VARI CHART
METHODOLOGY
A. POSITIONAL:
- Variations within a single unit
(e.g. porosity in a metal casting) or
across a single unit with many parts
(e.g. printed circuit board with many components)

(e.g. cavity-to-cavity variations in a
molding process)
MULTI - VARI CHART
METHODOLOGY cont...
B. CYCLICAL :

## - Variations between consecutive units

drawn from a process

## - Variation among groups of units

- Batch-to-Batch variation

- Lot-to-Lot variation
MULTI - VARI CHART
METHODOLOGY cont...

C. TEMPORAL :

## - Variation from hour-to-hour,

shift-to-shift,
day-to-day.
week-to-week, etc.
Multi-Vari charts
50
40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 27 28 29 30 31 55 56 57 58 59

Within-Piece Variation

1 2 3 4 5 27 28 29 30 31 55 56 57 58 59

Piece-to-Piece Variation

1 2 3 4 5 27 28 29 30 31 55 56 57 58 59

Time-to-Time Variation
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

## If you want your Product to Perform

well in the Real Market Place, you must
consider everyday variables in its
Design, Development and Manufacture
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

## Important in two areas :

- Solving chronic Quality Problems in
Production
- Solving chronic Quality Problems in
Design stage of Product & Process
THE NEED FOR D.O.E.
1. Companies Mired in Generalities ( NATO )
TQM, TQC, Quality Circles, SGA etc.
2. Weak Quality Systems : ISO-9000
3. SPC-Not a Problem Solving Tool-
Only a Monitoring Tool.
4. Over 90 % of Companies do not know
how to solve Chronic Quality Problems.
5. Over 80 % of Key Process Parameters
have Cpks less than 1.0
THE NEED FOR D.O.E.
* Solving / Preventing Chronic Quality
Problems.
* Improve Product & Process Capabilities by :
- Separating important variables
from unimportant ones
- Optimizing levels & Tolerances
- Freezing levels & Tolerances
- Reducing Cost by Opening up
Tolerances of unimportant variables
DOE-AREAS OF APPLICATION

Product , Process in :
* Design
* Manufacturing
* Suppliers
* Customers
DOE - BENEFITS
Quality Improvements : From 2:1 to over 10,000:1
From AQLs to PPMs to PPBs to Zero Defects
and towards Zero Variation.
A move from Problem Solving in Production to
Problem Prevention in Product & Process Design.
Enhanced Field Reliability, Enhanced Customer
Satisfaction & Customer Loyalty.
Elimination of Scrap & Rework.
Drastic Reductions in Inspections & Test.
Reductions in Cost of Poor Quality.
Increased M/C up-time, Yields.
DOE - BENEFITS --CONT.
Reductions in Manufacturing Cycle Time.
Reductions in Design Cycle Time.
Improved Employee Morale.
Improved Supplier Performance.
Benefits to Customer.
Ability to Leap Frog Japanese.
Improved Bottom Line Performance.
Profitability, Return on Investment,
Improvement in Market Share.
PAIRED COMPARISON
OBJECTIVE :
Provides clues to the Red X by determining a repetitive
difference between pairs of differently performing products.
WHERE APPLICABLE :
Where there are matched sets of differently performing
assemblies (Labeled Good & Bad) that cannot be
disassembled.
WHEN APPLICABLE :
At prototype, engineering pilot run, production pilot run,
production or field.
SAMPLE SIZE :
4 to 8 pairs of Good & Bad product.
PAIRED COMPARISON
APPLICATION :
1. When
- Components or sub- assemblies in units cannot be
disassembled or reassembled (unlike components
search).
- There are several good and a few mad units that can
be paired.
- Suitable parameter can be found to distinguish good
2. Assembly work, process or in test equipment where
there are similar units, work stations or instruments
respectively
3. Failure analysis
PAIRED COMPARISON
No. Pair Observed Differences
1 1-Good Note Differences : Visual, Dimensional,
Observation Techniques : Eye, Ruler,
X-Ray, Catscan, Scanning Electron
Microscope, Test-to-Destruction etc...

2 1-Good
3 1-Good Continue Until the Observed Differences
1-Bad Show a Pattern of Repeatability -
Repetitive Difference.
COMPONENTS SEARCH

OBJECTIVE :
From Hundreds or Thousands of Components /
Sub-Assemblies, Homes in on the
Red X, Capturing the Magnitude of
All Important Main Effects
and
Interaction Effects.
COMPONENTS SEARCH cont...

* WHERE APPLICABLE :
Where there are 2 differently performing
assemblies (labeled good & bad )
with interchangeable components.
* WHEN APPLICABLE :
At Prototype, Engineering Pilot Run,
Production Pilot Run, Production or Field.
* SAMPLE SIZE :
2 Assemblies
PRE- REQUISITES TO COMPONENTS SEARCH

## A. Technique is applicable, primarily in

assembly operations (but also in process -
oriented operations, where there are
several similar processes or machines)
where the larger the difference in output
between the two units, the better.

## B. The performance (output) must be

measurable & repeatable.
PRE- REQUISITES TO COMPONENTS SEARCH
Cont...

## C. The units must be capable of disassembly &

re-assembly without a significant
changes in the original output

## E. There must be at least two assemblies or

systems with clearly different levels
of the output.
COMPONENTS SEARCH
FOUR STAGES OF COMPONENTS SEARCH

STAGE OBJECTIVE
1 To determine if Red X, Pink X,
Ball Park are among the causes being
considered. It also assures
repeatability of the disassembly
& reassembly process

## 2 To eliminate all unimportant

Elimination causes and their associated
interaction effects
COMPONENTS SEARCH
FOUR STAGES OF COMPONENTS SEARCH cont..

STAGE OBJECTIVE
3 To verify the important
Capping causes are truly important
Run & that the unimportant
causes are truly unimportant

## 4 To quantify the magnitudes

Factorial of the important main causes
Analysis & their interaction effects.
10 STEPS OF COMPONENTS SEARCH

## 1. Select the best & worst performing unit from,

say, a days production

## 2. Determine the quantitative parameter by

which Good & Bad units are to be measured.
Measure both units & note the output /
10 STEPS OF COMPONENTS SEARCH cont..

## 3. Disassemble the good unit twice, reassemble

& re-measure it each time, disassemble the
bad unit twice, reassemble & re-measure it.
The 3 good unit readings must all rank
better than all 3 bad units.
The difference D between medians of the
good & bad units must exceed the average
range d, by a minimum ration of 1.25 : 1.
Only then a significant & repeatable difference
between the good and the bad units can be
measured.
10 STEPS OF COMPONENTS SEARCH cont...

## 4. Based upon engineering knowledge of the

design of the system, rank the component
names in descending order of perceived
importance.

## Calculate the Control Limits for Good

output and for Bad output using formula :

{ 2.776 X d
1.81 }
D : d - RULE

## The Test of Significant and Repeatable

Difference the Good Units & Bad Units
D : d > 1.25 : 1

## D = Difference Between the Median Results of

d = ( Range of Non-Repeatability of Good Units +
Range of Non-Repeatability of Bad Units ) / 2

## Control Limits = Median + ( 2.776 d ) / 1.81

10 STEPS OF COMPONENTS SEARCH- cont.
5. Switch the top ranked component from the
good unit or assembly with the corresponding
component in the bad assembly. measure the
output of two assemblies.

## 6(a). If there is no change in the output

i.e. if the good assembly remains good
calculated control limits, the top ranked
component, A, is unimportant.
Go to component B.
10 STEPS OF COMPONENTS SEARCH- cont.

## 6 (b). If there is a partial change in output which

is out of the control limits for one or both of
the two assembly outputs, A is not the only
important variable. A is important but not
alone, further As interaction effects with
other components cannot be ruled out.
Go to component B.
10 STEPS OF COMPONENTS SEARCH- cont.

## 6 (c ). If there is a complete reversal in the outputs

of the two assemblies, then component A
would be the part having Red X quality
characteristic and is the real cause of
the problem.
Hence Components search ends here. There
is no need to check other components.
10 STEPS OF COMPONENTS SEARCH- cont.

## 7. In each of the three alternatives in step 6,

restore component A to the original good
& bad units (before step 5) to ensure that the
original condition is repeated. Repeat steps
5 & 6 with the next most important component,
B, then C, then D, etc. , and check whether
the results in each component swap are
6 (a) or 6 (b)
10 STEPS OF COMPONENTS SEARCH- cont.

## 8. Ultimately, the Red X family involving two or

more components will be indicated. If there are
two or more significant changes, a Red X
interaction could be found in the step 10 analysis.

## 9. With the important components identified, a

Capping Run of these important components
banded together in the good & bad assemblies
must be conducted to verify their importance.
10 STEPS OF COMPONENTS SEARCH- cont.

## 10. Finally, a Factorial Matrix, using

the data generated in steps 2, 6 & 7,
is drawn to determine quantitatively
the Main Effects & Interaction effects.
VARIABLE SEARCH
OBJECTIVE :
# Pin point Red X, Pink X & Pale Pink X

## # Pin point Interaction between variables

& whether interaction itself is Red X,
Pink X or Pale Pink X.

## # Separate important variables from

unimportant ones.

## # Tightly control important variables &

open up tolerances of the unimportant
variables to reduce cost.
VARIABLE SEARCH

WHEN APPLICABLE :

## * When there are 5 or more variables

to investigate.
STAGES IN VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 1

## A. List all important variables/factors/causes

in descending order of their ability to
influence the output performance.
* make use of Multi-vari, Component
search or Paired comparison for
determining family of likely causes
* make use of Brain storming.

## B. Assign 2 levels to each variable/factor

Best level & Worst level
STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 1 cont...

C. Run 2 experiments :
- one with all factors at best levels
- one with all factors at worst levels.

## D. Repeat these 2 experiments twice.

Randomize the sequence of these
6 experiments.

## E. Apply D : d > 1.25 : 1 Rule.

STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH

STAGE : 1 cont...
F. Stage 1 is over when :
a) All 3 Best levels are better than
all 3 Worst levels (in rank order)
* If all 3 Best levels are worse than all 3
Worst levels in rank order, just change
the headings of Best to Worst and
Worst to Best.

## b) D : d ratio is > 1.25 : 1

STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 1 cont...

## G. If either of the two conditions (a) & (b) is

not met, then switch one pair of the most
likely variables/factors from Best to Worst
and Worst to Best level & check whether
a cancellation of influence is taking place.
If there is still no significant difference,
switch a second pair of variables/factors.
STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH

STAGE : 1 cont...

## H. If the repeatability d in step (E) is still

poor, its an indication that an important
variable/factor has been left out in step (A).
Look for clues as to one or more variables/
factors to be added to the list in step (A)
and re-run stage 1.
STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 2 : ELIMINATION STAGE
1. Run a pair of experiments :
(a) With Worst level of the most important
variable along with the Best levels of
all the remaining variables, and

## (b) With Best level of the most important

variable along with the Worst levels of
all the remaining variables.

## Calculate control limits for Best level and

Worst levels.
STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH

STAGE : 2 cont...

Possible results :
a) Results of AWRB & ABRW experiment fall
inside Best level & Worst level control
limits respectively, then factor A along
with all its associated interaction effects
is unimportant and therefore can be
eliminated from further study.
STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 2 cont...

## b) If complete reversal i.e. AW RB becomes the

original all Best level & AB RW becomes the
original all Worst level, the A is the main
important variable i.e.Red X. The rest of
the variables are all unimportant therefore
can be eliminated. Variable search has
ended if complete reversal is observed.
STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 2 cont...

## C) Results of either OR both AW RB & ABRW

are outside the Worst level & Best level of
control limits, but not a complete reversal,
variable A along with its associated
interaction effects is important and hence
can not be eliminated. A plus some other
variable or variables must be considered.
STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 2 cont...

## 2) If results in step 1 are (a ) or (b)

repeat step 1 with variable B then
with variable C, D, etc.. as required.
STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 3 : CAPPING RUN

## If variable A & variable B display a partial

reversal with outputs outside the control limits,
conduct a Capping Run with following
combination to see if R - the reset of the
variables can be eliminate.

## ABBBRW & AWBWRB

STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 3 : CAPPING RUN cont ...

## One or more results / outputs outside of the

complete reversal control limits would indicate
that the search is not yet complete. Continue
(stage 2 )with next single variable until
another variable shows out of control limits.
STAGES OF VARIABLE SEARCH
STAGE : 4 : FACTORIAL ANALYSIS

## Finally, a Factorial Matrix, using

the data generated in steps 2 & 3
is drawn to determine quantitatively
the Main Effects & Interaction effects.
USES OF VARIABLE SEARCH

## * It Reduces Product / Process Variability and

gives Dependable & Repeatable Results.
* It is an ideal DOE Tool for separating the
most Important Variables from the
Unimportant ones.
* It goes beyond Zero Defects towards
Zero Variation
* It gives tremendous savings in cost of
poor quality
* It can be performed with little statistical
knowledge by technicians & workers.
POST - VARIABLE SEARCH

## Make every attempt to maintain the important

variable at their best levels when production
starts by :-
- Reducing & controlling supplier variability
of the important components
- Re-designing, reducing & controlling
process variability of the important
components
- Maintaining reduced process variability
through Positrol
FULL FACTORIAL
IDEAL FOR QUANTIFYING INTERACTION EFFECTS

## OBJECTIVES :are similar to Variable Search objectives

- To Pinpoint the most important variables following the
homing - in, clue - generating techniques of Multi -
Vari charts, Components Search, or paired comparison.

## - To Separate & Quantify the main effects and

interaction effects of the important variables.

## - To Start the process of opening up tolerances on the

unimportant variables.
FULL FACTORIAL cont ...

APPLICATION :
When there are 4 or fewer variables

PRINCIPLE :
Every one of the chosen Variables / factors is tested
with all levels (generally 2) of every other variable /
factor.All possible combinations of factors & levels are
tested, allowing for systematic separation
and quantification of all main effects as well
as interaction effects. Sequence of testing
should be in random order.
FULL FACTORIALS

No. of
No. of Possible
Combinations = { No. of
Levels }Variables

22 = 4
23 = 8 No. of
Experiments
to be
24 = 16 Performed
25 = 32
26 = 64
FULL FACTORIAL
Procedure for 24 Factorial :
1. Select the four factors to be investigated - A,B,C,& D
2. Determine two levels for each. The first level(-) is
usually the Current Level. The second level(+) is
assumed to produce better results - the Better Level.
3. Draw a matrix showing 16 combinations (cells) by
which each factor is tested with each level of every
other factor.
4. Randomise the the sequence of testing of each
combination (cell)
5. Run an experiment with each combination in the
sequence indicated by the random order table and
record the output in each cell.
FULL FACTORIAL cont ...
Procedure for 24 Factorial : cont.
6. Repeat steps 4 & 5 using another random order for the
second test sequences.
7. Calculate the average of the two readings in each cell.
in those cells where is A is (-) & average cell reading
where is (+). The difference between A (-) & A(+) is due
to factor A alone, because all other factors B,C & D
balance one another.Similarly add all average cell
readings where B is (-) & B is (+) the difference is due to
factor B alone. Likewise calculate the difference due to
factor C & factor D.
9. Construct an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) table.
FULL FACTORIAL
Procedure for constructing ANOVA table
1. In cell group column enter the cell numbers from the
matrix drawn for full factorial .
2. In factor column enter the appropriate the (-) & (+)
signs for the factor A,B,C, & D from corresponding
cells. The (-) & (+) signs merely indicate the levels of
the factors used
3. In the output column enter the average of the outputs
recorded in each cell.
FULL FACTORIAL
Procedure for constructing ANOVA table cont ...
4. In the 2 factor interactions column multiply algebraically
the signs of A & B and record the product sign in the AB
column for each cell. Similarly do it for factor A & C,
B & C, A & D, B & D, C & D.
5. Repeat the algebraic multiplication of A,B & C ;
A,B & D; up to A,B,C & D and record the signs the
appropriate 3 factor or 4 factor interaction column
6. Repeat steps 4 & 5 for all cells.
7. In column A, add all outputs of A(-) & all the outputs of
A (+). Note the difference between in these two, in the last
row labeled main & interaction effects contribution with
the appropriate (+) or (-) sign.
FULL FACTORIAL
Procedure for constructing ANOVA table cont ...
8. Similarly add the (+) & (-) outputs for each column B, C,
D, AB, AC, up to ABC, BCD & ABCD & note the
differences in the last row as in step 7.
9. The last row displays in precise quantified form
contribution of each main factor as well as 2 factor,
3 factor & 4 factor interaction to the total variation.
10.The highest number indicates the Red X , the second
highest indicates the Pink X and third highest indicates
the Pale pink X.
Why Random Order ?

## This allows numerous causes not

included in the experiment an equal
opportunity of entering or leaving
the experiment
B vs C
Objective :
* Validates superiority of a New or Better (B) Product /
Process over a Current (C) one with A desired statistical
confidence (usually 95%)
* Evaluates Engineering Changes
Where Applicable :
* Follows one or more of the earlier tools
* When problem is easy to solve, B vs C can bypass earlier
tools.
* In some white collar applications
When Applicable:
In Prototype, Pilot run or Production
Sample size :
Usually 3 Bs & 3 Cs
B vs C
Application :

## * Used at the very start of Design of Experiments, bypassing

the other techniques, but only if engineering is sure that it
has a better method or design.

## * Universal in scope ( white-collar work, social services,

sales, Human Relations etc..) simple in implementation,
low in costs & powerful in statistical effectiveness.
Uses : B vs C cont...
* Evaluation of the effectiveness of design,
process & material changes

* Reliability evaluations

* Customer preferences

B vs C cont...
Procedure :

## 1. Choose the acceptable level of risk.

2. Decide the sample sizes for B & C test
3. Randomize & conduct the tests.
4. Rank order the results.
5. Use decision rules to decide whether
B is better than C.
RANK ANALYSIS - TUKEY TEST
Procedure :
* Rank all readings of each quality characteristic
from lowest to highest
* Draw a line near the top of the readings where all bad
changes to good or visa - versa. This is the top end count.
* Draw a line near the bottom of the readings where all good
changes to bad or visa - versa. This is the bottom end count.
* Add top and bottom end counts.
* A minimum of six total end counts is needed for a 90 %
confidence that there is a significant difference between
the good & bad for that particular
quality characteristic.
TUKEY TEST FOR END COUNTS
No. of End Counts Confidence Level
5 81 %
6 90 %
7 95 %
10 99 %
13 99.9 %

* The Tukey Test is independent of sample size for good & bad,
but a minimum of 6 to 8 good & 6 to 8 bad is recommended.
* The top end count should be all bad if the bottom end count
is all good or visa-versa. A good, or a bad end count at both
ends reduces confidence to zero.
4 Distributions of B & C Processes
C = Current Process; B = Better (?) Process

C B
Null Hypothesis
(No Difference)

C
Worst x Better Red X B
-3 +3

C B x1 - 3 x1 x1 + 3 x2 x2 + 3
x2 - 3
Pink X

C B
x1 - 3 x1 x2 x2 + 3 Super Red X

x1 - 3 x1 x1 + 3 x2 - 3 x2 x2 + 3
3 Bs & 3 Cs : Risk = 0.05
mB - mC
k = s Smaller
K=1.6 c K = 2.9 c K = 3.3 c

C B C B C B C B

## No Improvement Small Improvement Large Improvement Larger Improvement

(for reference only) = 0.5 = 0.1 = 0.05
Power = 0.50 Power = 0.90 Power = 0.95

Improvement will be detected :50 % of the time 90 % of the time 95 % of the time
B vs C cont...

When nB = nC OR nB : n C 3:4
Then B is Better than C when :

## Risk End count is Confidence level

0.19 5 81 %

0.10 6 90 %

0.05 7 95 %

0.01 10 99 %

0.001 13 99.9 %
B vs C sample sizes and , Risks
Risk : Risk of Rejecting the Null Hypothesis (No Difference)
Risk of Accepting Null Hypothesis when improvements exists
Consequences Nos.of Values of k (Desired Minimum):
of a wrong Randomised Assume Assume
Decision Samples B = C C = 1.5B
Risk Risk
Risk Confidence B C 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.50 0.10 0.05
0.001 0.999 2 (43) 3.0 4.0 4.3 3.9 5.1 5.5
3 16 2.5 3.6 3.9 3.2 4.5 5.0
Supercritical
4 10 2.3 3.4 3.8 2.9 4.3 4.8
of Wrong Decision

## 5 8 2.2 3.4 3.7 2.9 4.3 4.7

6 6 2.2 3.3 3.7 2.8 4.2 4.7
0.99 0.01 2 13 2.3 3.4 3.8 3.0 4.4 4.8
Critical
3 7 2.1 3.2 3.6 2.6 4.1 4.6
4 5 2.0 3.1 3.5 2.5 4.0 4.5
5 4 2.0 3.1 3.5 2.5 4.0 4.5
Consequences

## 0.95 0.05 1 19 2.5 3.6 3.9 3.2 4.6 5.0

Important
2 5 1.7 3.0 3.4 2.2 3.8 4.3
3 3 1.6 2.9 3.3 2.0 3.7 4.2
4 3 1.7 3.0 3.4 2.2 3.8 4.3
0.90 0.10 1 9 2.1 3.2 3.6 2.6 4.1 4.6
Moderate
2 3 1.4 2.7 3.2 1.8 3.5 4.0
3 2 1.4 2.7 3.2 1.8 3.5 4.0
SCATTER PLOTS
OBJECTIVE :
Determines optimum values (level) for Red X, Pink X
variables & their maximum allowable tolerances

WHERE APPLICABLE :
Follows the earlier tools

WHEN APPLICABLE
In pilot run of product / process
SAMPLE SIZE :
30
VARIOUS SCATTER DIAGRAMS
Y Y
(A)
(B)

Positive Correlation X
Unclear Positive X
Correlation

Y Y
(C) (D)

## Negative Correlation X No Correlation X

VARIOUS SCATTER DIAGRAMS cont...

Y Y
(E) (F)

## Non - Linear X Insufficient Data X

Correlation Range
Y
(G)

Correlation through X
Stratification
REALISTIC TOLERANCES
Y
LINE OF
REGRESSION
Hi
95 % OF TOTAL EFFECT
Customer Requirement

OF MFG.FACTORS
OTHER THAN X

30 RANDOM TIME
SEQUENCE EXAMPLES
THE CURRENT
TOLERANCE

Lo
Cp=2
Preferred
Tolerance

## Realistic Mfg Cp=1 X

Tolerance
Positrol (Positive Control)

## To ensure that important variables ( the what)

identified and reduced with DOE tools, stay
reduced with a who, how, where and when
plan and by Positive control on important
variables at reduced level.
POSITROL PLAN
A . WAVE SOLDER MACHINE

## Specification / Parameter Measurement

Who How Where When
Solder Bath Temperature Automatic Thermocouple Solder Bath Continuous

Flux Density Solder Technician Specific Gravity Flux Container Once a day
Meter

## Belt Speed Solder Technician Counter Board Feed Each Model

Change
Flux Residue Solder Technician Omega Meter Final Water Wash Every 2 Hours

B. IR SOLDERING
Measurement
Specification / Parameter
Who How Where When
Pre-Heat Temperature
IR-Solder Temperature
Solder Time
Solder Paste - Viscosity
Solder Board Position
Operator Certification
* Operators are frequently blamed for poor
quality when the real culprit is management.

## * What quality do you expect from a worker when he

is hired and given 15 min. instructions.

## * Worker should be trained in testing certification &

recertification so that the line worker of today
becomes the knowledgeable worker of tomorrow.
Poka - Yoke
Human beings make mistake, there is little merit in
threatening and punishing them.
Poka - Yoke is an important tool to prevent
Operator - controllable errors. It provides sensors -
electrical, mechanical, or visual - that warn a line
operator that a mistake has been made or,
operator can thus prevent a permanent defect.
Process Certification

Objective :
To remove as many Noise Factors (e.g.
Poor Maintenance, Poor Management /
Supervision, Poor Environmental Control,
Poor Metrology, Poor Operator Discipline
etc..) as possible in order to increase
the Signal - to - Noise Ratio in any DOE
study and give it a chance to succeed.
Process Certification
Categories of Peripherals that can
contribute to Poor Quality
Violation of Good Manufacturing Practices
Plant / Equipment Inattention
Environmental Neglect
Human Shortcomings
Process Certification
Purpose :
Purpose of Process Certification is reduce
these uncontrollable factors that their
collective Noise is much less than the Purity
of the Signal required for a DOE study.

## It assures a good Signal to Noise Ratio

and gives DOE a chance to really succeed.
It is one of the best way to make the
Process Robust.
Process Certification
Process Certification can Precede as well as
Process Certification Methodology :
Use Cross Functional Team
Prepare a Check List of Quality Peripherals
Audit the Process to identify Potential Quality
Problems and performs a Process Scrub before
Certification is granted to start manufacturing the
Product
Re-certify the Process periodically to ensure that
the old bad practices do not sneak in and new
ones are not introduced.
Quality Peripherals Check List
Quality Systems Environment Supervision
Engineering Water / Air Purity Clear Quality
Change Control Goals

## MSA : Accuracy, Temp. / Humidity Clear Instructions

Precision, Bias Control

## Equipment / Dust / Chemical Combining Tasks

Instrument Control
Calibration
Total Productive Human / Product Natural Work
Maintenance Safety Units

## Built-in equipment Lighting / Customer

diagnosis Cleanliness Relationship
Quality Peripherals Check List - cont...
Quality Systems Environment Supervision
Visible, Audible Electrostatic Ownership through
Alarm Signals for Discharge Control job enrichment
Poor Quality
POKA YOKE - Storage / Inventory Feedback of
Mistake Proof self Control Results
check
Neighbor & self Product / Process Encouragement of
inspection over Discipline Suggestions
external inspection

## No partial Build Product Safety Encouragement for

Policy Kaizen
Operators Authorized Lighting / Cleanliness Coach not BOSS
to shut down poor
Quality Line
Process Certification Check List ex. for Coating Process
Is there a Positrol Plan & Positrol Log in Place for the Machine?
Are Humidity and CO2 applications within specified limits ?
Are all Shields and Safety Controls in Place ?
Are vents clear and operational ?
Are safety cans used for volatile liquid ?
Are piece parts properly washed ?
Are the Process Specifications / Procedures written, adequate
and up to date ?
Are there adequate instructions for the operator, with critical
operations highlighted ?
Is there a calibration procedure with frequency of calibration
established ?
Are Process Changes Validated with B v/s C experiments and
fully proven before Process Change is implemented ?
Is there an effective and timely scrap control Policy ?
Is there a system for TPM ?
PRE - CONTROL
* Simple Traffic light - like colour chart.
* Provides early warning of imminent trouble
based on acceptable work.
* No Calculations.
* Just Remember : Red means STOP.
And Green means GO.
* Quick action, rather than entering Data
does the job.
* Operators using Pre-Control produced Good
parts without any problems.
PRE - CONTROL RULES
P-C P-C
Rules :
Line Line 1. Draw 2 Pre-Control (P-C) lines in the middle
half of specification width
2. To qualify the process as ready to run (actually
determining an instant process capability), 5
units in a row must be within P - C lines (green
zone). If not, use diagnostic tools to reduce
variation.
3. In production, sample 2 units consecutively
12/14
86 % and periodically.
1/14
1/14 Condition Action
7% Target
Area
7% 1. 2 units in Green zone Continue
Red Red 2. 1 unit in Green & 1 unit in Yellow Continue
Zone Zone
3. 2 units in same Yellow zone Adjust
Yellow Green Yellow 4. 2 units in opposite Yellow zone Stop *
Zone Zone Zone
Process Width
5. 1 unit in Red Stop *
1.5 1.5
LSL
Specification Limit
USL
* To resume production, 5 units in a row must be
3 3 within the Green zone.
Cp =1, Used to calculate maximum Risk
4. Frequency of sampling : divide the avg. time
interval between adjacent stoppages by six.
SPC / PRE - CONTROL

## Once DOE has identified and reduced

important variables, Positrol has controlled
important process variables, Process
Certification has rained in quality peripherals,
and Operator has been Certified, then and
only then SPC can be fully applied to the
product / process using Pre-Control as a
powerful maintenance tool.
Statistical Power Of Pre-
control
Effectiveness of pre-control is based on
multiplication theorem of probabilities &
binomial distribution
The risk of over correction i.e. stopping a
process when it should continue is around 2%
of time.
The risk of allowing a process to continue
when it should be stopped, expressed as
product percent defective, is close to 1.5 %
Statistical Power Of Pre-
control
When process width is greater than the
specification width, generally Cpk of 0.8 or less,
pre-control is so sensitive, it will stop the process
99 times out of 100 & force the investigations &
improvements

## When the process width is 75% or less of the

specification width -- Cpk of 1.33 or more -- The
use of pre-control becomes most productive.
The process is in control & pre-control will keep
it there.
Statistical Power Of Pre-
control
When the process width is 50% of the
specification width -- Cpk = 2 -- pre-control will
allow hundreds & thousands of units to be
produced without a single reject.
ASPECTS OF SIX SIGMA
( Managing Defect Opportunities )

AIM

## Continuous Reduction of Variation

SIX SIGMA

OPERATIONAL
EXCELLENCE

OBSTACLES
( Hassle Free )
Two pillars of Six Sigma

Improvement Holding
in Process the
Capability Gains

Variation Process
Reduction Control

## Use of D.O.E. SPC/Pre - Control

What is Six Sigma Quality ?

Sigma is a
Statistical Unit of
Measurement of
Variation

## Defect Rate < 3.4 PPM

( allowing process shift of + 1.5 )
How to determine Sigma level
Step 1 :
Total no. defects
Measure Quality in DPU =
( Defects Per Unit of work ) Total no. of units
One unit can be : one product processed/produced
one sales order
one purchase order
one page of text
one entry in a document
Step 2 :
6
Calculate defects per million DPU x 10
=
possibilities of making an error Possibilities of
making an error
Step 3 :
Correlate this figure with Sigma graph/table
BENEFITS OF SIX SIGMA
* Defect free product or service
* Customer satisfaction to customer delight
* Lower warranty costs
* Better reputation in the market place
* Lower production costs, TPM - ZB,MP
* % Defect to AQL to PPM to PPB to
Zero Defect to Zero Variation
* Good House Keeping - Zero Accidents
* Hassle free working
* Good morale - Quality way of Life/habit
No. of Defects per Associated
million possibilities Sigma
of making an error Level
66,810 3.00
38,950 3.25
22,750 3.50
11,870 3.75
6,210 4.00
2,890 4.25
1,350 4.50
560 4.75
233 5.00
86 5.25
32 5.50
10.5 5.75
3.4 6.00
Total Defects Rolled Throughput
per Unit Yield ( % )

5.3 0.5
4.6 1.0
3.9 2.0
3.5 3.0
3.2 4.0
3.0 5.0
2.3 10
1.9 15
1.6 20
1.4 25
1.2 30
1.0 37
0.9 40
0.8 45
0.7 50
0.6 55
0.51 60
0.43 65
0.36 70
0.29 75
0.22 80
0.05 95
0.00 100
SIX SIGMA GOAL

## Six Sigma = 3.4 PPM (based on +1.5 shift)

This can be reached by :
* highly capable processes -
a demand on design phase.

## * high quality of incoming material -

a demand on supplier relationship.
WHAT IS SIX SIGMA QUALITY ?

## Sigma is a statistical unit of measurement

that describes the variation of a product OR
process characteristics around a specified
mean.

## A product OR process that achieves plus

OR minus six sigma capability, even
allowing for some shift in the mean,
approaches a defect rate of no more
than few parts per million : 3.4 PPM
Design Specification Width = + 6
Process Width = + 3

Cp = Specification Width = + 6 = 12 = 2
Process Width + 3 6

## However a Process Mean can shift by as much as + 1.5

over time ( This is normal for any variable process )

## When this Process Mean is shifted with respect to Design

Center, the Capability Index is adjusted by a factor k,
which is Cpk
Advantage of Six Sigma Designs - cont.
Cpk = Cp ( 1 - k )
k= X-D
Specification Width / 2

## = Process Shift = 1.5 = 0.25

Specification Width / 2 12/2

## This means that for a Six Sigma Performance,

Design of a Product, Process OR Both should achieve
Cp > 2 & Cpk > 1.5
with a Process Shift of + 1.5
Quality is not just a road
to Customer Delight ..

## .. But, a trigger to use

other State - of - the - Art
Management Techniques