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# Engineering Mechanics

AENG007-4-1

Chapter 1
Force Resultant
INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE
To be able to determine resultant of forces and its
direction

## WHAT WE WILL STUDY

a) Scalars and Vectors
b) Vector Operations

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SCALARS AND VECTORS

## Scalar: parameters possessing magnitude but not direction.

Examples: mass, volume, temperature

## Vector: parameters possessing magnitude and direction which

add according to the parallelogram law.
Examples: displacements, velocities, accelerations.

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VECTORS

## A vector is represented graphically by an arrow which is used to define

its magnitude, direction and sense.

## 1.Magnitude = Length of arrow

2.Direction = Angle between a reference axis and the arrows line
of action
3. Sense = Indicated by position of arrowhead

ct ion
de e of a
it u Lin
gn
ma
angle

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VECTORS
Vector classifications:
- Fixed or bound vectors have well defined points of application that
cannot be changed without affecting the analysis.
- Free vectors may move freely parallelly without changing their effect on
an analysis.
- Sliding vectors may be applied anywhere along their line of action
without affecting an analysis.
Equal vectors have the same Negative vector of a given vector has the
magnitude and direction. same magnitude but the opposite direction.

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TYPES OF VECTORS
1. Collinear vectors act along the same line of action.
Line of action
2. Coplanar vectors lie in the same plane

3. Concurrent vectors have lines of action that pass through the same
point

Module Title?
VECTOR OPERATIONS

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Examples of Resultant
Force

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Examples of Resultant
Force

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Examples of Resultant
Force

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## Force vectors can be added by using the

following ways:
a) Graphical
b) Triangle Rule (Trigonometry)
c) Parallelogram Law (Trigonometry)
d) Force Resolution

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PQ Q P

Vector subtraction B
Addition of three or more vectors through repeated application of the triangle rule

## The polygon rule for the addition of three or more vectors.

Vector addition is associative, P Q S P Q S P Q S

## A set of concurrent forces applied to a particle may be replaced by a single

resultant force which is the vector sum of the applied forces.

Law of cosines,

R 2 P 2 Q 2 2 PQ cos B

R PQ

Law of sines,

## sin A sin B sin C

Q R A

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Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Graphical solution - construct a
parallelogram with sides in the same
direction as P and Q and lengths in
proportion. Graphically evaluate the
resultant which is equivalent in direction
and proportional in magnitude to the
diagonal.
The two forces act on a bolt at
A. Determine their resultant. Trigonometric solution - use the triangle
rule for vector addition in conjunction
with the law of cosines and law of sines
to find the resultant.
Sample Problem
Graphical solution - A parallelogram with sides
equal to P and Q is drawn to scale. The
magnitude and direction of the resultant or of
the diagonal to the parallelogram are measured,

R 98 N 35

## Graphical solution - A triangle is drawn with P

and Q head-to-tail and to scale. The magnitude
and direction of the resultant or of the third
side of the triangle are measured,

R 98 N 35
Sample Problem
Trigonometric solution.
From the Law of Cosines,
R 2 P 2 Q 2 2 PQ cos B
40 N 2 60 N 2 2 40 N 60 N cos155
R 97.73N

## From the Law of Sines,

sin A sin B

Q R
Q
sin A sin B
R
60 N
sin 155
97.73N
A 15.04
20 A
35.04
Sample Problem

A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of the forces exerted by the
tugboats is 25 kN directed along the axis of the barge, determine

Sample Problem

## Graphical solution - Parallelogram Rule

with known resultant direction and
magnitude, known directions for sides.
T1 18.5 kN T2 13.0 kN

## Trigonometric solution - Triangle Rule

with Law of Sines
T1 T2 25 kN

sin 45 sin 30 sin 105

T1 18.30 kN T2 12.94 kN
Sample Problem
The angle for minimum tension in rope 2 is
determined by applying the Triangle Rule
and observing the effect of variations in .
The minimum tension in rope 2 occurs when
T1 and T2 are perpendicular.

T2 25 kN sin 30 T2 12.5 kN

T1 25 kN cos 30 T1 21.65 kN

90 30 60
May resolve a force vector into perpendicular
components so that the resulting parallelogram is a
rectangle. Fx and Fy are referred to as rectangular
vector components and

F Fx Fy

Define perpendicular unit vectors i and j which are
parallel to the x and y axes.

## Vector components may be expressed as products of

the unit vectors with the scalar magnitudes of the
vector components.

F Fx i F y j

Fx and Fy are referred to as the scalar components of F
Wish to find the resultant of 3 or more
concurrent forces,

R PQ S
Resolve each force into rectangular components

R x i R y j Px i Py j Q x i Q y j S x i S y j

Px Q x S x i Py Q y S y j

## The scalar components of the resultant are equal

to the sum of the corresponding scalar
components of the given forces.
R x Px Q x S x R y Py Q y S y
Fx Fy
To find the resultant magnitude and direction,
2 2 1 R y
R Rx R y tan
Rx
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Resolve each force into rectangular
components.
Determine the components of the
force components.

## Calculate the magnitude and direction

of the resultant.
Four forces act on bolt A as shown.
Determine the resultant of the force
on the bolt.
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Resolve each force into rectangular components.
force mag x comp y comp

F1 150 129.9 75.0

F2 80 27.4 75.2

F3 110 0 110.0

F4 100 96.6 25.9
R x 199.1 R y 14.3