Anda di halaman 1dari 60

How to Read a Head

CT

Dr Mohamed El Safwany. MD. 1


Intended learning outcome
The student should learn at the end of this lecture
interpretation of CT Brain.
Head CT
Has assumed a critical role in the daily
practice of Emergency Medicine for
evaluating intracranial emergencies.
(e.g. Trauma, Stroke, SAH, ICH).
Most practitioners have limited
experience with interpretation.
In many situations, the Emergency
Physician must initially interpret and act
on the CT without specialist assistance. 3
Head CT

Blood Can Be Very Bad 4


Blood Can Be Very Bad

Blood
Cisterns
Brain
Ventricles
Bone 5
Blood Can Be Very Bad

Blood
Cisterns
Brain
Ventricles
Bone 6
Blood Can Be Very Bad

Blood
Cisterns
Brain
Ventricles
Bone 7
Blood Can Be Very Bad

Blood
Cisterns
Brain
Ventricles
Bone 8
Blood Can Be Very Bad

Blood
Cisterns
Brain
Ventricles
Bone 9
CT Scan Basics
A CT image is a computer-generated
picture based on multiple x-ray
exposures taken around the
periphery of the subject.
X-rays are passed through the
subject, and a scanning device
measures the transmitted radiation.
The denser the object, the more the
beam is attenuated, and hence fewer 10
x-rays make it to the sensor.
CT Scan Basics
The denser the object, the whiter it is on CT
Bone is most dense = + 1000 Hounsfield U.
Air is the least dense = - 1000H Hounsfield
U.

11
CT Scan Basics: Windowing

Focuses the spectrum of gray-scale used on a particular image.


2 Sheet Head CT
Posterior Fossa
Brainstem
Cerebellum
Skull Base
Clinoids
Petrosal bone
Sphenoid bone
Sella turcica
Sinuses
14
CT Scan

15
CT Scan
2 nd 2 nd
Key Level
Key Level Sagittal View

Circummesencephalic Cistern

17
Cisterns at Cerebral
Peduncles Level

18
CT Scan

19
CT Scan

20
3rd Key Level Sagittal View

Circummesencephalic Cistern

21
Cisterns at High Mid-Brain Level

22
CT Scan
CSF Production
Produced in choroid plexus in the
lateral ventricles Foramen of
Monroe IIIrd Ventricle Acqueduct
of Sylvius IVth Ventricle
Lushka/Magendie
0.5-1 cc/min
Adult CSF volume is approx. 150 ccs.
Adult CSF production is approx. 500- 24

700 ccs per day.


1 day 1 year 2 years

25 Andrew D. Perron, MD, FACEP


B is for Blood
1st decision: Is blood present?
2nd decision: If so, where is it?
3rd decision: If so, what effect is it having?

26
B is for Blood
Acute blood is bright white
on CT (once it clots).

Blood becomes isodense


at approximately 1 week.

Blood becomes 27
hypodense at
approximately 2 weeks.
B is for Blood
Acute blood is bright white
on CT (once it clots).

Blood becomes isodense


at approximately 1 week.

Blood becomes 28
hypodense at
approximately 2 weeks.
B is for Blood
Acute blood is bright white
on CT (once it clots).

Blood becomes isodense


at approximately 1 week.

Blood becomes 29
hypodense at
approximately 2 weeks.
CT Scans

30
Subdural Hematoma
Typically falx or sickle-
shaped.
Crosses sutures, but
does not cross midline.
Acute subdural is a
marker for severe head
injury. (Mortality
approaches 80%)
Chronic subdural usually
slow venous bleed and 31

well tolerated.
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

32
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Blood in the cisterns/cortical gyral surface
Aneurysms responsible for 75-80% of SAH
AVMs responsible for 4-5%
Vasculitis accounts for small proportion (<1%)
No cause is found in 10-15%
20% will have associated acute hydrocephalus

33
CT Scan

34
CT Scan

35
Intraventricular/
Intraparenchymal
Hemorrhage
CT Scan

37
C is for CISTERNS
(Blood Can Be Very Bad)
4 key cisterns
Circummesencephalic
Suprasellar
Quadrigeminal
Sylvian

Circummesencephalic

38
Cisterns
2 Key questions to answer regarding cisterns:
Is there blood?
Are the cisterns open?

39
40
41 Andrew D. Perron, MD, FACEP
B is for BRAIN
(Blood Can Be Very Bad)

42
43
Tumor

44
Atrophy

45
Abscess

46
Hemorrhagic Contusion

47
Mass Effect

48
Intracranial Air

49
Intracranial Air

50
51
52
53
54
55 Andrew D. Perron, MD, FACEP
Blood Can Be Very Bad
If no blood is seen, all cisterns
are present and open, the brain
is symmetric with normal gray-
white differentiation, the
ventricles are symmetric without
dilation, and there is no fracture,
then there is no emergent
diagnosis from the CT scan. 56
Text Book
David Suttons Radiology
Clarks Radiographic positioning and techniques
Assignment
Two students will be selected for assignment.
Question
Define differences between subdural and epidural
hematoma?
Thank You