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Long Span Struct

Rasika DongareGarima Rajput


Rithika Ravishankar
Aishwarya Khurana
Roshani Tamkhade
Nilesh Mane
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Long span structures create unobstructed, column-free spaces greater than 30 metres (100
feet) for a variety of functions.

Visibility Flexibility Large Scale Storage

Auditoriums Exhibition halls


Aircraft hangars
Stadiums Manufacturing facilities

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Long Span
Buildings

Subject to Funicular
Bending Structures

Both tensile and Pure tension or


compressive pure
forces compression
1. Girder 1. Parabolic Arch
2. Truss (Depth 2. Tunnel vault
to span ratio 3. Domes
1:5 to 4. Cable stayed
1:15) roof
3. Two-way grid 5. Bicycle wheel
4. Two-way truss 6. Warped
5. Space truss tension
(Depth to surfaces
span ratio
1:35 to
1:40)

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Long Span
Buildings

Subject to Funicular
Bending Structures

Both tensile and Pure tension or


compressive pure
forces compression
1. Girder Pure
2. Two-way grid Compression:
3. Truss (Depth 1. Parabolic Arch
to span ratio 2. Tunnel vault
1:5 to 3. Domes
1:15)
4. Two-way truss Pure Tension:
5. Space truss 4. Cable stayed
(Depth to roof
span ratio 5. Bicycle wheel
1:35 to 6. Warped
1:40) tension
surfaces

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


civilization. However, most long-span
History and Evolution
buildings then were single level
constructed using vaults and domes.

By the late 20th century, durable


upper limits of span were established
for these types:
the largest covered stadium had a
span of 204 meters (670 feet),

the largest exhibition hall had a


span of 216 meters (710 feet),

and the largest commercial fixed-


wing aircraft had a 7580 meter
(250266 foot) span hangar.

The major evolution in long span


section-active structures has
occurred in the aspect of shift from
Old-to-New long span
in-situ to precast construction.
structures with their height
and spans

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Another method of classification of long span
structures is as follows

Form - Active Section - Active Vector - Active Surface - Active

Systems of Systems of rigid, Systems of short, Systems of


flexible, non-rigid solid, linear solid, straight flexible or rigid
matter, in elements, in lineal members, planes able to
which the which redirection in which the resist tension,
redirection of of forces is redirection of compression or
forces is effected effected by forces is effected shear, in which
by particular form mobilization of by vector the redirection
design and sectional forces partition, i.e. by of forces is
characteristic multidirectional effected by
form stabilization splitting of single mobilization of
force simply to sectional forces
tension or
Cable Structures compressive Plate Structures
Beam Structures Flat Trusses
Tent Structures elements Folded Structures
Framed structures Curved Trusses
Pneumatic structures Shell structures
Slab structures Space Trusses
Arch structures

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Introduction >30 meters
The use of long span beams results
in a range of benefits, including
flexible, column free internal spaces,
reduced foundation costs, and
reduced steel erection times.

Many long span solutions are also


well adapted to facilitate the
integration of services without
increasing the overall floor depth.
Conventional beam Long span beam
The design of long span steel and
(steel - concrete) composite beams is
generally carried out in accordance
with the IS.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


TypesMost common type of long span beams used today are: Plate Girders, and Beams with Web
Openings.
The popular construction methodology is composite construction (steel + concrete)

The types of long span beams are:

1. Parallel beam approach


The parallel beam approach is
effective for spans up to
around 14 m. Floor grids
comprise two layers of fully
continuous beams running in
orthogonal directions. Services
running in either direction can
be integrated within these two
layers, so that services
passing in any direction can be
accommodated within the
structural floor depth. A
further benefit is that, being
fully continuous, the depth of
the beams themselves is
reduced without incurring the
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
expense and complexity of
Types
2. Composite Beam with Web openings
Web openings are typically
formed in beams to allow
services to pass through the
beam, reducing the effective
overall depth of floor
construction for a given
spanning capability or for
aesthetic reasons
Span: 10 to 16 m.

The alternative way of forming


the web openings is simply to
cut them into the plate used to
form the web of a plate girder, Failure
or the web of a rolled section. in
cellular
The openings introduce a beam
number of potential failure
modes not found in solid web
beams. Large openings may
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
require stiffening to avoid
Introduction

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Failure in cellular beam

With stiffened web openings

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Types
3. Tapered Girders
Tapered girders can be a
cost effective solution in
the span range 10 m to 20
m.
They are another solution
that allows services to be
accommodated within the
structural floor zone.

The depth of the girder


increases towards mid-
span, where applied
moments are greatest, and
thereby facilitating hanging
services under the
shallower regions near the
beam supports. It is also
possible to form web
openings in tapered girders
in regions of low shear,
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
towards mid-span. These
Types
4. Stub girders
Stub girders are a
Vierendeel form of truss.
The bottom chord is
typically formed from a
shallow open section (H-
beam), on which sit short
lengths (stubs) of deeper I-
sections.

The number of
elements/surfaces
associated with a stub
girder may increase the
cost of fire protection
compared with simpler
solutions.

Spans in excess of 20 m
can be economically
achieved. Services and/or
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
secondary beams can pass
Types
5. Haunched Composite beams
Haunches may be added at
the ends of a composite
beam to provide moment
continuity. The stiffness and
strength of the connections
mean that the rest of the
span can be shallower (the
bending moment diagram is
'lifted' and the effective
stiffness of the beam
substantially increased),
and services passed under
it. In buildings where the
services are likely to need
frequent replacement (for
example in hospitals ),
hanging the services under
the beams can be
advantageous.
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Spans in excess of 20 m can
Types
6. Composite trusses
Composite trusses, which use
the concrete slab as the
upper chord in the final state,
can achieve spans in excess
of 20 m. This means they
have been used when very
long spanning capability was
needed. The main
disadvantages are that during
the construction phase the
truss may be rather flexible
(laterally), and that in the
final state the costs of fire
protection can be high given
the large number of surfaces
to protect. Clearly one of the
prices to pay for the spanning
ability is that fabrication cost
is higher than for a plain
beam. Services can be passed
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
through the gaps between the
Construction drawings
Precast concrete beam sections

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Materials

Timber, Laminated Metal


Reinforced Concrete
Structural steel
Timber (In - situ / Precast)
Glue-laminated timber can be (Cut on site / Prefabricated)
prefabricated using metal Bending structures originally
connectors into trusses that developed for bridges, such as plate
span up to 45 metres (150 girders and trusses, are used in long-
feet) span buildings. Plate girders are
Most economical forms: the welded from steel plates to make I
pure compression shapes of beams that are deeper than the
the multiple-arch vault, with standard rolled shapes and that can
spans up to 93 metres (305 span up to 60 metres (200 feet)
feet), and ribbed domes, with
spans up to 107 metres (350
Long Span Beams
feet). Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Case study: Failure Cleddau Bridge

The Cleddau Bridge is a toll


bridge on the A477 road
that spans the River
Cleddau between Neyland
and Pembroke Dock, Wales.

Errors in the box girder


design caused it to collapse
during its construction in
Long Span Beams
1970. Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
It failed during its erection by cantilevering segments of the span, out from the piers.

The bridge was designed as a single continuous box girder of welded steel.

The span that collapsed was the second one on the south side. The boxes were
fabricated in sections and moved over the previously built sections, aligned in place
and welded.

The collapse occurred when the last section of box for the second span was being
moved out along the cantilever.
This section slid forward down the cantilever buckled, at the support and collapsed
into the river (Fig 2), killing four men, including the site-engineer.
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Investigation of collapse showed that the collapse was due to the buckling of the
diaphragm at the support (i.e., at the root of the second span being erected).

The diaphragm was torn away from the sloping web near the bottom. This caused
reduction in the lever arm between flanges resisting negative bending moment at the
support.
The tendency of the bottom
flange to buckle was
inevitably increased by the
reduction of the distance
between the flanges, as this
increased the force needed in
each flange to carry the
moment with the reduced
lever arm.

The support diaphragm was,


in effect, a transverse plate
girder, which carried heavy
loads from the webs of the
plate girder at its extreme
ends and was supported by
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses the bearings as Portal
shown Frames
in Fig
Modern Techniques For Long Span Beams
Precast Concrete

PRECAST BRIDGES

BENEFITS TO OWNER
o Reduction in the duration of work zones
o Reduced traffic handling costs
o Reduced accident exposure risks
o Less inconvenience to the traveling
public

BENEFITS TO OWNER
o Reduced exposure to hazards
o Reduced accident exposure risks
o Fewer weather delays
o Lower costs

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Benefits of using precast concrete beams

Quality and Corrosion Immediate Delivery and No Curing Time


Resistance Erection

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Cross over 1 Long Span Beam + Truss

Typical multi girder system with x-type Curved roof trusses can be used to support
intermediate cross frames and stay-in- structural decks with a suspended ceiling. The
place formwork used for constructing a natural open web of the steel truss allows for the
deck-slab simple passage of services.

Long Span Beams + Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Long Span Trus
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Introduction

A roof truss is a structure that includes one or multiple triangular units that include
straight slender members with their ends connected via nodes.
Trusses are frame works in which the members are subjected to essentially axial
forces due to externally applied load.
Bending leads to compression in the top chords (or horizontal members), tension in
the bottom chords, and either tension or compression in the vertical and diagonal
members, depending on their orientation.

External loads on the nodes Tension & Compression members

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Categories Pitched Roof Truss

A pitched roof truss has a


bottom chord with two inclined
top chord connected through
gusset plates or panels. Extra
supports in the form of struts are
also added as per the
requirement. Pitched roof truss
These trusses have a greater
depth at mid-span.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Categories Parallel Chord truss

A pitched roof truss has a


bottom chord and a top chord
that run parallel to each
other. Extra supports in the
form of struts are also added
as per the requirement.
Parallel chord truss

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Types of trusses
King post truss:

Aking post is a central vertical postused in


architectural or bridge designs, working in
tension to support a beam below from
atrussapex above

Queen post truss:

A queen-post bridge has two uprights,


placed about one-third of the way from
each end of the truss. They are connected
across the top by abeamand use a
diagonal brace between the outer edges.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Types of trusses

Pratt truss:

In Pratt trusses, the web members are


arranged in such a way that under gravity load
the longer diagonal members are under
tension and the shorter vertical members
experience compression.

These trusses can be used for spans that


range between 6-10m.
Howe truss:

The converse of the Pratt is the Howe truss.


This is commonly used in light roofing so that
the longer diagonals experience tension under
reversal of stresses due to wind load.

These trusses can be used for spans that


range between 6-30m.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Types of trusses
Fink truss:

Fink trusses are used for longer spans having


high pitch roof, since the web members in such
truss are sub-divided to obtain shorter
members.

Fan truss:

Fan trusses are used when the rafter members


of the roof trusses have to be sub-divided into
odd number of panels.

Scissor truss:

Scissor roof truss can particularly be found in


cathedrals. The upside here is that the ceiling
gets vaulted and you receive more space in
the attic.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Types of trusses

Warren girder:

Parallel chord trusses uses webs of the same


lengths and thus reduce fabrication costs for
very long spans.

Modified Warren is used with additional


verticals, introduced in order to reduce the
unsupported length of compression chord
members.

Lattice girder:

It is commonly made using a combination of


structural sections connected with diagonal
lacing. This member is more correctly referred
to as alaced strutorlaced tie.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Types of trusses
North light truss:

In the north light truss, skylights or openings


are provided to allow north light inside the
structure.

Vierendeel truss:

TheVierendeel trussis a structure where the


members are not triangulated but form
rectangular openings, and is aframewith fixed
joints that are capable of transferring and
resistingbending moments.

K- type truss:

In the case of very deep and very shallow


trusses it may become necessary to use K
patterns for web members to achieve
appropriate inclination of the web members.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Load Analysis Types Of Loads

The following are the various


types of loads to be considered
while calculating the stresses.

Dead Load
Live Load
Longitudinal Force
Horizontal Forces
Wind Load
Seismic Load
Direction of load transfer in Trusses

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Assumptions Behind Truss
Load Analysis Analysis

Truss members are connected


at their ends only, and they
are connected by friction-less
pins.

So you don't have to consider


any secondary bending
moment induced do to force
of friction.

Truss is loaded only at joints.

Weight of truss members can


be neglected, compared to
load acting on the truss.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Load analysis Nature Of Load In Truss Members

Force developed in a truss member is


always axial. It can be either tensile, or
compressive.

If a member is under tensile load, this


will be the direction of internal force
developed .

So you can notice that, under tensile


load, internal force developed in the
member is directed away from the joint.

Similarly in case of compressive force,


the internal force developed in the
member is directed towards the joint.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Materials

Wood

Metal - Steel

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Materials

Concrete Precast /
Prestressed

Bamboo

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Alternative Materials Bamboo connections

While bamboo has been used


for centuries, the traditional
methods of lashing bamboo
together are not appropriate for
the design of long span trusses.
These lashed connections dont fully
utilize the full strength of bamboo
member.

They rely solely on friction, the load


transfer between members is limited
and thus structures require more
members to do the same job that one
could if it were well connected.

Finally complex geometries with many


members framing into one node or
three dimensional space frames are
difficult if not impossible to construct.

Long Span Beams Traditional


Long Span Trusses Bamboo Connection
Portal Frames
Alternative Materials Bamboo connections

These connections solve the issues


of complex geometries by joining
the members at a central hub.
While they provide a standardized
connection throughout a project,
they are not readily available.
Since all fibers in a bamboo run
parallel once a bolt is placed through
it and the connection loaded in
tension, the bolt acts like a wedge
and splits the bamboo.

Also the puncture allows moisture to


enter the culm and accelerate decay

Based on the proprietary nature of


the hubs, their installation
requirements, and the desire to
develop cost effective, simple
Long Span connections,
Beams the research focused Modern
LongonSpan Trusses Bamboo Connection
Portal Frames
Modern techniques Bamboo connections

This connection requires filling


several hollow cells of the bamboo
with concrete and embedding a
threaded rod.
BAMBOO TRUSS
The new connection involves
embedding a common steel
reinforcing bar into a mortar filled
bamboo culm and fillet welding
several of these members to a steel
gusset plate.

The inner surface of the bamboo is STEEL GUSSET PLATE


roughened to provide a bond
between the mortar and the bamboo
while avoiding puncturing the
member.

Because the rebar is embedded in


mortar, the load is transferred evenly
across the members cross section
Long Spanand
Beams LongtoSpanSECTION
can transfer high axial loads TrussesOF CONNECTION Portal Frames
Applications

Gatton Railway Bridge, Australia


Pratt truss design

Powerhouse roof, Boise


Fink truss design

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Applications

Church roof, America


Scissor truss design

Industrial shed, England


North light truss design

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Applications

Convention centre
Warren girder

Vierendeel bridge, Belgium


Vierendeel truss design

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Advantages Roof

Quick Installation- The primary advantage of a truss is


that it can be installed quickly and cost-effectively, even
without heavy equipment to lift it into place.

Increased Span- The unique properties of a triangular


object allow trusses to span across longer distances.

Load Distribution- The shape of a triangle allows all of


the weight applied to the sides (or legs) to be redistributed
down and away from the centre. In trusses, this transfers
the entire weight of the roof to the outer walls.

Accessibility- Since the bottom rail of a truss is typically


the ceiling of the rooms below, the triangular spaces of the
trusses themselves form accessible paths for the
installation of HVAC, electric and other utility applications.
The central void of a truss system is generally the attic of
a home, with the slope of the roof forming the legs of the
triangle.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Disadvantages Roof

Transportation- Sometimes they are too big for a truck. In


such cases, specially designed truss trailers have to be used to
haul the structures around.

Metal roofs-

I. Skilled labour is required to install metal roof trusses.

II. They are notenergy efficientsince they allow more heat to


escape from the structure.

III. When the metal is cut, drilled, scratched or welded, rust can
become a problem.

. Wooden roofs-

I. Wooden roofs are susceptible to fire.

II. Wood can rot or become infested with bugs if not maintained
and treated properly.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Advantages Bridges

They are light, but strong-As they use


small timbers or beams of metal, the trusses
would be light, but are strong enough to
handle loads thanks to the ridged triangles.

Accessibility- They allow placement of


roadways on the structure itself, such as a rail,
to be placed straight across it.

Material usage- Because of its design, it


makes good use of limited construction
materials to achieve strength that far
outweighs its cost.

Can be constructed in difficult site


conditions- These types of bridges can be
built quickly in places where many other types
cannot, linking areas that other types will not
work in.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Disadvantages Bridges

They require high costs- While it is said that


these bridges design efficiently uses materials, it
does use a lot of them. Building a truss bridge can
be costly, and its upkeep requires time and money.

Wastage of materials- Without the proper design


and work practice, constructing a truss bridge can
result to waste of materials.

Maintenance- Because of the amount of materials


they use, these types of bridges require a lot of
upkeep.

Complicated Design-The design of truss bridges


can become very complicated depending on the
situation. The triangles have to be the perfect size
and there has to be the perfect amount in order for
the truss bridge to be safe.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Case study

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


General Information Howrah Bridge

Howrah Bridge is a cantilever bridge


with a suspended span over the
Hooghly River in West Bengal, India.

Address :West Bengal

Total length :705m

Opened :February 3, 1943

Construction started :1935

Location :Howrah, Kolkata

Architect :James Meadows


Rendel

Material :James Meadows Rendel

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General Information Howrah Bridge
468 ft 564 ft 468 ft
280 ft

325 ft 1500 ft 325 ft

Anchor Arm Cantilever Arm Suspended Arm Cantilever Arm Anchor Arm

Bridge type : Suspension type Balanced Cantilever


Central span :1500 ft between centers of main towers
Anchor arm : 325ft each
Cantilever arm : 468ft each
Suspended span : 564ft
Main towers are 280ft high above the monoliths and 76 ft apart at the top

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Construction Howrah Bridge

All members of the super structure comprise built up riveted sections with a combination of high
tensile and mild steel. No nuts and bolts.

Road way beyond the tower is supported on ground leaving anchor arm free from deck loads

Bridge deck comprises 71 ft carriage way and 15 ft footway projecting either side of the trusses
and braced by a longitudinal fascia girder.

The deck system consists of cross girders hung with pinned connection.

They support a continuous pressed steel system over which deck concrete is laid out.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Cantilever Bridges Function

A structure at least one portion


of which acts as an anchorage
for sustaining another portion
which extends beyond the
supporting pier.
A simple cantilever span is
formed by two cantilever arms
extending from opposite sides
of an obstacle to be crossed,
meeting at the center.

In a common variant,
thesuspended span, the
cantilever arms do not meet in
the center; instead, they
support a centraltruss
bridgewhich rests on the ends
of the cantilever arms.

The suspended span may be


built off-site and lifted into
Long Spanplace,
Beams or constructed in place Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Construction

Some steel arch bridges are built


using pure cantilever spans from
each side, with neither falsework
below nor temporary supporting
towers and cables above.

These are then joined with a pin,


usually after forcing the union point TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
apart, and when jacks are removed
and the bridge decking is added the
bridge becomes atruss arch.

Such unsupported construction is


only possible where appropriate
rock is available to support the
tension in the upper chord of the
span during construction, usually
limiting this method to the TEMPORARY PIER CLOSURE END
Long Spanspanning
Beams of narrow canyons. Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Cross over 2 Long Span Truss + Portal Frame

International
airport, China

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses + Portal Frames


Cross over 2 Long Span Truss + Portal Frame

Reticular Loom

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses + Portal Frames


Cross over 2 Long Span Truss + Portal Frame

Denver Union Station

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses + Portal Frames


Portal Fram
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Portal frames were first developed during
the Second World War and became popular
in the 1960s
They are now commonly used to create
wide-span enclosures, where a clear
space is required uninterrupted by
intermediary columns.
They were originally used because of their
structural efficiency, meaning that large
spaces could be enclosed with little use of
materials and for a low cost.
They tend to be lightweight and can be
fabricated off site, then bolted to a
substructure.
The portal frames themselves may be left
exposed to the internal space, and if
carefully designed can be very beautiful.

Materials used for portal frame is Steel or


steel reinforced precast concrete
although can also constructed using
laminated timber such as glulam
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Types of Portal frames

Duo-pitch portal frame

Curved portal frame (cellular


beam)

Portal with crane


Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Types of Portal frames

Two-span portal frame Portal frame with external mezzanine

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Types of Portal frames

Where a pitch is required, portal frames can


have a mono pitch, or can have a double pitch
Mono pitch portal frame with a rigid joint at the apex.

Tied portal frame


Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Types of Portal frames
Other forms include; tied portal frames, propped
portal frames and multi-span portal frames
which can cover very large areas.

Where the portal frame


includes a pitch, the wider
the span of the frame, the
higher the apex. To reduce
the overall height, a
curved rafter might be
adopted, or a mansard
form.
A curved, or mansard form
increases the pitch of the
roof towards the eaves,
Long Span Beams
where the runoff is likely to
Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Types of Portal frames

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Typical Portal frame
Portal frames are a type of structural frame, that, in
their simplest form, are characterized by a beam (or
rafter) supported at either end by columns.
A secondary framework of purlins fixed to the
rafters and rails fixed to the columns provides
support foracladding.
Generally, building structure will be formed by a
series of parallel portal frames running down the
length of the buildings, typically 6 to 8m apart.
Portal frame structures are often clad with
prefabricated composite metal panels,
incorporating insulation. Masonry cladding may be
provided at low level to give greater resilience and
security.

Single Skin Trapezoidal Sheeting


Double Skin Trapezoidal Sheeting

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Typical Portal frame
Components Of Portal Frame

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Construction Portal Frame Connections
Portal frames are generally low-rise structures, comprising
columns and horizontal or pitched rafters, connected
bymoment-resisting connections.
Members of portal frames are jointed by means of welding
and bolting so the joints of the frame could transfer moments
also in addition to the axial load
The major connections in a portal frame are the eaves and
apex connections , which are both moment-resisting.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Construction Base Joint for Portal Frames
The legs or stanchions of the portal frame need connecting at
the bottom to a foundation.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Construction Ridge Joint for Portal Frames
It is important that this joint is strong hence the use of
wedge shaped pieces called gusset pieces to
strengthen and increase the bolt area.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Construction Haunch Joint for Portal Frames
It is important that this joint is strong hence the use of
wedge shaped pieces called gusset pieces to strengthen
and increase the bolt area.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Construction Diagonal Bracing for Portal Frames

To help strengthen the framework and prevent


movement diagonal bracing is used.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Load analysis Types of Loads
DEAD LOAD (self weight)
Imposed loads on roofs depend on the roof
slope. A point load, which is used for local
checking of roof materials and fixings, and
a uniformly distributed load, to be applied
vertically.
SERVICE LOADS
In portal frames heavy point loads may
occur from suspended walkways, air
handling units etc. In certain situation it will
be more appropriate to use truss or lattice
girder rather than a portal frame.
CRANE LOAD
Cranes impose both horizontal and vertical
loads on the structure, part of loading is due
to dynamic effects. The vertical load will be
composed of a load due to weight of the
crane bridge. The horizontal load due to
crane surge and reaction from the wheel.

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Load analysis Types of Loads
WIND LOAD
Wind uplift may be important in terms of
rafter stability , but provided that adequate
restraint can be provided to stabilize the
bottom flange of the rafter near the apex
ACCIDENTAL LOADS
Two kinds of accidental loads are to be
considered
Impact of unusual loading
Drifted snow WIND LOAD
The opening of the dominant opening
which was assumed to be shut.
FIRE LOAD
When a portal frame is close to the boundary,
there are several requirements aimed at
stopping
fire spread by keeping the boundary intact:
The use of fire resistant cladding
Application of fire protection of the steel up
to the underside of the haunch

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Load analysis Bending Moment

Rafters are subject to high bending


moments in the plane of the frame, that
vary from a maximum hogging moment
at the junction with the column to a
minimum sagging moment close to the
apex. They are also subject to overall
compression from the frame action. They
are not subject to any minor axis
Although member resistance is important, stiffness of the frame is also necessary to
moments.
limit the effects of deformed geometry and to limit the deflections.

Asymmetric or sway mode deflection Symmetric mode deflection

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Bending moment diagram under
symmetric loading

Bending moment diagram under


asymmetric loading

Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames


Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
Long Span Beams Long Span Trusses Portal Frames
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