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Topic 8: Grey matter

Structure of neurones
Starter: Unscramble the anagrams which are all key
words for todays lesson!

- erxlef rac
- senrvuo steyms
- enssoyr nenreuo
- otmor eunroen
- fefectro
- ecreprto
- yelra unereon
The big picture: What is a
Learning outcomes:
To describe the structural
components of a neurone.
To compare the roles of different
types of neurones.
To evaluate the importance of the
reflex arc.
Central nervous
system (CNS)
= brain + spinal

= nerves
running to
and from to
and from the
CNS to all
parts of the
The role of the nervous system

All organisms can detect changes

in their environment (stimuli) and
make appropriate responses to
Coordination and control is
achieved by the transmission of
electrical signals (called nerve
impulses) along specialised cells
(called neurones).
Structure of a neurone
Task: Label the structure of each part
of the neurone using your text book to
help you.

Extra challenge:
Explain the
importance of the
myelin sheath
surrounding the
All neurones have:
A cell body
contains all the organelles so is the
metabolic unit which supports the neurone
e.g. mitochondria, RER, Golgi apparatus etc.
Long extensions of the cell body
fine dendrites - transmit nerve impulses
towards the cell body
axon transmits nerve impulses away from
the cell body
Synaptic bulbs at the end of the axons
Types of neurones
3 main types of neurone
Sensory neurones
transmit nerve impulses from sensory receptors to
the CNS
Motor neurones
transmit nerve impulses from the CNS to the
Relay neurones
found within the CNS to connect other neurones to
form neurone circuits; in the spinal cord they connect
sensory and motor neurones.

Task: Complete your table comparing the 3 types

of neurones
Motor Relay Sensory

Structure Cell body, short Cell body, short Cell body, long
dendrites, long dendrites, short dendrites, short
axon axon axon
Location of cell Cell body + Cell body etc. Cell body and
body dendrites in CNS inside CNS dendrites outside
Axon outside CNS, axon inside
Dendrites Dendrites Dendrites Dendrites
synapse with synapse with synapse with
effectors other neurones receptors
Axons End in effector Axons synapse Axons synapse
with other with relay and
neurones other neurones in
Function Transmit impulses Connect sensory Transmit impulses
from CNS to and motor from receptors
effector neurones to form to CNS
The reflex arc

- Complete p76
- Questions:
1) Why is a reflex arc faster than a
voluntary response?
2) Why have we evolved this rapid response?
LO: To evaluate the importance of the reflex arc.
Plenary: 3,2,1
3 Marks:
What are the differences between reflex arcs
and voluntary responses?

2 marks:
Name two parts of a neurone, and their

1 mark:
What type of neurone carries nerve impulses to
Motor Relay Sensory

Describe the

Location of cell

What do the
dendrites synapse
Where does the
axon end?