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Chapter 3

Attitudes, Self-
Concept,
Values, and
Ethics

McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights


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Introduction
Job satisfaction is based on attitudes, which
in turn are shaped by values and ethics

Self-concept is ones attitude about oneself

Values do tend to influence, not necessarily


affect, behavior, including whether or not
behavior is ethical
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Attitude
Attitude a strong belief or feeling toward
people, things, and situations
They are not quick judgments we change easily
but we can change our attitudes
Peopleinterpret our attitudes by our behavior
Employers place great emphasis on attitude

Employee attitudes affect customer attitudes

Attitudesare primarily developed through


experiences
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Management Attitudes

Theory X and Theory Y Pygmalion Effect

Theory X the attitude that Supervisors attitudes and


employees dislike work and expectations of
must be closely supervised employees and how they
to get them to do their work treat them largely
Theory Y the attitude that
determine their
performance
employees like to work and
do not need to be closely
supervised to get them to
do their work
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Changing Your Attitudes


1. Be aware of your attitudes
2. Do not harbor negative thoughts
3. Keep an open mind
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Shaping and Changing Employee


Attitudes
Changing Your Attitudes

Do not harbor
negative thoughts
Be aware of Keep an
Your attitudes open mind

Shaping and Changing Employee Attitudes

Accentuate Be a positive
positive conditions role model

Give employees Provide


feedback consequences
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Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction a set of attitudes toward
work
It is what most employees want from their

jobs
Job satisfaction affects absenteeism and

turnover, which affect performance


Job satisfaction survey process of

determining employee attitudes about the job


and work environment
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Improving job satisfaction may lead to better


human relations and organizational
performance by creating a win-win situation.
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Determinants of Job Satisfaction

1. The work
itself

3. Growth and
2. Pay upward
mobility

6. Attitude
4. Supervision 5. Coworkers toward work
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Self-Concept
Self-concept your overall attitude about
yourself
Also called:

Self-esteem

Self-image

Self-concept includes perceptions about


several aspects of oneself
Having a positive self-concept is part of

emotional intelligence
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Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy your belief in your capability
to perform in a specific situation
Self-efficacy affects your-

effort

persistence

expressed interest
the difficulty of goals you select
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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Your expectations affect your performance
Self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when your

expectations affect your success or failure


If you think you will be successful, you will be
If you think you will fail, you will, because you will

fulfill your expectations


Your self-efficacy becomes your self-fulfilling
prophecy
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Attribution Theory
Attribution the perception of the cause of
behavior as being internal or external
Internal behavior is within the control of the
person
External behavior is out of the persons control

We make judgments about why people do


the things they do by using: distinctiveness,
consistency, and consensus
Attribution theory is how we perceive the
causes of behavior, which in turn affect our
subsequent choices and behaviors.
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General Guidelines to Improve Your


Self-Concept
1. View mistakes as learning experiences
2. Accept failure and bounce back
3. Control negative behavior and thoughts
4. Use any religious or spiritual beliefs you
have that can help you develop a more
positive self-concept
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Action Plan for Building a Positive


Self-Concept
Step 1. Identify your strengths and areas that
need improvement
Step 2. Set short and long term goals and

visualize them
Step 3. Develop a plan and implement it
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Values (1 of 2)
Values are the things that have worth for or
are important to the individual
Concern what should be
Influence the choices we make among alternative

behaviors
Value system the set of standards by
which an individual lives
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Values (2 of 2)
Values direct the form that motivated
behavior will take
Values help shape your attitudes

Values are developed in much the same way

as attitudes
Values are more stable than attitudes
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Spirituality (1 of 2)
Ones spirituality is the essence of who he or
she is
It defines the inner self-
separate from the body
including the physical and intellectual self

The quality of being spiritual, of recognizing


the intangible, life-affirming force in self and
all human beings
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Spirituality (2 of 2)
It is a state of intimate relationship with the
inner self of higher values and morality
It is a recognition of the truth of the inner

nature of people
It does not apply to particular religions,

although the values of some religions may be


part of a persons spiritual focus
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Spirituality in the Workplace (1 of 2)


It is about people seeing their work:
as a spiritual path
as an opportunity to grow personally
as a way to contribute to society in a meaningful
way
Itis about learning to be more caring and
compassionate with:
fellowemployees
bosses
subordinates
customers
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Spirituality in the Workplace (2 of 2)


It is about integrity
being true to oneself
telling the truth to others

Can refer to an individuals attempts to live


his or her values more fully in the workplace
Can refer to the ways organizations structure

themselves to support the spiritual growth of


employees
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Guidelines for Leading from a


Spiritual Perspective
1. Know thyself
2. Act with authenticity and congruency
3. Respect and honor the beliefs of others
4. Be as trusting as you can be
5. Maintain a spiritual practice
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Ethics
Ethics the moral standard of right and
wrong behavior
Ethical behavior is affected by:

Personality traits and attitudes


Moral development

The situation
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Levels of Moral Development

3. Postconventional
Behavior is motivated by universal principles of right and wrong, regardless of
the expectations of the leader or group. One seeks to balance the concerns for
self with those of others and the common good.
2. Conventional
Living up to expectations of acceptable behavior defined by others motivates
behavior to fulfill duties and obligations. Common for followers to copy the
behavior of the leaders and group.
1. Preconventional
Self-interest motivates behavior to meet ones own needs to gain rewards while
following rules and obedient to authority to avoid punishment.
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Moral justification is the process of


reinterpreting immoral behavior in terms of a
higher purpose.
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Justifications for Unethical Behavior (1 of 2)


Displacement of responsibility
The process of blaming ones unethical behavior
on others
Diffusion of responsibility
The process of the group using the unethical
behavior with no one person being held
responsible
Advantageous comparison
The process of comparing oneself to others who
are worst
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Justifications for Unethical Behavior (2 of 2)


Disregard or distortion of consequences
The process of minimizing the harm caused by
the unethical behavior
Attribution of blame
The process of claiming the unethical behavior
was caused by someone elses behavior
Euphemistic labeling
The process of using cosmetic words to make
the behavior sound acceptable
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Human Relations Guides to Ethical


Decisions
When making decisions, try to meet the goal
of human relations by creating a win-win
situation for all stakeholders
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Global Ethics
Different countries have different levels of
ethical standards
Managers typically have two choices:

Universalism make the same ethical decisions


across countries
Relativism decisions to be made based on the

ethical standard of the country


MNCs can choose their level of global
corporate social responsibility (GCSR)
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Levels of Global Corporate Social


Responsibility (GCSR) and Action