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To What Extent

Guidance And
Counselling Assist In
Realizing National
Presented by: Irene Tiong,
Liau Toh Tieh,Philosophy
Phoebe Hon,
Young Poh Ping
National Philosophy of
National Philosophy of
National Philosophy of Education which in Malay called
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan (FPK) combines the goals,
policies and educational practices to form a consistent,
clear and logical entity.
The National Philosophy of Education (NPE) acts as a guide
for all educational activities in Malaysia. It sets the values
and principles of the Malaysian education system from the
primary to the tertiary level.
Aims of National Philosophy of
To produce individuals who are knowledgeable and full of
integrity who will contribute as responsible citizens.
To rationally clarify the current educational practices as well
as facilitate the actions and trends of education in the
National Philosophy of Education
The essence of FPK is as follows:

Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further

developing the potential of an individuals in a holistic and
integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are
intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically
balanced and harmonic, based on the firm believed in and
devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce
Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent,
who possess high moral standards and who are responsible
and capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being as
well as being able to contribute to the harmony and
betterment of the family, the society and nation at large
Education is an on-going
Education is a process of acquiring and
transferring of knowledge, skills and noble values.
The acquisition and transfer processes are on-
Education is
going starting from early age till death.
an on-going Early education is important in order to shape the
effort personality of young children from the are of 1 to
6 years.
Upon completion of schooling years, the individual
continues to enhance his knowledge, skills,
Continuous education will assist the individual to
adapt to various types of changes.
Development of individual
Every individual has been blessed
by God with hidden talents,
potentials and abilities.
of individual Talents, potentials and ability
potentials should be tapped, nurtured,
developed and enhanced through
social interaction with others and
the environment.
Education should offer individual
opportunities to develop their
Holistic and integrated
development of the individual
Holistic and
integrated Enhancements and development should
preferably encompass four aspects, namely
intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical.
of the
Intellectual & spiritual
Matured and stable emotions.
Intellectual Possess and nurtures love.
element A feeling of togetherness/unity.

Be aware of the importance of good health.

Physical Develop technical, manipulative and social talents
element and skills.
Uses physical fitness skills for the benefit of
Emotional & physical element
Possesses three basic skills (3R) Reading, Writing
Emotional and Arithmetic.
Always strives to acquire and develop true
Possess creative, critical and reflective thinking
Willing to share knowledge with others and the
Thankful for Gods gifts.
Spiritual Possess good character and upholds moral values.
How counselling deal
with learning difficulties?
Overview of learning disability
Approximately 4 million children and teenagers have a learning difficulty.
Learning difficulties, which are neurologicalchallenges, affect the way the
brain receives, processes, stores, and analyzes information.
Because a learning difficulty often affects an individual's ability to
develop reading, writing, and math skills, a learning difficulty is typically
recognized and diagnosed while an individual is in school.
Overview of learning disability
Learning difficulties indicate an individual's need for alternative
learning methods.
They are not indicative of intelligence level and are not the same as
intellectual difficultieslearning challenges that result from sensory
handicaps ordevelopmental delays
practices for
Learning Difficulties

Academic Occupation
Therapy al Therapy
Therapy and Support for Learning
An individual diagnosed with a learning disability may find the
diagnosis difficult to cope with.
Parents may worry that a learning disability will prevent their child
from succeeding in school, but this is not necessarily the case.
Teachers, mental health professionals, and specialized
professionals such as counsellors are frequently able towork with
students who have a learning difficulty or other academic concerns.
Roles of counsellors in collaboration with
Identify particular areas of difficulty
Develop specialized learning plans and strategies, such as an IEP
(individualized education program), in order to adjust learning and
education strategies to best fit that student's strengths and
accommodate for areas of weakness.
When a child's needs cannot be adequately addressed in
theoriginal classroom, a childmay be placed in a
different classroomfor all or partof the school day
to receive specialized instruction.
Coping with the challenges of a learning issue can be
Children may experience anger, frustration, anxiety, or stress as a
result of the difficulty.
They may become frustrated when they receive low test
scores;experience anger and stress when it is difficult to understand an
assignment, or become anxiousat the beginning of each new school
These emotional issues can often compound the issue and may worsen
it, but speaking about these and other emotional concerns to a
counsellor or therapist can be helpful.
A therapist can also help individuals understand that although
learning disabilities are lifelong, many methods of help and support
are available.
A child can also learn effective coping mechanisms to manage the
difficulty and any resulting emotional issues.
Occupational therapy can be helpful to children who experience
difficulty with motor skills, whileeducationaltherapists work with
school-aged individuals to improve skills in reading, writing, and math.

Speech therapists work with children who have language-based or

reading comprehension issues and can help them improve their ability
to understand and communicate in social situations.
Solution-focused counsellingmay be appropriate for older children
and teens who are aware of their difficulties

To support youth as they address a difficulty and help them determine

what might be working for them and what could be improved upon.

Children and adults may also do well in therapy groupsorsupport

groups, and play therapy can help young children learn interaction
skills, which may occasionally be lacking in the presence of a learning
Counselling can also be helpful when those with a learning difficulty
feel shy, anxious, or otherwise find it challenging to express
themselves to others.

Because emotional distress can occur as a result, talking through these

anxieties in therapy may prove beneficial.
Case Example (Dyslexia in year
three pupil):
Farook, 8, is brought to a counsellor who focuses on
children who have dyslexia. Diagnosed with the condition
the year before, he is currentlyhaving trouble keeping up
in class. His teacher has reported that he is not achieving
at the same level as his classmates and that he may
need to be held back a year.His parents are worriedhis
learning difficulty might negatively affecthis entire life
and prevent opportunities he might otherwise have
The counsellor tells Farook's parents there are many
different techniques that can help children with dyslexia
to achieve in the classroom, and they begin to work
together to identify what will work best for Farook.
The counsellor also refers Farook and his parents to a
support group for parents of children with dyslexia.
Meeting with other parents and hearing how their
children copewith the challenges of dyslexia help
Farook's parents gain more confidence about his future.

After a few meetings with the counsellor, Farookfinds it

less challenging to keep up in the classroom, and his
teacher also reports improvement.
Why do emotions and feeling
important in counselling?
Fuel and motivate human

dont know what we are feeling do know what it is we are

and simply act out the feeling

may not be prepared for the can behave and act consciously,

IF we choosing behaviour that is consistent with how we

feel and that will obtain the outcomes we want.
If we know and understand our emotions, we get to
know ourselves much more deeply, which means
we can better care for ourselves.

We can act in ways that are

more beneficial to us and
become more able to lead
purposeful and positive lives
in tune with who we really
How talking about feelings in
counselling helps?
Safe and free from judgment and blame.
Someone completely outside your life and
outside any of the situations which cause you
Dont know your friends or your family and
dont have opinions about how you should be
living your life.
Have experience dealing with many different
problems and are unlikely to be shocked by
whatever you bring to the sessions
and trained to listen with empathy and
While a counsellor listens to how you feel, they also inquire further about
how you feel more deeply inside, in order to discover the underlying
Emotions are the closest indicators of what is really going on for you. They
are key sources of information about a persons well-being.
In addition, a counsellor's own feelings and emotions within counselling
sessions inform them on what is really going on for you and on how others
may or may not respond to you.
This internal and external listening, responding and processing enables the
counsellor to work with you so that you gain the most from therapy
Spirituality and
Sprirituality and counselling
"Just being sensitive to a possible role of religion in a
client's life can broaden your evaluation and provide
different solutions,
Takes into account cognitive and philosophic areasW.
of (2004)
thought as
well as aspects ofemotionsand behavior.
Some might describe spirituality as the attempt to understand
one's nature.
Spirituality is also linked to one's path to internal awareness and
Many cultures and belief systems hold that one's spirit is the essence
of one's existence
In therapy, a person's beliefs may cause
Sprirituality unnecessarydistress or contradictions
in between personal values or goals.
counselling The therapist may put forth theeffort to
assist the individual in the process of
clarifying what is essential for that
individual to achieve optimal well-being.
An ethical therapist will not attempt to
push personal beliefs on a person in
therapy or otherwise attempt to change
that individual's spiritual or religious beliefs.
This does not involve any particular teaching
Sprirituality on the part of the therapist, but rather,
in encouragement to inquire into the
counselling individual'snature, conscious mind,
unconscious mind, surroundings.
A person's choices and the consequences
of those choices might also be discussed, and
a therapist may ask peoplein therapy who
have expressed religious or spiritual
beliefshow thosebeliefs impact choices
they have made and what they believea
Spirituality as a Coping
Spiritual practices may offer social and
emotional support, help peoplepurpose in
life, provide comfort in times ofgrief, and
provide ethical and moral guidelines.
Individuals who gain strength from their
spiritual faith may find it difficult to achieve
progress and healing in therapy when
unable to address and incorporateall
dimensions of who they are.
Spirituality as a Coping
This type of Mechanism
therapy may also involvecommuning with nature,

meditation, music, and other non-traditional therapeutic practices, all

of which may be employed in an effort to connect the body and mind with the

soul and explore the deepest part of one's self.

While spirituality is often categorized with religion, one's spirituality may have

nothing to do with religion but be simply an awareness of the universe

and one's connection to it.

Often, individuals who describe themselves as spiritual state their desire to

attain a feeling of harmony with the universeand pursue spiritual

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Lewy, A. (1977). Handbook of curriculum evaluation. United States: Unesco

Richards, P.S., & Bergin, A.E. (Eds.). (2003).Casebook for a spiritual

strategy in counselling and psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American
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