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Chapter 41

Animal Nutrition

PowerPoint Lectures for


Biology, Seventh Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Lectures by Chris Romero


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Overview: The Need to Feed

Every mealtime is a reminder that we are


heterotrophs
Dependent on a regular supply of food

Figure 41.1
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In general, animals fall into one of three dietary
categories
Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants and
algae)
Carnivores eat other animals

Omnivores regularly consume animals as well


as plants or algal matter

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Regardless of what an animal eats, an
adequate diet must satisfy three nutritional
needs
Fuel for all cellular work

The organic raw materials for biosynthesis

Essential nutrients, substances such as


vitamins that the animal cannot make for itself

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Animals feed by four main mechanisms
SUSPENSION FEEDERS SUBSTRATE FEEDERS

Feces

Caterpillar
Baleen

FLUID FEEDERS

BULK FEEDERS

Figure 41.2

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Concept 41.1: Homeostatic mechanisms
manage an animals energy budget
Nearly all of an animals ATP generation
Is based on the oxidation of energy-rich
molecules: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats

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Glucose Regulation as an Example of Homeostasis
Animals store excess calories
As glycogen in the liver and muscles and as fat

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Glucose is a major fuel for cells

Its metabolism, regulated by hormone action, is


an important example of homeostasis
1 When blood glucose
level rises, a gland called
the pancreas secretes insulin,
a hormone, into the blood.

2 Insulin enhances the


transport of glucose into body
cells and stimulates the liver
and muscle cells to store
glucose as glycogen. As a
STIMULUS: result, blood glucose level
Blood glucose drops.
level rises
after eating.

Homeostasis:
90 mg glucose/
100 mL blood

4 Glucagon promotes
the breakdown of
glycogen in the
liver and the STIMULUS:
release of glucose Blood glucose
into the blood, level drops
increasing blood below set point. 3 When blood glucose
Figure 41.3 glucose level. level drops, the pancreas
secretes the hormone
glucagon, which opposes
the effect of insulin.

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When fewer calories are taken in than are
expended
Fuel is taken out of storage and oxidized

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Caloric Imbalance
Undernourishment
Occurs in animals when their diets are
chronically deficient in calories
Can have detrimental effects on an animal

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Overnourishment
Results from excessive food intake

Leads to the storage of excess calories as fat


100 m

Figure 41.4
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Obesity as a Human Health Problem
The World Health Organization
Now recognizes obesity as a major global
health problem

Obesity contributes to a number of health


problems, including
Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colon
and breast cancer

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Researchers have discovered
Several of the mechanisms that help regulate
body weight

Over the long term, homeostatic mechanisms


Are feedback circuits that control the bodys
storage and metabolism of fat

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Several chemical signals called hormones
Regulate both long-term and short-term
appetite by affecting a satiety center in the
brain Secreted by the stomach
wall, ghrelin is one of the
signals that triggers feelings
of hunger as mealtimes
approach. In dieters who lose
weight, ghrelin levels increase,
Produced by adipose (fat) which may be one reason
tissue, leptin suppresses its so hard to stay on a diet.
appetite as its level increases.
When body fat decreases,
leptin levels fall, and appetite
increases.

Ghrelin

Insulin
The hormone PYY, A rise in blood sugar level
Leptin
secreted by the small after a meal stimulates
PYY
intestine after meals, the pancreas to secrete
acts as an appetite insulin (see Figure 41.3).
suppressant that In addition to its other
Figure 41.5 counters the appetite functions, insulin suppresses
stimulant ghrelin. appetite by acting on the brain.

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The complexity of weight control in humans
Is evident from studies of the hormone leptin

Mice that inherit a defect in the gene for leptin


Become very obese

Figure 41.6
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Obesity and Evolution
The problem of maintaining weight partly stems
from our evolutionary past
When fat hoarding was a means of survival

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A species of birds called petrels
Become obese as chicks due to the need to
consume more calories than they burn

Figure 41.7

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Concept 41.2: An animals diet must supply
carbon skeletons and essential nutrients
To build the complex molecules it needs to
grow, maintain itself, and reproduce
An animal must obtain organic precursors
(carbon skeletons) from its food

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Besides fuel and carbon skeletons
An animals diet must also supply essential
nutrients in preassembled form

An animal that is malnourished


Is missing one or more essential nutrients in its
diet

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Herbivorous animals
May suffer mineral deficiencies if they graze on
plants in soil lacking key minerals

Figure 41.8

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Malnutrition
Is much more common than undernutrition in
human populations

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Essential Amino Acids
Animals require 20 amino acids
And can synthesize about half of them from
the other molecules they obtain from their diet

The remaining amino acids, the essential


amino acids
Must be obtained from food in preassembled
form

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A diet that provides insufficient amounts of one
or more essential amino acids
Causes a form of malnutrition called protein
deficiency

Figure 41.9

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Most plant proteins are incomplete in amino
acid makeup
So individuals who must eat only plant proteins
need to eat a variety to ensure that they get all
the essential amino acids
Essential amino acids for adults

Methionine Beans
and other
legumes
Valine

Threonine

Phenylalanine

Corn (maize) Leucine


and other grains
Isoleucine

Tryptophan

Figure 41.10 Lysine

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Some animals have adaptations
That help them through periods when their
bodies demand extraordinary amounts of
protein

Figure 41.11

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Essential Fatty Acids
Animals can synthesize most of the fatty acids
they need
The essential fatty acids
Are certain unsaturated fatty acids

Deficiencies in fatty acids are rare

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Vitamins
Vitamins are organic molecules
Required in the diet in small amounts

To date, 13 vitamins essential to humans


Have been identified

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Vitamins are grouped into two categories
Fat-soluble and
water-soluble

Table 41.1

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Minerals
Minerals are simple inorganic nutrients
Usually required in small amounts

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Mineral requirements of humans

Table 41.2

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Concept 41.3: The main stages of food
processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption,
and elimination
Ingestion, the act of eating
Is the first stage of food processing

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Digestion, the second stage of food processing
Is the process of breaking food down into
molecules small enough to absorb
Involves enzymatic hydrolysis of polymers into
their monomers

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Absorption, the third stage of food processing
Is the uptake of nutrients by body cells

Elimination, the fourth stage of food processing


Occurs as undigested material passes out of
the digestive compartment

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The four stages of food processing

Small
molecules

Pieces
of food

Chemical digestion Nutrient


Mechanical (enzymatic hydrolysis) molecules
digestion enter body
cells

Undigested
Food
material

1 INGESTION 2 DIGESTION 3 ABSORPTION 4 ELIMINATION

Figure 41.12

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Digestive Compartments
Most animals process food
In specialized compartments

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Intracellular Digestion
In intracellular digestion
Food particles are engulfed by endocytosis
and digested within food vacuoles

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Extracellular Digestion
Extracellular digestion
Is the breakdown of food particles outside cells

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Animals with simple body plans
Have a gastrovascular cavity that functions in
both digestion and distribution of nutrients
Tentacles

Mouth
Food

Gastrovascular
cavity
Epidermis
Mesenchyme
Gastrodermis

Nutritive
muscular
cells

Flagella
Gland cells

Food vacuoles
Figure 41.13 Mesenchyme

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Animals with a more complex body plan
Have a digestive tube with two openings, a
mouth and an anus

This digestive tube


Is called a complete digestive tract or an
alimentary canal

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The digestive tube can be organized into
specialized regions
That carry out digestion and nutrient
absorption in a stepwise fashion
Esophagus Crop
Gizzard
(a) Earthworm. The digestive tract of Intestine
an earthworm includes a muscular Pharynx
pharynx that sucks food in through the Anus
mouth. Food passes through the
esophagus and is stored and moistened Mouth
in the crop. The muscular gizzard, which
contains small bits of sand and gravel,
pulverizes the food. Digestion and
absorption occur in the intestine,
Typhlosole
which has a dorsal fold, the typhlosole,
that increases the surface area for
nutrient absorption. Lumen of intestine

Foregut Midgut Hindgut


(b) Grasshopper. A grasshopper has several
digestive chambers grouped into three
main regions: a foregut, with an esophagus Esophagus
Rectum
and crop; a midgut; and a hindgut. Food is
moistened and stored in the crop, but most Anus
digestion occurs in the midgut. Gastric ceca, Mouth
pouches extending from the midgut,
absorb nutrients. Crop
Gastric ceca

Esophagus
(c) Bird. Many birds have three separate chambers Gizzard
the crop, stomach, and gizzardwhere food is Mouth
pulverized and churned before passing into the Intestine
intestine. A birds crop and gizzard function very
Crop
much like those of an earthworm. In most birds,
chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients
Figure 41.14ac occur in the intestine. Stomach
Anus

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Concept 41.4: Each organ of the mammalian
digestive system has specialized food-
processing functions

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The mammalian digestive system consists of
the alimentary canal
And various accessory glands that secrete
digestive juices through ducts

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Tongue Cardiac Salivary
orifice glands
Oral cavity
Parotid gland Mouth
Salivary
Sublingual gland
glands Pharynx
Submandibular gland Esophagus
Esophagus

Pyloric
sphincter
Liver Stomach Gall-
bladder
Stomach

Ascending Gall-
portion of bladder
large intestine Small
Liver intestines
Pancreas
Pancreas
IIeum
of small Small intestine Large
intestine Duodenum of intestines
small intestine
Rectum
Large intestine Anus

Rectum A schematic diagram of


the human digestive system

Appendix
Figure 41.15 Anus

Cecum

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Food is pushed along the digestive tract by
peristalsis
Rhythmic waves of contraction of smooth
muscles in the wall of the canal

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The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus
In the oral cavity, food is lubricated and
digestion begins
And teeth chew food into smaller particles that
are exposed to salivary amylase, initiating the
breakdown of glucose polymers

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The region we call our throat is the pharynx
A junction that opens to both the esophagus
and the windpipe (trachea)

The esophagus
Conducts food from the pharynx down to the
stomach by peristalsis

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From mouth to stomach
4 The esophageal
sphincter relaxes,
allowing the
bolus to enter the
Epiglottis
esophagus.
Bolus of food up

Tongue Glottis
Epiglottis
up down
Pharynx and open
Esophageal Esophageal
Glottis Epiglottis sphincter Esophageal
sphincter
Larynx down relaxed 5 After the food sphincter
contracted
has entered the contracted
Trachea Esophagus esophagus, the
larynx moves Relaxed
To lungs To stomach Glottis up downward and muscles
opens the
and closed breathing Contracted
passage. muscles
3 The larynx, the
1 When a person is not upper part of the
swallowing, the esophageal 6 Waves of muscular Relaxed
respiratory tract,
sphincter muscle is contracted, moves upward and contraction muscles
2 The swallowing
the epiglottis is up, and the tips the epiglottis (peristalsis)
reflex is triggered
glottis is open, allowing air over the glottis, move the bolus
when a bolus of
to flow through the trachea preventing food down the esophagus
food reaches the
Figure 41.16 to the lungs.
pharynx. from entering the to the stomach.
trachea.

Stomach

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The Stomach
The stomach stores food
And secretes gastric juice, which converts a
meal to acid chyme

Gastric juice
Is made up of hydrochloric acid and the
enzyme pepsin

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The lining of the stomach
Is coated with mucus, which prevents the
gastric juice from destroying the cells
Esophagus
Cardiac orifice

Stomach
Pyloric
sphincter
5 m

Small
intestine Folds of
epithelial
Interior surface of stomach. tissue
The interior surface of the
stomach wall is highly folded
and dotted with pits leading Epithelium 3
into tubular gastric glands. 1 Pepsinogen and HCI
are secreted into the
Pepsinogen Pepsin (active enzyme)
Gastric gland. The gastric 2 lumen of the stomach.
glands have three types of cells HCl
that secrete different components
of the gastric juice: mucus cells, 1
chief cells, and parietal cells. 2 HCl converts
pepsinogen to pepsin.
Mucus cells secrete mucus,
which lubricates and protects
3 Pepsin then activates
the cells lining the stomach.
more pepsinogen,
Chief cells secrete pepsino- starting a chain
reaction. Pepsin
gen, an inactive form of the
begins the chemical
digestive enzyme pepsin.
digestion of proteins.
Parietal cell
Parietal cells secrete Chief cell
Figure 41.17 hydrochloric acid (HCl).

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Gastric ulcers, lesions in the lining
Are caused mainly by the bacterium
Helicobacter pylori

Bacteria

Mucus
layer of
stomach

1 m
Figure 41.18
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The Small Intestine
The small intestine
Is the longest section of the alimentary canal

Is the major organ of digestion and absorption

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Enzymatic Action in the Small Intestine
The first portion of the small intestine is the
duodenum
Where acid chyme from the stomach mixes
with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver,
gallbladder, and intestine itself
Liver Bile

Gall-
bladder

Stomach

Acid chyme
Intestinal
juice

Pancreatic juice
Pancreas
Duodenum of
Figure 41.19 small intestine

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The pancreas produces proteases, protein-
digesting enzymes
That are activated once they enter the
duodenum

Pancreas
Membrane-bound
enteropeptidase

Inactive
trypsinogen Trypsin

Other inactive
proteases Active
proteases

Figure 41.20 Lumen of duodenum

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Enzymatic digestion is completed
As peristalsis moves the mixture of chyme and
digestive juices along the small intestine
Carbohydrate digestion Protein digestion Nucleic acid digestion Fat digestion

Oral cavity, Polysaccharides Disaccharides


pharynx, (starch, glycogen) (sucrose, lactose)
esophagus
Salivary amylase

Smaller polysaccharides,
maltose
Stomach
Proteins
Pepsin

Small polypeptides

Lumen of Polysaccharides Polypeptides DNA, RNA Fat globules (Insoluble in


small intes- water, fats aggregate as
tine Pancreatic amylases Pancreatic trypsin and Pancreatic globules.)
chymotrypsin (These proteases nucleases
Bile salts
Maltose and other cleave bonds adjacent to certain
disaccharides amino acids.)
Fat droplets (A coating of
bile salts prevents small drop-
Smaller Nucleotides
lets from coalescing into
polypeptides larger globules, increasing
exposure to lipase.)
Pancreatic carboxypeptidase
Pancreatic lipase

Amino acids Glycerol, fatty


acids, glycerides

Epithelium Small peptides Nucleotidases


of small
intestine Nucleosides
(brush Disaccharidases Dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and
border) aminopeptidase (These proteases split Nucleosidases
off one amino acid at a time, working from and
opposite ends of a polypeptide.) phosphatases

Monosaccharides
Figure 41.21 Amino acids Nitrogenous bases,
sugars, phosphates

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Hormones help coordinate the secretion of
digestive juices into the alimentary canal

Enterogastrone secreted by the


Liver duodenum inhibits peristalsis and
acid secretion by the stomach,
thereby slowing digestion when
Entero- acid chyme rich in fats enters the
gastrone duodenum.
Gall-
bladder Gastrin from the stomach
Gastrin
CCK recirculates via the bloodstream
Stomach
back to the stomach, where it
stimulates the production
Amino acids or fatty acids in the
duodenum trigger the release of Pancreas of gastric juices.
cholecystokinin (CCK), which
stimulates the release of digestive Secretin
enzymes from the pancreas and bile Duodenum
from the gallbladder. Secreted by the duodenum,
CCK secretin stimulates the pancreas
Key to release sodium bicarbonate,
which neutralizes acid chyme
Stimulation from the stomach.
Figure 41.22 Inhibition

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Absorption of Nutrients
The small intestine has a huge surface area
Due to the presence of villi and microvilli that
are exposed to the intestinal lumen

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The enormous microvillar surface
Is an adaptation that greatly increases the rate
of nutrient absorption
Microvilli
Vein carrying blood to (brush border)
hepatic portal vessel
Figure 41.23

Blood
capillaries

Epithelial
cells
Muscle layers
Epithelial cells
Large
circular Lacteal
Villi
folds

Key Lymph
Villi vessel
Nutrient Intestinal wall
absorption

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The core of each villus
Contains a network of blood vessels and a
small vessel of the lymphatic system called a
lacteal

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Amino acids and sugars
Pass through the epithelium of the small
intestine and enter the bloodstream

After glycerol and fatty acids are absorbed by


epithelial cells
They are recombined into fats within these
cells

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These fats are then mixed with cholesterol and
coated with proteins
Forming small molecules called chylomicrons,
which are transported into lacteals
Fat globule

Bile salts 1 Large fat globules are


emulsified by bile salts
in the duodenum.

Fat droplets 2 Digestion of fat by the pancreatic


coated with enzyme lipase yields free fatty
bile salts acids and monoglycerides, which
Micelles made then form micelles.
up of fatty acids,
monoglycerides,
and bile salts 3 Fatty acids and mono-
glycerides leave micelles
and enter epithelial cells
by diffusion.

4 Chylomicrons containing fatty


Epithelial substances are transported out
cells of of the epithelial cells and into
small Lacteal lacteals, where they are carried
Figure 41.24 intestine away from the intestine by lymph.

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The Large Intestine
The large intestine, or colon
Is connected to the small intestine

Figure 41.25

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A major function of the colon
Is to recover water that has entered the
alimentary canal

The wastes of the digestive tract, the feces


Become more solid as they move through the
colon
Pass through the rectum and exit via the anus

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The colon houses various strains of the
bacterium Escherichia coli
Some of which produce various vitamins

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Concept 41.5: Evolutionary adaptations of
vertebrate digestive systems are often
associated with diet

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Some Dental Adaptations
Dentition, an animals assortment of teeth
Is one example of structural variation reflecting
diet

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Mammals have specialized dentition
That best enables them to ingest their usual
diet
Incisors

Canines Molars

(a) Carnivore Premolars

(b) Herbivore

Figure 41.26ac (c) Omnivore

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Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations
Herbivores generally have longer alimentary
canals than carnivores
Reflecting the longer time needed to digest
vegetation

Small intestine
Stomach
Small
intestine

Cecum

Colon
(large
intestine)

Figure 41.27 Carnivore Herbivore

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Symbiotic Adaptations
Many herbivorous animals have fermentation
chambers
Where symbiotic microorganisms digest
cellulose

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The most elaborate adaptations for an
herbivorous diet
Have evolved in the animals called ruminants
1 Rumen. When the cow first chews and
swallows a mouthful of grass, boluses
(green arrows) enter the rumen.

2 Reticulum. Some boluses


also enter the reticulum. In
Intestine both the rumen and the
reticulum, symbiotic prokaryotes
and protists (mainly ciliates) go
to work on the cellulose-rich
meal. As by-products of their
metabolism, the microorganisms
secrete fatty acids. The cow
periodically regurgitates and
rechews the cud (red arrows),
which further breaks down the
fibers, making them more
accessible to further microbial action.

Esophagus

Figure 41.28
4 Abomasum. The cud, containing great numbers of microorganisms, 3 Omasum. The cow then reswallows
finally passes to the abomasum for digestion by the cows own the cud (blue arrows), which moves to
enzymes (black arrows). the omasum, where water is removed.

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