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REGULASI PERENCANAAN PEMBANGUNAN,

TEKNIK PERUMUSAN PERENCANAAN


PEMBANGUNAN DAN METODOLOGI
PERENCANAAN PEMBANGUNAN NASIONAL,
REGIONAL DAN LOKAL

DISARIKAN OLEH: DR. BAGDJA MULJARIJADI


IF YOU DONT KNOW WHERE
YOU ARE GOING, ANY ROAD
WILL GET YOU THERE
MENGINTEGRASIKAN BERBAGAI UU MEMBENTUK
SISTEM PERENCANAAN PEMBANGUNAN NASIONAL

RENCANA PENANGGULANGAN
BENCANA (RPB) RTRW, RDTRK,
RENCANA AKSI DAERAH (RAD) ZONING
Pembangunan REGULATION
Berkelanjutan
KLHS UU
32/2009 tentang UU No. 24/2007
UU No. 26/2007
Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan
Penataan Ruang
Pengelolaan Bencana
Lingkungan Hidup

UU No. 27/2007
UU No. 17/2003 UU tentang Sistem Perencanaan Pengelolaan
Keuangan Negara Pembangunan Nasional UU No. Pesisir & Pulau-
25/2004: RPJP/D, RPJM/D, RKP/D Pulau Kecil
RSWP3K,
RZWP3K,
RAPBN/D RPWP3K,
RAPWP3K
UU 33/2004 UU No. 23/2014
Perimbangan Pemerintahan Daerah
Keuangan
DAU Urusan Wajib &
DAK Pilihan
DBH
HUBUNGAN ANTAR BERBAGAI DOKUMEN
PERENCANAAN

RPJP NASIONAL RPJP DAERAH 20 Tahun

SINERGITAS
RPJM NASIONAL RPJM DAERAH
5 Tahun

RENSTRA - KL RENSTRA - SKPD 5 Tahun

KLHS
KLH

RKP NASIONAL RKP DAERAH


1 Tahun

RENJA - KL RENJA - SKPD 1 Tahun

RTRWN RTRWD/RTRP/K
20 Tahun

Sumber: UU No. 25 Tahun 2004 ; UU No. 26 Tahun 2007; UU No. 32 Tahun 2009
RENCANA STRATEGIS DAN MTEF
Fokus pelaksanaan pembangunan dimulai dari Pembangunan
Jangka Menengah (RPJM) yang biasa disebut sebagai strategic
planning
Reformasi Perencanaan Pembangunan di Indonesia ada pada
penyatuan antara rencana pembangunan dan rencana keuangan
sejak Rencana Jangka Menengah. Penyatuan tersebut terangkum
dalam Kerangka Kerja Pengeluaran Jangka Menengah/KPJM
(Medium Term Expenditure Framework/MTEF)
KPJM adalah pendekatan penganggaran berdasarkan kebijakan
yang dilakukan dalam perspektif waktu lebih dari satu tahun
anggaran dengan mempertimbangkan implikasi biaya pada tahun
berikutnya yang dinyatakan sebagai prakiraan maju.
Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) No. 21 Tahun 2004 pada Pasal 15
mengamanatkan bahwa penerapan penganggaran terpadu,
kerangka pengeluaran jangka menengah dan penganggaran
berdasarkan kinerja dilakukan secara bertahap mulai Tahun
Anggaran 2005
WHAT IS STRATEGIC PLANNING?

Process to establish priorities on what you will


accomplish in the future
Forces you to make choices on what you will do
and what you will not do
Pulls the entire organization together around a
single game plan for execution
Broad outline on where resources will get allocated
WHY DO STRATEGIC PLANNING?

If you fail to plan, then you plan to fail be


proactive about the future
Strategic planning improves performance
Counter excessive inward and short-term
thinking
Solve major issues at a macro level
Communicate to everyone what is most
important
A GOOD STRATEGIC
PLAN SHOULD . . .
Address critical performance issues
Create the right balance between what the
organization is capable of doing vs. what the
organization would like to do
Cover a sufficient time period to close the
performance gap
Visionary convey a desired future end state
Flexible allow and accommodate change
Guide decision making at lower levels
operational, tactical, individual
STRATEGIC PLANNING MODEL
ABCDE
Where we are Where we want to be How we will do it How are we doing

Assessment Baseline Components Down to Specifics Evaluate

Environmental Scan Situation Past, Mission & Vision Performance Performance


Present and Future Measurement Management
Background Significant Issues Values / Guiding Targets / Standards of Review Progress
Information Principles Performance Balanced Scorecard
Situational Analysis Align / Fit with Major Goals Initiatives and Take Corrective
Capabilities Projects Actions

SWOT Strengths, Gaps Specific Objectives Action Plans Feedback upstream


Weaknesses, revise plans
Opportunities,
Threats
Assessment
ASSESSMENT MODEL: Assessment

SWOT
Internal
InternalAssessment:
Assessment:Organizational
Organizationalassets,
assets,
resources, people, culture, systems,
resources, people, culture, systems,
partnerships,
partnerships,suppliers,
suppliers,. .. .. .

External
ExternalAssessment:
Assessment:Marketplace,
Marketplace,
competitors,
competitors, social trends,technology,
social trends, technology,
regulatory
regulatory environment, economiccycles
environment, economic cycles. .

SWOT SWOT

Good Points Possible Pitfalls


Easy to Understand Needs to be Analytical
Apply at any and Specific
organizational level Be honest about your
weaknesses
Assessment

STRENGTHS
Strengths Those things that you do well, the
high value or performance points
Strengths can be tangible: Loyal customers,
efficient distribution channels, very high quality
products, excellent financial condition
Strengths can be intangible: Good leadership,
strategic insights, customer intelligence, solid
reputation, high skilled workforce
Often considered Core Competencies Best
leverage points for growth without draining your
resources
Assessment

WEAKNESSES
Weaknesses Those things that prevent you from
doing what you really need to do
Since weaknesses are internal, they are within
your control
Weaknesses include: Bad leadership, unskilled
workforce, insufficient resources, poor product
quality, slow distribution and delivery channels,
outdated technologies, lack of planning, . . .
Assessment

OPPORTUNITIES
Opportunities Potential areas for growth and
higher performance
External in nature marketplace, unhappy
customers with competitors, better economic
conditions, more open trading policies, . .
Internal opportunities should be classified as
Strengths
Timing may be important for capitalizing on
opportunities
Assessment

THREATS
Threats Challenges confronting the organization,
external in nature
Threats can take a wide range bad press
coverage, shifts in consumer behavior, substitute
products, new regulations, . . .
May be useful to classify or assign probabilities to
threats
The more accurate you are in identifying threats,
the better position you are for dealing with the
sudden ripples of change
Baseline
WHY CREATE A Baseline

BASELINE?
Puts everything about the organization into a
single context for comparability and planning
Descriptive about the company as well as the
overall environment
Include information about relationships
customers, suppliers, partners, . . .
Preferred format is the Organizational Profile
ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE Baseline
1. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT

Products and Services Suppliers, Delivery


Channels, Contracts, Arrangements, . . .
Organizational Culture Barriers, Leadership,
Communication, Cohesiveness . . . .
Workforce Productivity Skill levels, diversity,
contractors, aging workforce, . . .
Infrastructure Systems, technology, facilities, . .
Regulatory Product / Service Regulation, ISO
Quality Standards, Safety, Environmental, . . .
Baseline
ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE
2. BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS
Organizational Structure Business Units,
Functions, Board, Management Layers, . . .
Customer Relationships Requirements,
Satisfaction, Loyalty, Expectations, . . .
Value Chain Relationship between everyone in
the value chain . . . .
Partner Relationships Alliances, long-term
suppliers, customer partnerships, . . .
ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE Baseline
3. KEY PERFORMANCE
CATEGORIES
Customer
Products and Services
Financial
Human Capital
Operational
External (Regulatory Compliance, Social
Responsibility, . . . )
Baseline

GAP ANALYSIS
Baseline / Org Profile Challenges / SWOT

Gap
Gap == Basis
Basis for
for Long-Term
Long-Term
Strategic
Strategic Plan
Plan
Components
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE Components
STRATEGIC PLAN / DOWN TO
ACTION

Strategic Plan

Vision Action Plans


Why we exist
Evaluate Progress

Mission What we want to be

Goals What we must achieve to be successful

Objectives O1 Specific outcomes expressed in


O2
measurable terms (NOT activities)

Initiatives Planned Actions to


AI1 AI2 AI3 Achieve Objectives

Measures Indicators and


M1 M2 M3 Monitors of success

Targets T1 T1 T1 Desired level of


performance and timelines
Down to Specifics
Down to
WHAT ARE ACTION Specifics

PLANS?
The Action Plan identifies the specific steps that will be taken to achieve the
initiatives and strategic objectives where the rubber meets the road
Each Initiative has a supporting Action Plan(s) attached to it
Action Plans are geared toward operations, procedures, and processes
They describe who does what, when it will be completed, and how the
organization knows when steps are completed
Like Initiatives, Action Plans require the monitoring of progress on Objectives,
for which measures are needed

Objectives

Initiatives

Action
Plans
Down to
CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTION Specifics
PLANS
Assign responsibility for the successful completion of the Action Plan. Who is
responsible? What are the roles and responsibilities?
Detail all required steps to achieve the Initiative that the Action Plan is supporting.
Where will the actions be taken?
Establish a time frame for the completion each steps. When will we need to take
these actions?
Establish the resources required to complete the steps. How much will it take to
execute these actions?
Define the specific actions (steps) that must be taken to implement the initiative.
Determine the deliverables (in measurable terms) that should result from
completion of individual steps. Identify in-process measures to ensure the
processes used to carry out the action are working as intended. Define the
expected results and milestones of the action plan.
Provide a brief status report on each step, whether completed or not. What
communication process will we follow? How well are we doing in executing our
action plan?
Based on the above criteria, you should be able to clearly define your action plan. If
you have several action plans, you may have to prioritize.
Down to
ACTION PLAN EXECUTION Specifics

Requires that you have answered the Who, What, How,


Where, and When questions related to the project or
initiative that drives strategic execution
Coordinate with lower level sections, administrative and
operating personnel since they will execute the Action
Plan in the form of specific work plans
Assign action responsibility and set timelines Develop
working plans and schedules that have specific action
steps
Resource the project or initiative and document in the
form of detail budgets (may require reallocation prior to
execution)
Monitor progress against milestones and measurements
Correct and revise action plans per comparison of actual
results against original action plan
QUANTIFY FROM ACTION LEVEL UP Down to
IN TERMS OF MEASUREMENTS Specifics

Measure your milestones short-term outcomes at


the Action Item level.
Measure the outcomes of your objectives.
Try to keep your measures one per objective.
May want to include lead and lag measures to
depict cause-effect relationships if you are
uncertain about driving (leading) the desired
outcome.
Establish measures using a template to capture
critical data elements
CRITERIA FOR GOOD Down to
Specifics
MEASURES
Integrity Complete; useful; inclusive of several types of
measure; designed to measure the most important activities
of the organization
Reliable: Consistent
Accurate - Correct
Timely Available when needed: designed to use and report
data in a usable timeframe
Confidential and Secure: Free from inappropriate release or
attack
Down to
CRITERIA FOR GOOD Specifics

MEASURES
Down to
Specifics

TARGETS
For each measurement, you should have at least one target
Targets should stretch the organization to higher levels of
performance
Incremental improvements over current performance can be used
to establish your targets
Targets put focus on your strategy
When you reach your targets, you have successfully executed your
strategy
Evaluate
CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK Evaluate
THROUGH THE BALANCED SCORECARD

Cascade and align from the top to create a Strategic Management


System.
Use the Balanced Scorecard framework to organize and report
actionable components.
Use the Scorecard for managing the execution of your strategy.
Scorecard forces you to look at different perspectives and take
into account cause-effect relationships (lead and lag indicators)
Improves how you communicate your strategy critical to
execution.
Evaluate
LINK BUDGETS TO STRATEGIC
PLAN

The worlds best Strategic Plan will fail if it is not adequately


resourced through the budgeting process
Strategic Plans cannot succeed without people, time, money, and
other key resources
Aligning resources validates that initiatives and action plans
comprising the strategic plan support the strategic objectives
TEKNIK PERUMUSAN
PERENCANAAN
PEMBANGUNAN DI INDONESIA
RENSTRA
Suatu dokumen perencanaan lima tahunan yag berisi
visi, misi, nilai-nilai, tujuan dan strategi yang disusun
sesuai dengan sistematika perencanaan dan
penganggaran pemerintah dengan mempertimbangkan
aspek internal dan eksternal yang mempengaruhi dan
mungkin akan mempengaruhi keberhasilan mencapai
tujuan yang ditetapkan.
RENCANA KINERJA
TAHUNAN
Suatu proses penyusunan indikator kinerja dan target
berdasarkan sasaran strategis yang telah ditetapkan
dlm renstra. Komponen RKT (sasaran strategis,
indikator kinerja, dan target-target) dirumuskan
untuk merencanakan program dan kegiatan yang
akan diusulkan di dalam RKAKL/DIPA.
KERTAS KERJA
Suatu lembaran berlajur yang dirancang untuk
mengikhtisarkan semua data rencana strategis Satker
dalam kaitan dengan anggaran, sehingga memberikan
gambaran tentang IKU, IKK, Output, Komponen Input,
Indikator dan Target Kinerja serta besaran alokasi
Anggaran sebagaimana yang tercantum dalam RKAKL
pertama yang diterima oleh Satker.
PENETAPAN
KINERJA
Suatu dokumen penetapan kinerja/perjanjian kinerja
antara bawahan dan atasan untuk mewujudkan target
kinerja tertentu berdasarkan pada sumber daya yang
dimiliki oleh instansi. Komponen PK (sasaran strategis,
indikator kinerja, dan target-target) dirumuskan setelah
RKAKL/DIPA diterima oleh Satker.
PENGUKURAN
KINERJA
Suatu metode/alat yg digunakan utk mencatat dan
menilai pencapaian pelaksanaan kegiatan berdasarkan
tujuan, sasaran, dan strategi guna mengetahui
kemajuan, meningkatkan kualitas pengambilan
keputusan dan akuntabilitas Satker serta dilakukan: (1)
pada setiap akhir periode tahun anggaran dan mengacu
pada Penetapan Kinerja; (2) dengan membandingkan
antara target kinerja dan realisasi kinerja; dan (3) untuk
dituangkan dalam LAKIP.
KETERKAIATAN RPJM-RENSTRA
DAN RENJA
Kegagalan Perencanaan Pembangunan biasanya
dikaitkan dengan operasionalisasi rencana
strategis menjadi rencana tindak
Seringkali rencana strategis gagal
diimplementasikan menjadi rencana tindak,
disebabkan oleh beberapa hal:
Adanya ketidakpastian
Implementasi model pembangunan yang tidak tepat
Upaya-upaya yang kurang maksimum dari para pelaksana
pembangunan untuk mewujudkan rencana strategis
tersebut kedalam kegiatan/aktivitas pembangunan
PENJABARAN VISI DAN MISI KDH DALAM RPJMD
VISI : ..
MISI 1: ..
Tujuan Strategi Kebijakan Program/Kegiatan Stakeholder Tolok Ukur Skedul
Pembangunan Pembangunan Pembangunan Prioritas Pembangunan Terlibat Kinerja Pelaksanan
Program

Dinas1

Dinas2

.
.
.

DinasN
PENJABARAN VISI & MISI DINAS PADA
RENSTRA SKPD
VISI : ..
Tujuan Kondisi Program/Kegi Lokasi Kebutuhan Stakeholder Tolok Ukur Skedul
yang Akan Saat Ini atan Prioritas Kegiatan Pembiayaan Terlibat Kinerja Pelaksanan
Dicapai Pembangunan Program

Misi 1

Misi 2

.
.
.

Misi N
TATA CARA PENJABARAN PROGRAM DAN
KEGIATAN DALAM RENJA SKPD
PROGRAM: ..
Lokasi Kondisi Input Output Kebutuhan Ou Manfaat Tolok
Kegiatan Saat Ini Pembiayaan tco Ukur
SDM Sarana/ Tuj Sasaran me Langsung Tdk Kinerja
Pras uan Langsung

Kegiatan
1

Kegiatan
2

.
.
.

Kegiatan
N