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PSY 232 Human Development

Lecturer: Brian John Dorai


Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

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Flow of 1st lesson
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

1. Course structure
2. Coursework explanation
3. Chapter 1
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What is human development?
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Discuss !
Give your views and ideas for each
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

statement below
1. My baby started walking and talking earlier than other
babies. I know he will be smart.
2. I pick up my baby as soon as she cries. My friend
thinks that Im going to spoil her.
3. I only want to have one child, but my partner thinks that
only children will have problem relating to others.
4. I think that in order to raise a well- disciplined child, I
will have to use physical discipline.

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Bio-Psycho-Social
What can you remember?
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

INFANT/ ADOLESCENCE
TODDLER

CHILDHOOD YOUNG ADULT

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 1
History, Theory, and
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Research Strategies

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Developmental Science
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

The study of
CONSTANCY
and CHANGE
throughout the lifespan

Blend Images/Shutterstock

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The Field of
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Developmental Science

Scientific
Applied
Interdisciplinary

Irina Magrelo/Shutterstock

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Theory
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

An orderly,
integrated
set of statements
that
describes
explains
predicts
BEHAVIOURS
Eg. Social Learning
Theory, Psychosocial
Theory bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock

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Basic Issues
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

in Development
Continuous (piano ability) or
discontinuous (patterns of thinking)?
One course of development or many?
Relative influence of nature and
nurture?

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Contexts of Development
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Unique combinations
of personal and
environmental
circumstances can
result in different
paths of change

PERSONAL + ENVIRONMENT
= GROWTH
xanirakx/Shutterstock

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Basic Issues
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Nature vs. Nurture

Nature Nurture
Hereditary Physical and
information social forces
Received from Influences
parents at biological and
conception psychological
development

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Stability and Plasticity
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Stability Plasticity
Persistence of Development is
individual open to lifelong
differences change
Lifelong patterns Change occurs
established by based on influential
early experiences experiences

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Development as a
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Dynamic System

Ongoing process from conception


to death
Molded by network of influences:
biological
psychological
social

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Lifespan Perspective
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Development is
Lifelong
Throughout life,
changes happen
Multidimensional and
multidirectional
Affected by
biopsychosocial factors
GROWTH and
DECLINATION

Intellistudies/Shutterstock

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Lifespan Perspective
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Development is
Highly plastic
Very modifiable throughout life (due to
experiences and biological change)
Influenced by multiple, interacting
forces
Age-graded (fairly predictable)
History-graded (period/era)
Nonnormative (not typical)

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Periods of Development
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Prenatal Conception to birth


Infancy and toddlerhood Birth2 years
Early childhood 26 years
Middle childhood 611 years
Adolescence 1118 years
Early adulthood 1840 years
Middle adulthood 4065 years
Late adulthood 65 yearsdeath

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Major Domains
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

of Development

Figure 1.2

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Influences on Development
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Multiple, interacting forces:


Age-graded
History-graded
Nonnormative

auremar/Shutterstock

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Resilience
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Ability to adapt effectively


in the face of threats to
development
Factors in resilience:
Personal characteristics
Warm parental relationship
Social support outside family
Community resources and iofoto/Shutterstock
opportunities

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Question for Discussion
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

How predictable are you?


Which aspect of your personality have
remained same since you were a young
child and which have changed?

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Lifespan View of
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Development

Figure 1.3

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Scientific Beginnings
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Theory of
Darwin
evolution

Normative
Hall, Gesell
approach

Mental testing
Binet
movement

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Early Scientific Theories
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Theory of evolution (Darwin)


Natural selection
Survival of the fittest
Normative approach (Hall, Gesell)
Child study movement (motor achievements,
social behaviours, personality)
Development as a maturational process (flower
analogy)
Mental testing movement (Binet- France )
First successful intelligence test (Stanford-Binet)
In forefront of naturenurture controversy

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Psychoanalytic Perspective
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Freud and Erikson

Emphasis on
individuals unique
life history
Conflicts between
biological drives
and social
expectations
szefei/Shutterstock

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Freuds Three Parts
of the Personality
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Focus on unconscious
Freuds Psychosexual Theory

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Freuds Three Parts
of the Personality
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Largest portion of the mind


Id Unconscious, present at birth
Source of biological needs/desires

Conscious, rational part of personality


Ego Emerges in early infancy
Redirects id impulses in acceptable ways

The conscience
Superego Develops from ages 3 to 6 through
interactions with caregivers

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Freuds Psychosexual Stages
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Eriksons Psychosocial Stages
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Behaviorism and
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Social Learning Theory

Classical
Stimulusresponse
conditioning

Operant Reinforcers and


conditioning punishments

Social learning Social-cognitive


theory approach

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Behaviorism and
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Social Learning Theory


Contributions:
Behavior modification
Modeling, observational learning
Limitations:
Narrow view of environmental influences
Underestimates individuals active role

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Piagets Cognitive-
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Developmental Theory
Children actively construct knowledge by
manipulating and exploring their world
Mental structures adapt to better fit with
environment
Development moves through four broad
stages

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Piagets Stages
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Information Processing
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

View of the human mind as a


symbol-manipulating system
Development as a continuous
process
Use of rigorous research methods
Little insight into creativity or
imagination

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Information Processing
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Developmental Cognitive
Neuroscience
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Relationship of brain changes to cognitive


processing and behavior patterns
Brings together researchers from
psychology
biology
neuroscience
medicine
Practical applications

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Ethology
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Adaptive value and


evolutionary history of
behavior (science)
Acquisition of adaptive
behaviors:
Critical period
Nervous system is sensitive
to environment
Sensitive period
Biologically prepared for
Nick Biemans/Shutterstock gaining

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Evolutionary Developmental
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Psychology
Adaptive value of
cognitive
emotional
social
competencies as they change with age
Personenvironment system throughout
the lifespan

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Vygotskys
Sociocultural Theory
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Transmission to the next


generation of a cultures
values
beliefs
customs
skills
Cooperative dialogues
between children and more
expert members of society
Andresr/Shutterstock

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Vygotskys
Sociocultural Theory
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Ecological Systems Theory
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Ecological Systems Theory
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Layers of the
environment:
microsystem
mesosystem
exosystem
macrosystem
Chronosystem:
Temporal dimension
Zurijeta/Shutterstock

(time)

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Common Research Methods
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Systematic observation:
Naturalistic observation
Structured observation (lab)
Self-reports:
Clinical interview (usually exploratory)
Structured interview, questionnaires,
tests
Clinical, or case study, method
Ethnography

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Systematic Observation
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Naturalistic Structured
Observation Observation
Observation of Observation of
behavior in natural behavior in laboratory
contexts Gives all participants
Reflects participants opportunity to display
everyday lives behavior

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Self-Reports
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Clinical Structured
Interview Interview
Conversational style All participants are
Probes for asked the same
participants questions in the
viewpoint same way
Provides large amount Permits comparisons
of information in brief and efficient data
period collection

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Clinical/Case Study Method
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Full picture of individuals


psychological functioning
Combines information from
Interviews
Observations
Test scores

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Ethnography
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Participant observation
of culture or social group
Rich, descriptive insights
Does not permit
generalization from
findings

skyfish/Shutterstock

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General Research Designs
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Correlational Experimental
Reveals relationships Participants randomly
between participants assigned to treatment
characteristics and conditions
behavior Detects cause-and-
Does not permit effect relationships
cause-and-effect Findings may not
inferences apply in real-world
conditions

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Correlation Coefficients
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Copyright 2014, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Experimental Design
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Independent Dependent
Variable Variable
Manipulated by Measured, but not
experimenter manipulated, by
Expected to cause experimenter
changes in another Expected to be
variable influenced by
independent variable

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Random Assignment
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Unbiased procedure used to assign


participants to treatment conditions
Increases chances that characteristics will be
equally distributed across conditions

iofoto/Shutterstock

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Modified Experiments
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Field Experiment Natural/Quasi-


Conducted in Experiment
natural settings Compares existing
Capitalizes on differences in
existing treatment
opportunities Participant groups
for random matched as much as
assignment possible

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Developmental
Research Designs
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Same group studied


Longitudinal
at different times

Different groups studied


Cross-sectional
at the same time

Compares similar
Sequential cross-sectional or longitudinal
studies (sequences)

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Problems in Conducting
Longitudinal Research
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Participant dropout
Practice effects
Test-wise subjects
Cohort effects
Eg. Similar kind of thinking

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Improving
Developmental Designs
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Sequential designs
Compare several similar cross-sectional or
longitudinal studies
Permit longitudinal and cross-sectional
comparisons
Combining experimental and developmental
designs
Experimental manipulation of experiences
Provides evidence of causal association between
experiences and development

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Rights of Research
Participants
Development Through the Lifespan Sixth Edition Laura E. Berk

Protection from harm


Informed consent
Privacy
Knowledge of results
Beneficial treatments

Goodluz/Shutterstock

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