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Kurikulum dibina atas falsafah-falsafah
Kurikulum sekolah misalnya terdiri
daripada pelbagai falsafah.

Mempelajari falsafah dalam kurikulum

bukan saja kita memahami dengan lebih
mendalam mengenai kurikulum itu, tetapi
juga kita dapat menghubungkannya
dengan sistem persepsi, nilai,dan
kepercayaan kita, serta worldview kita
iaitu bagaimana kita persepsi dunia di
sekeliling kita.

Falsafah dapat memberi kita framework bagi

organizing sekolah, kelas dan dapat memberi
jawapan seperti: sekolah untuk apa? Apakah
subjek yang mempunyai nilai? Bagaimana murid
belajar? Apakah kaedah dan alatan mengajar
yang patut digunakan?
Falsafah juga dapat memberi kita framework
seperti menetapkan matlamat pendidikan,
kandungan dan organization kurikulum, proses
pengajaran dan pembelajaran
Falsafah digunakan bagi membuat keputusan
membina kurikulum.

Ini dapat dilihat seperti:

Matlamat pendidikan berdasarkan
philosophical beliefs.
Means [proses p & p and method] reflects
philosophical choices.
Ends [outcomes] connote facts, concepts
and principles of the knowledge or behavior
learned adalah juga bersifat philosophical.

Malah Tyler menjadikan falsafah itu sebagai

salah satu kriteria dalammenentukan tujuan
[lihat diagram]

Dewey pula kata, philosophy may be

defined as the general theory of education, and
that the business of philosophy is to provide the
framework for the aims and methods of schools
Major philosophies

[i] Idealism: [Plato; Socrates, ]

Idealism emphasizes moral and spiritual reality as
the chief explanation of the world. Truth and values
are seen as absolute, timeless, and universal. The
world of mind and ideas is permanent, regular, and
orderly; it represents a perfect order. Eternal ideas
are unalterable and timeless. To know is to rethink the
latent ideas that are already present in the mind. The
teachers task is to bring this latent knowledge to
consciousness; learning involves recalling and
working with ideasOrnstein & Hunkins, p.34.

Reality is spiritual or mental and unchanging.

Knowing is the rethinking of latent ideas.
Values are absolute and eternal.
A subject-matter curriculum emphasizing the
great and enduring ideas of the culture.
Knowledge is concerned with the spiritual
principles that are based of reality [universal

Education is the intellectual process of

bringing ideas to the learners
School is a social agency where students
seek to discover and pursue truth.
Schooling is an intellectual pursuit of truth.

Socratic method: asking leading

Idealists maintain high intellectual
standards and resist any tendency toward
Create an intellectual environment for
teaching and learning [classroom].
An idealist lesson: non violent protest
against injustice by studying Ghandi.

Can you recall any influences of

Idealism in our education/curriculum?

Curriculum is hierarchical and based on

learned disciplined.
Top subjects:
(i) Philosophy and theology
(ii) mathematics
(iii) History and literature
Lower subjects:
(i) natural and physical science
(ii) language

Aristotle: The source of knowledge is

People can come to know the world
through their senses and their reason.
The curriculum consists of organized,
separate subjects and the most effective
way of learning about reality.
E.g animals can be studied and organized
into zoology.

Reality is objective and is composed of

matter and form; it is fixed, based on
natural law.
Knowing consists of sensation and then
Certain rules govern behavior. Rational
behavior is based on reality.
Realist teachers use logic both deductively
and inductively.

Everything is derived from the nature and

is subject to its laws. Human behavior is
rational when it conforms to the laws of
nature and when it is governed by physical
and social laws.

Top subjects: most general and abstract

Basic education: 3R
Subject experts are the source of
Truth comes from both science and art.

Teachers are subject-matter experts.

Classrooms are for learning, not therapy.
Teachers responsibility is to teach some
skills or some body of disciplined
knowledge, eg. Maths, science,
In favor of competency testing for both
teachers and students.
Schools should maintain academic
standards and high level of achievement.

Dewey: education as a process for

improving [not accepting] the human
School is a miniature society.
The pragmatists consider teaching an
learning to be a process of reconstructing
experience according to the scientific method.
Learning takes place in an active way as
learners, either individually or in groups, solve

Can you recall any influences of

Realism in our education/curriculum?
Pragmatism: Experimentalism

Considers knowledge as a process in which

reality is constantly changing. Learning occurs
as the person engages in problem solving;
problem solving is transferable to a wide variety
of subjects and situations.
Knowing is considered a transaction between
learner and environment experience ; use of
scientific method to validate ideas empirically.

Values are situational and relative changeable.

Instruction is organized around problem solving
according to the scientific method.
Reality is always changing: no permanent
realities. Therefore, curriculum is subjected to
Problem solving is the most effective method for
directing change toward desired goals.

The ideal teaching method is not so much

with teaching the learner what to think
but teaching is more exploratory than
The method is more important than the
subject matter. What is needed is a
method for dealing with change and
scientific investigation in an intelligent

Scientific method = inductive logic.

More concern with the process of using
knowledge than with the truth.
Education is an experimental process.
It favors interdisciplinary education.
School as a miniature community / a
School should be open to all.

Implications for classroom teachers?

Teachers as facilitators
Focus on solving problems intelligently.
Transform classrooms into learning
communities by encouraging students to
share their interest and problems.
Teachers as risk takers: not simply preserving
the status quo.
Educational goals must constitute an ongoing
inquiry that leads to action.

Can you recall any influences of

Pragmatism in our education /

Human beings are born and enter the

world without being consulted [Jean-Paul
Human beings possess will which gives
them the freedom to make choices [e.g.
freedom or slavery; love or hate?] and to
create their own purpose of existence.
You are what you choose to be!

When one makes a choice, he has to choose

whether he is a self-determined person or he is
asked by others.
Knowing is to make personal choices.
Most important kind of knowledge is about the
human condition and the personal choice ones
Educations most significant goal is to awaken
human consciousness to the freedom to choose.

Education should create a sense of self-

Every individual should have opportunities
for schooling.
Students should have the chance to ask
questions, suggest answers and engage
in dialogue with teachers.
Teacher should encourage students to
philosophize, questions

Curriculum would consists whatever might

lead to philosophical dialogue; and
subjects like poetry [emotional and
aesthetic], literature; biography; drama
and films that portray the human condition
and human decision making
Besides, students need to create their own
modes of self-expression e.g. drama, free
to experiment

Teaching is quite difficult. No goals.

Teachers create open classrooms to
maximize students freedom of choice;
that is self-directed instruction.
Literature, drama and film are most
powerful in existentialist teaching, e.g.
Palestine people

Can you recall any influences of

Existentialism in our education /

Saya sudah penat menaip. Jadi?? Mari

kita bincang:
Adakah kurikulum sekolah kita jelas
mempunyai falsafahnya?
Theories of education
Aim: to educate individual according to his or
her interest and needs. [educational program
should meet the needs of the growing child]
Curriculum: activities and projects
Educational implications: Instruction should
feature problem solving and group activities;
Teachers as facilitators.
Anti-traditional instruction [mindless routine,
rote memory and authoritarian classroom
management; book based]
Methods and styles should meet the childrens
Emphasizes collaborative learning, not
Children are free to experiment, play, and
express themselves.
Childrens readiness and interests that shape
curriculum and instruction.
Instruction uses a repertoire of activities.
Teaching and learning as an active, exciting
and ever-changing process.
Constructivism: emphasizes socially
interactive and process-oriented hands-on
learning which the students work
Aim: to educate the useful and competent
person [effective members of the society]
Emphasize academic subject matter
Curriculum: Basic education: 3R; history,
English, science, foreign languages.
Educational implications: Emphasis on skills
and subjects that transmit the cultural heritage
and contribute to socioeconomic efficiency.
Stress order, discipline and effort.
Back-to basics.
Use of standardized testing
Effective schools movement
A conservative educational theory
Aim: to educate the rational person.
Curriculum: Subject matter that is
hierarchically arranged to cultivate intellect
[great books]
Educational implications: Focus on enduring
human concerns as revealed in great works
Truth is universal
A good education involves a search for and
an understanding of the truth;
Truth can be found in the great works of
Education is a liberal exercise that develops
the intellect.
The schools primary role as the cultivation of
The most important educational goals are
searching for and disseminating truth.
School curriculum should contain: studies that
emphasize themes of human life [human
concerns and values]; cognitive subjects; the
study of moral, aesthetic and religious
principles to develop ethical behavior and
The ideal education is the one that develops
intellectual power.
Reason is the highest power and the
cultivation of the intellect should be the
educations highest priority.
Classroom as an environment for
students intellectual growth.
Social Reconstructionism:

Aim: to reconstruct society. Schools are agencies for

social reform, aimed at creating a new society, by
integrating new technological and scientific
Curriculum: Social sciences used to reconstructive
Educational implications: Instruction that focuses on
significant socioeconomic problems.
Emphasizes childrens freedom.
Need for global curriculum so that people will
learn that they live in a global village.
Critical Theory:
Aim: to raise consciousness about critical
Curriculum: Autobiographies about oppressed
Educational Implications: Focus on social
Schools should bring about deliberate social change.
They see school as a place where different people
are in conflict over control of curriculum and teaching:
e.g. NGO, etc.
Educational institutions are used by powerful groups
to control those who lack power.
Curriculum should be reconceptualized to include
different cultural experiences and perspectives
[students histories, languages and cultures, ]
Emphasize learning rooted in the students
own autobiographies and family and
community experiences.
Want students to be conscious of the
equitable society for all people.
Falsafah Islam
1. Matlamat pendidikan dalam Islam
The ideal goal is The Islamic ideal
The cultivation of intellect for the purpose of
achieving the ultimate degree of perfection:
Moral excellence [Al-Farabi]
Education is to bring the attribute to the
knower from potentially to actuality [Al-Ikhwan
To produce men of Taqwa (God conscious)
who obey Gods commands and avoid His
prohibitions and who would also be useful to
the community [Al-Ghazali]
The formation of good character (akhlaq), the
cultivation of virtue and the eradication of
ignorance [Al-Ghazali]
To enable the pupils to plan for actions that
may promote the interests of society; to try to
go beyond the sensory knowledge; to develop
good habits, for which religion is essential; to
ensure a means of livelihood [Ibn-Khaldun]
To produce a good man (Soleh, adab) and the
purpose of seeking knowledge is to inculcate
goodness in man as man and as an individual
Religious, social, intellectual and vocational
i. To enable men to recognize and
acknowledge the existence of God through
reading His signs in the universe as well as
in the Quran.
ii. To purify the mans soul, mind and body so
that he comes close to personifying the
perfect man.
iii. To produce good man of adab who
recognizes and acknowledges that he has
been created to serve God and be his
vicegerent on earth. (therefore, education
should cater the balanced growth of man in all
aspects of his nature; intellectually, spiritually,
morally and physically);
iv. To be a social man; have high moral
values, must have a balance between
freedom and societal control; gives alms.
V. To be a man of vicegerent who seeks
knowledge for worthy purposes within the
framework of Islamic teaching.