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Komunikasi Tulisan

Bahan Kuliah IF3820 Socio-Informatika dan Profesionalisme

Program Studi Informatika STEI-ITB


Tujuan Komunikasi Tertulis
Komunikasi tertulis bertujuan untuk menyampaikan:
1. Ide atau gagasan kepada pihak lain
2. Hasil pelaksanaan kegiatan (praktikum, tugas, pekerjaan, dll)
Komunikasi tulisan ada bermacam-macam:
1. Karya sastra: puisi, cerpen, novel
2. Essay: tulisan opini di media massa
3. Tulisan akademik: laporan TA, tesis, disertasi, paper, jurnal
4. Laporan bisnis
Materi ini hanya membahas tulisan akademik (academic writing)
Tahapan Membuat Tulisan
1. Mencari informasi
2. Menulis draft
3. Menyunting (edit) dan merevisi

.Menurut para ahli, mencari informasi meliputi 40% dari


pekerjaan menulis
.Menulis draft hanya merupakan 20% dari pekerjaan
menulis
.Menyunting dan merevisi berbobot tak kala besar, yaitu
40%
1. Mencari informasi
Agar tulisan didukung oleh fakta (jadi bukan
berdasarkan intuisi), maka penulis perlu mencari
sebanyak mungkin informasi yang dibutuhkan.

Informasi yang dibutuhkan adalah:


- Referensi (buku, paper, jurnal, tesis, disertasi, media
massa, dll)
- Pengetahuan dari pakar
- Sumber dan fakta pendukung lainnya
2. Menulis draft
Draft adalah semacam sketsa kasar dari apa yang akan ditulis.
Lebih mudah menulis draft awal daripada tulsian yang suda jadi
Drfat akan disempurnakan pada tahap berikutnya
Untuk menulis draft, lakukan:
- brainstorming, keluarkan semua ide yang ada setelah membaca
referensi
- mulai tulisan pada bagian mana saja, tidak harus berurut
- jangan dulu mengkritik diri sendiri, yang penting tulisan tersebut jadi garis
besarnya.
- gunakan gaya sendiri dalam menjelaskan
- tinggalkan draft sejenak sebelum menyunting
3. Menyunting dan merevisi
Menyunting bertujuan untuk memperhalus tulisan,
membuat tulisan lebih detil dan berisi.

Merevisi bertujuan untuk memperbaiki hal-[hal yang


kurang tepat, perbaikan ejaan, perbaikan typo, dan
memperbaiki cara penyampaian

Penyuntingan dan revisi dapat dilakukan berulang-kali


hingga kita merasa nyaman dan puas dengan hasilnya.
Tulisan Akademik (Academic
writing)
Menulis adalah kemampuan yang dibutuhkan dalam
semua konteks kehidupan.
Contoh: menulis surel, menulis di buku harian, menulis
laporan
Tulisan akademik berbeda dengan tulisan personal
lainnya. Perbedaan itu adalah, di dalam tulisan
akademik:
1. Terdapat struktur seperti bagian awal, tengah, dan
bagian akhir.
2. Selalu ada teori yang menjadi landasan dasar dalam
berargumen
Mengutip dan Mereferensi
Dalam membuat tulisan akademik kita membutuhkan sumber informasi yang
dijadikan referensi.

Sumber informasi dapat berbentuk: buku, artikel di jurnal atau prosiding, laporan
yang dipublikasikan.

This kind of information is useful in that it provides evidence, which may be in the
form of
theoretical ideas,
critical evaluations,
research findings, and
scholarly opinions
- to back up the points you are making.
Sumber informasi tersebut dapat dikelompokkan menjadi dua
kategori:

1. Kategori Primer
Primary sources relate to publicly available data, like historical
documents (e.g. a transcript of oral history, interview data), raw data
from an experiment, or demographic records.

2. Kategori sekunder
Secondary sources draw on these primary sources of data, but have
been produced for public consumption in the form of a journal article
or a chapter in an edited book.
Salah satu fitur di dalam tulisan akademik adalah menggunakan
literatur untuk mendukung ide kita.

Hal ini mensyaratkan kita untuk membaca secara mendalam agar


dapat menemukan sisi berbeda perdebatan dalam bidang yang
sedang diteliti.

Kita perlu untuk menunjukkan bukti eksplorasi literatur dengan


memasukkan penulis literatur dalam tulisan kita dan menyebutkan
pandangan mereka.

Teknik mengacu pada penulis dalam tulisan akademik sering disebut


mengutip (cite), mendokumentasikan (documenting), atau in-
text referencing.
Di dalam akademik, disiplin ilmu yang berbeda mempunyai konvensi
sendiri untuk menulis kutipan dari penulis literatur.

Salah satu konvensi yang paling umum adalah cara mengacu yang
dikemukakan oleh American Psychologic Association (APA).

Ada dua cara mengutip:


1. Di dalam badan kalimat: nama keluarga (surname atau family name)
diikuti dengan tahun literatur tersebut dipublikasikan di dalam tanda
kurung.

2. Di akhir kalimat: di dalam tanda kurung berisi nama keluarga (surname


atau family name) diikuti dengan tahun literatur tersebut dipublikasikan.
Contoh:
Tips mengutip penulis literatur

There is no rule concerning which citation method


whether citing authors in the body of a sentence or in
brackets is best.

Either method is fine. However, it is always useful for


the reader to provide variety when citing authors in
your assignment. So, try to alternate between these two
methods.
To avoid relying on the same verbs when introducing authors into
your sentence, as in the case of McDonald (1992) says or
Anderson (2003) states, a list of verbs is provided to add
variety to your sentence embedded
describes defies;citations.
delves deeper reminds; responds
examines; explains; explores; echoes is clear that; was clear reports; reveals
feels; felt that on says; sees
focuses on maintains; mentions states; suggests
goes further notes summarises; supports
holds that observes tells; tells of
insists; includes; identifies points out; points to
qualifies
prefers; poses
speaks of
recalls; recounts
states; suggests
refers to
summarises; supports
reminds; responds
tells; tells of
reports; reveals
touches on
says; sees
verifies
Shows
writes that
touches on
refers to
If there are two or more authors with the same
surname, regardless of year of publication, include their
first initials to distinguish the publications.
If there are two or more publications written by the
same author in the same year, then add the letter a
immediately after the year of the fi rst publication
mentioned in the text, and add the letter b after the
second, and so on. Ensure the same detail is refl ected
in your Reference List.

Example
McMillan (1992a) illustrates cross-cultural awareness in
organisations, while
McMillan (1992b) argues for the significance of gender in
cross-cultural awareness.
When stating the same author twice in a single paragraph, the year
only needs mentioning the first time in the paragraph (unless it
could be confused with another reference, such as in the case of
publications written by the same author in the same year).

Example
The notion of anger has been debated for centuries (Wilkinson,
1976). Indeed, Wilkinson points out that.

For works with no identifiable date, include n.d. in brackets.


Example
The notion of anger has been debated for centuries (Wilkinson, n.d.).
When citing a publication written by three to five authors, for the
first text citation, include all names. On subsequent citations,
state the first author followed by et al., which is a Latin
abbreviation for et als, meaning and others.

Example
In the body of a sentence
According to Slater et al. (1978, p. 120), it is important to establish
the grounds of the argument.

In brackets
It is important to establish the grounds of the argument (Slater et
al. 1978, p. 120).
For works of six or more authors, for all citations, including the first,
include the first authors surname followed by et al.

In the case of secondary citations, that is when a source you are


using cites someone elses work which is the work you want to
include, but you do not have access to the original document it is
important to acknowledge both the original source and the source
you have access to. When documenting both sources in brackets,
use as cited in before the secondary source.

Example
Riechters (1984, as cited in Smith, 2003) study highlights how
business models offer a framework for understanding commercial
mechanisms.
Meletakkan Gagasan Penulis di dalam Kalimat Kita

It is important to be able to explain the ideas of authors


in your own words because this shows you understand
the concepts and opinions.

There are two approaches to putting authors ideas into


your own words: summarising and paraphrasing.
Summarising
Summarising involves selecting out some key features and then using those to create a shortened
version of the authors prose.

Examples
Children spend a very large proportion of their daily lives in school. They go there to learn, not only
in a narrow academic sense, but in the widest possible interpretation of the word about
themselves, about being a person within a group of others, about the community in which they live,
and about the world around them. Schools provide the setting in which such learning takes place.
Leyden, S. (1985). Helping the child of exceptional ability. London: Croom Helm, page 38.

Summaries
Author citation in the body of the sentence
As Leyden (1985) points out, schools are places for children to learn about life, themselves, other
people, as well as academic information.

Author citation in brackets


Schools are places for children to learn about life, themselves, other people, as well as academic
information (Leyden, 1985).
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing means to restate information using
different words. Unlike summarising though,
paraphrasing focuses less on shortening and
condensing the information. Paraphrasing aims to
rewrite the information by drawing on different words
and phrases.

Before you begin to paraphrase, it is REALLY


IMPORTANT to build-up your OWN IDEA of the
information or try to develop a picture in your mind, and
then use this as a model to help FRAME or GUIDE your
paraphrase of the authors idea.
Examples
Children spend a very large proportion of their daily lives in school. They go there to learn,
not only in a narrow academic sense, but in the widest possible interpretation of the word
about themselves, about being a person within a group of others, about the community in
which they live, and about the world around them. Schools provide the setting in which such
learning takes place.
Leyden, S. (1985). Helping the child of exceptional ability. London: Croom Helm, page 38.

Paraphrasing
Author citation in the body of the sentence
As Leyden (1985) points out, schools are places where children spend a significant amount of
time. Beyond merely going to school to learn academic information, Leyden argues that
learning occurs within a far wider context as children also learn about who they are, by being
in groups, their local community, as well as the wider world which surrounds them. Hence,
schools offer the settings to facilitate childrens learning about a great many things.
Author citation in brackets
Schools are places where children spend a signifi cant amount of time (Leyden, 1985). Beyond
merely going to school to learn academic information, learning occurs within a far wider
Copying and Changing a Few Words Not
Paraphrasing
As already highlighted, it is vital that you create enough
distinction between your paraphrased version and the
authors version.

Commonly, however, many students do not make


enough of a difference between their words and the
authors. In some cases, for instance, they may copy
large phrases from the original, and only change a few
words.
Example
Capital represents human creations that are used in the production of goods and services. We often
distinguish between human capital and physical capital. Human capital consists of the knowledge and
skills people develop (through education and formal or on-the-job training) that enhance their ability
to produce, such as the taxi drivers knowledge of the citys streets or the surgeons knowledge of the
human body. Physical capital consists of buildings, machinery, tools, and other manufactured items that
are used to produce goods and services. Physical capital includes the drivers cab, the surgeons scalpel,
the ten-ton press used to print Newsweek, and the building where your economics class meets.
McEachern, W.A. (1991). Economics: A contemporary introduction (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-
Western, page 3.

Copying and changing a few words Unacceptable paraphrasing


Capital signifies human products that are utilised in the creation of goods and services (McEachern,
1991). Human capital comprises knowledge and skills that people develop (through education and
onthe-
job training) to enhance their capacity to produce. In contrast, physical capital comprises buildings,
machinery, tools, and other manufactured items that are utilised to produce goods and services
(McEachern). The paraphrased version has only substituted individual words, as follow
represents = signifies ; creations = products ; production = creation
ability = capacity; used = utilized; consist of = comprises
Acceptable Paraphrasing
Capital is an economic concept referring to the things humans make, which are
then used in the production of goods and services (McEachern, 1991, p. 3).
This broad concept can be divided into human as well as physical capital, as
McEachern illsutrates. Indeed, human capital focuses on the products pertaining
to individuals skills and expertise, which function to improve individuals
production capacity. This type of capital can be gained through some form of
education and/or training. In contrast, physical capital involves the kinds of tools
and equipment, including buildings that are central to providing goods and
services.
Membuat Petikan (quotation)
In addition to using authors ideas in your writing by putting
their ideas into your own words, via summarizing and
paraphrasing, you can also embed authors ideas using
quotations.

A quotation is an exact copy of the words that someone else


has written or said. These words are placed within quotation
marks , which are also referred to as speech marks.

In addition to documenting the authors surname and year of


publication, as with all citations of others work in accordance
with APA referencing, you also need to include the page
number where the quotation was located.
Tips membuat petikan
1. Type the exact wording, spelling, and punctuation of the original source,
including American spelling.
2. If there are errors in the original, put the Latin word sic after the errors in
square brackets to indicate that this was how the words appeared in their
original location
Example
Braum (1999, p. 125) argues that there is no way to determines [sic] moral laws.

3. For publications without page numbers, such as online documents (excluding


those accessed through Acrobat Reader where page numbers are often specif
ed as they appear on the printed page), use paragraph numbers, indicated by
para.
Example
As noted by Handleman and Brown (1995, para. 8),
4. If you need to add words into a quotation for clarifi cation, place the
additional words in square brackets.
Example
The PBRF [Performance Based Research Fund] ensures that tertiary
institutions are able to deliver robust research portfolios within a team of
professional, and internationally reputed, researchers (Smith, 2004, p. 501).

5. If you need to remove details from a quotation, replace the words removed
with three dots, referred to as ellipses. This is a useful tool to include when
you want to incorporate a quotation into your sentence, but some of it is
irrelevant or too detailed for your assignment.
Example
Jones (2001, p. 115) stated that the placebo effect disappeared when all
the relevant behaviours were studied.
6. For quotations of 40 or more words, indent the whole quotation
(by about 5 spaces) as a block of text, and remove the
quotation marks.
Example
In respect of social behaviour, there are interesting American
findings that computer game play can promote high levels of
family involvement, reviving patterns of family togetherness in
leisure that, for many, seemed to Forhave diminished
block quotes, or died out with
the bracketed
the advent of television. (Durkin,information
1995, p.appears
71) outside the full stop.
7. For secondary quotations, or quotations that are cited in another
source, providing that the original is not available, both sources
must be mentioned. When documenting both sources in
brackets, use as cited in before the secondary source.
Example
In the body of the sentence
Smith (2003, p. 111), in reporting a study conducted by Reichter
(1984, p. 99), highlights how commercialisation leads to four major
outcomes.

In brackets
Riechters (1984, p. 99, as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 111) study
highlights how commercialisation leads to four major outcomes.
Menulis Daftar Pustaka
Having referred to sources by author in the body of your
assignment, you will also need to provide a detailed list
of these sources at the end of your assignment.

If you are using APA conventions, then this is referred to


as a Reference List and is headed up References
1. APA follows an author-date style for listing references
at the end of your assignment. This involves placing
the authors surname fi rst, followed by initials. With
two or more authors, an ampersand, &, is required
before the last author. The publication date appears in
brackets, with a full stop after it.
Title of book, chapter, or article.
2. When there are more than six authors, list the fi rst six
followed by et al. for the remaining authors.
Example
Bligh, T., Johnson, P., Quok, S. K., Smart, G., Masters, Y., Tressler, U.,
et al. (1999).

3. If there is no individual author, but an organisation has created


the document, include the organisation as the author.
Example
Ministry of Consumer Affairs. (1999). Pyramid schemes.
When the author is also the publisher, avoid
Wellington, New Zealand: Author.
duplicating information by substituting the
name of the publisher with Author.
4. When no author information is available, place the publication
title in the author position, followed by year of publication,
location, and publishers name. Retain formatting of the title,
including italics.
Example
Significance of the Human Rights Act 1993. (2000). Wellington,
New Zealand: Human Rights Commission.

5. When referencing a book, you need the book title, with only the
first word of the title capitalised, and thereafter, the first word
after a colon or dash in the title. Book titles are italicised.
6. When referencing chapters in edited books, include the authors
of the chapter, year of book publication, and title of the
chapter.
. List the names of the editors in the order of fi rst initial followed
by last name, and place the abbreviation (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the
editor or editors names.
. Italicise (or underline) the book title only.
. Include the page numbers of the chapter in brackets after the
book title, but before the full stop.
7. When referencing journal articles, italicise or underline the
journal title and its volume number.
. Capitalise all main words in the journal title.
. Put the issue or part number in brackets, immediately after the
volume number.
. Page numbers are the last piece of information given, followed by
a full stop.
8. Newspaper Articles (author and no author)
Brown, K. (1998, March 15). Health Ministry at loggerheads with
Pharmac. The Herald, p. 2.
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure.
(1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

9. Conference Proceedings
Bowker, N., & Tuffi n, K. (2002). Users with disabilities social and
economic development through online access.
In M. Boumedine (Ed.), Proceedings of the IASTED International
Conference on Information and Knowledge Sharing (pp. 122-
127). Anaheim, CA: ACTA Press.
Referensi
Seluruh bahan di atas diambil dari buku
Workshop Penulisan Publikasi Ilmiah
di Institut Teknologi Sumatera (ITERA)
Bandar Lampung, 19-20 Desember 2016

Teknik Penulisan Makalah


Ilmiah Bidang Informatika
Oleh: Rinaldi Munir

43
Struktur Makalah Ilmiah
Secara umum, makalah ilmiah (baik di jurnal, prosiding, paper conference) terdiri dari:
Title
List of authors
Affiliation
Abstract
Keywords
Main text
Introduction
Literature Study
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References
TITLE OF PAPER
List of author(s)
Affiliation and address
E-mail of author(s)

ABSTRACT METHODS

Keywords:

INTRODUCTION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION
RELATD WORKS/LITERATURE STUDY
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES
Antara satu jurnal/prosiding dengan jurnal/prosiding lainnya
mungkin berbeda nama-nama strukturnya.

Misalnya, di jurnal A bagian Introduction diberi nama


Background, Conclusion diberi nama Summary.

Related works dapat dimasukkan ke dalam bagian Introduction


atau ditulis dalam bagian Literature Study setelah Introduction.

Teori atau konsep-konsep yang fundamental (studi literatur)


yang terkait dapat dimasukkan ke dalam Related Works atau
sebagai bagian tersendiri setelah Introduction
Title
Judul (title) adalah bagian yang terpenting dalam sebuah
makalah, sangat menentukan ketertarikan seseorang untuk
membacanya, misalnya apakah sesuai dengan topik risetnya.

Merupakan pintu utama untuk masuk ke dalam sebuah makalah.


Jika orang tertarik dengan judul, maka ia akan membaca abstrak,
selanjutnya akan membaca Introduction, dst.

Judul seharusnya dibuat sedemikian rupa sehingga mudah untuk


diindeks dan dicari oleh mesin pencari (misalnya Google).
Judul sebaiknya bersifat:
attractive : menarik minat orang untuk membaca makalah lebih jauh
effective: sesingkat mungkin, tidak mengandung singkatan kecuali akronim yang sudah umum.
informative: memberikan informasi yang menjelaskan atau menerangkan bagi peneliti lain yang
mencari topik riset yang sejenis

Sebuah judul sebaiknya megandung frasa yang mudah diindeks dan ditemukan
oleh mesin pencari
Contoh:
- Security Analysis of Selective Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos and CBC-like Mode
- Secured Video Streaming Development on Smartphones with Android Platform
- Arithmetic Coding Modification to Compress SMS
- A Chaos-based Fragile Watermarking Method in Spatial Domain for Image
Authentication
Gunakan frasa yang menggambarkan distinctive feature dari makalah
tersebut, dan membedakannya dengan makalah lain yang sejenis
Contoh:
- Vehicle Detection and Tracking Based on Corner and Lines Adjacent Detection Features
- Road Detection System based on RGB Histogram Filterization and Boundary Classifier
- Full-Text Search on Data with Access Control using Generalized Suffix Tree
- Scenes Categorization based on Appears Objects Probability
- A New String Matching Algorithm Based on Logical Indexing
- IntelligEnSia based Electricity Consumption Prediction Analytics using Regression Method
- Dynamic Path Planning for Mobile Robots with Cellular Learning Automata
- Image Description using Radial Associated Laguerre Moments
- Hybrid animation model of multi-object in fractal form based on metamorphic
interpolation and partitioned-random iteration algorithms
Author and Affiliation
Yang dimaksud dengan penulis makalah adalah orang yang:
- memiliki kontribusi dalam penelitian yang menghasilkan makalah tersebut
- berkontribusi dalam membimbing, me-review, membuat draft makalah, dan
merevisi makalah

Tidak termasuk dalam kategori penulis adalah orang yang membetulkan


grammar, ejaan, membantu mengetikkan makalah, dsb.

Jika penulis lebih dari satu orang, maka urutan penulis sesuai dengan urutan
kontributor dari yang paling utama hingga kontributor utama

Tidak perlu mencantumkan gelar (Dr, Prof, M.Sc,. M.Kom, dll)


Di dalam bagian ini juga dituliskan afiliasi (institusi
penulis), alamat afiliasi, dan alamat e-mail para penulis.
Biografi penulis sering juga disediakan tempatnya pada
bagian akhir jurnal.
Abstract
Setelah membaca judul, maka abstrak adalah bagian selanjutnya yang
menentukan bagi pembaca apakah tertarik membaca makalah atau
dilewatkan saja.
Abstrak berisi ringkasan makalah yang lebih lengkap daripada judul,
panjangnya max 200 kata dan ditulis dalam satu paragraph saja.
Abstrak berisi:
- pendahuluan (opsional)
- apa masalah yang dikerjakan (wajib ada)
- metode yang digunakan (wajib ada)
- apa hasil-hasil yang telah dicapai (wajib ada)
- penutup (opsional)
Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam menulis abstrak:
Kalimat-kalimat di dalam abstrak harus kalimat baru, bukan hasil
copy-paste dari isi makalah.
Kalimat-kalimat di dalam abstrak mengandung frasa penting
untuk memudahkan diindeks dan ditemukan oleh mesin pencari.
Jangan memasukkan referensi di dalam abstrak
Jangan memasukkan persamaan atau simbol-simbol rumus di
dalam abstrak
Penutup bisa berisi kesimpulan, kelebihan dan kekurangan solusi
yang kita hasilkan, atau implikasi yang timbl datri penelitian kita
Kata kunci (keywords) harus pernah disebutkan di dalam abstrak
masalah
pendahuluan

AbstractEzStego is a steganography algorithm to embed the secret


message in the GIF images. The message is embedded into indices of
sorted color palette of the images. EzStego is a sequential embedding
type of stego-algorithm. There is no key required for embedding, so metode
anyone that know the algorithm can extract the message. For
improving security, a modified EzStego algorithm is proposed. Bits of
the message are embedded randomly in the image. Locations of
embedding is generated from a random permutation which need an
initial value as stego key. Before embedding, the message is
encrypted with random bit which is generated by a chaos map. Based
on experiments, the modified EzStego is more secure than the
original EzStego, because anyone who has no information on the key
can not extract the message from the stego-images.
KeywordsEzStego, GIF images, chaos, random, secure.Hasil dan kesimpulan
yang dicapai
*)

mber: Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Tuntunan Praktis Menulis Makalah untuk Jurnal Ilmiah Internasional, ITB
*)

mber: Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Tuntunan Praktis Menulis Makalah untuk Jurnal Ilmiah Internasional, ITB
*)

mber: Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Tuntunan Praktis Menulis Makalah untuk Jurnal Ilmiah Internasional, ITB
Introduction
Bagian ini berisi pengantar untuk memahami masalah yang akan diselesaikan.
Dimulai dari hal-hal yang umum dan diakhiri dengan hal yang khusus berkaitan
dengan topik riset yang dikerjakan.
Secara umum, struktur Intruduction berisi bagian-bagian berikut:
1. Konteks dan area penelitian secara umum
Uraikan di sini latar belakang permasalahan, berisi hal-hal yang menimbulkan
munculnya masalah penelitian yang dibahas,

2. Perkenalkan topik masalah yang diteliti


Jelaskan juga mengapa masalah tersebut penting dan menarik untuk
dikerjakan
3. Apa yang sudah dilakukan orang lain tentang topik masalah
tersebut?
Jelaskan apa yang sudah dikerjakan oleh peneliti-peneliti lain sebelumnya
terkait topik masalah tersebut, mereka pakai metode/pendekatan apa, kalau
perlu jelaskan juga kelebihan dan kekurangannya sehingga terdapat peluang
masalah yang masih ada untuk diselesaikan.

4. Pendekatan penyelesaian masalah yang anda gunakan


Jelaskan secara garis besar pendekatan penyelesaian masalah yang anda
gunakan, berdasarkan asumsi/hipotesis yang anda nyatakan.

5. Sistematika pembahasan
Jelaskan susunan pembahasan materi yang akan disampakan di dalam
makalah.
Contoh konteks dan area penelitian secara umum

Besides of cryptography, information security can be done


using steganography. Steganography means hidden writing.
Steganography is the art and science of hiding message in the
communication by embedding the secret message into a cover
media (usually digital data such as image, video, or audio). Goal
of steganography is hiding existence of message in the cover.
By using steganography, transmission of secret information can
be done securely, so that the presence of the information cant
be known from the third party.
Images are common cover in message hiding. The message
can be embedded into the image in spatial domain or transform
domain. In the spatial domain, the message is embedded into
pixel values, meanwhile in the transform domain the message is
embedded into coefficient values such as discrete cosine
transform (DCT) coeficients.
Contoh memperkenalkan topik masalah yang diteliti

One of popular steganography technique in spatial domain is


the least significant bit (LSB) embedding. In this technique, bits
of the message are embedded into LSB of pixel values.
However, majority of based-LSB algorithms use images in
bitmap (BMP) format. In the bitmap format, pixel values
represent graylevel of the pixel. The message is embedded
directly by replace LSB of pixel values with bits of the message.

Actually, besides of bitmap images, there are another popular


image formats such as GIF images, but only a few
steganography research about GIF image. GIF (Graphics
Interchange Format) image, a kind of indexed image, was
introduced as an image format by Compuserve in 1987. An
indexed image uses a pallete of up to 256 colors from the 24-bit
RGB color space with values in the range [0,1]. The pixel values
represent index to a pallete row. Color of the pixel is
combination of each channel red (R), green (G), and blue (B) in
the pallete row.
ntoh apa yang sudah dilakukan orang lain tentang topik masalah terseb

One of the most popular steganography algorithm for GIF images has
been proposed by Machado (2002). Her algorithm is called EzStego. In
order to minimize color degradation, the palette is sorted so that the
difference between two adjacent color is minimized. EzStego embeds
message into the LSB of indices (pixel values) pointing to the sorted
palette. Besides of EzStego, there is another steganographic algorithm for
GIF images, i.e. S-Tool. S-Tool was developed by Andy Brown. S-Tool
encrypt the message before embedding with various encryption algorithm
such as DES and IDEA (Johnson, 1998).
The disadvantage of EzStego is there is no key required in embedding
process, so anyone who know that the stego-image is made using EzStego
can extract the message.
toh apa yang sudah dilakukan orang lain tentang topik masalah tersebu
toh apa yang sudah dilakukan orang lain tentang topik masalah terseb

Penelitian tentang pengenalan wajah (face recognition) sudah banyak


dilakukan oleh para ilmuwan. Wildan dkk (1998) telah
mengembangkan metode pengenalan wajah dengan jaringan syaraf
tiruan, namun tingkat keberhasilan pengenalan wajah hanya sekitar
65%. Metode yang lebih advanced adalah menggunakan kombinasi
jaringan syaraf tiruan dan otomata (Peter, 2002). Metode ini dapat
meningkatkan tingkat pengenalan wajah, namun waktu komputasinya
relatif lama. Oleh karena itu diperlukan sebuah metode yang tingkat
keberhasilan yang tinggi namun waktu kompuatsinya cepat.
Contoh Pendekatan penyelesaian masalah yang anda gunakan

In this paper, we present a modified EzStego for improve


security. In the modified EzStego, the pixels for message
embedding are chosen randomly using a random permutation
that seeded with a secret key. To make the embedding more
secure, the secret message is encrypted before it is inserted in
the image. The secret message is encrypted by XOR-ing it with
random bits that is generated from a chaos system. Thus, there
are two keys needed, one for a seed for the random permutation,
and another key for encryption. The chaos system is chosen
because it is sensitive to very little change of initial values. This
characteristics is important on security, because it makes the
exhaustive key search becomes more difficult.
Contoh sistematika pembahasan

This paper is organized into five sections. The first section is


introduction. The second section will explain some study of
literatures such as GIF images, chaos system that called logistic
map, and an original EzStego algorithm. In the third section, we
propose a modified EzStego algorithm that improve security of
original EzStego. The fourth section describe the experiments
and discuss the results. Finally, in last section we give
conclusion and suggest future works.
Related Works/Literature Study
Studi literatur dapat berisi:
- Konsep/teori yang fundamental yang terkait dengan
penelitian
- Review (ulasan singkat) beberapa penelitian terkait
(related works), termasuk kelebihan dan
kekurangannya.

Dengan memaparkan related works, kita menempatkan


posisi penelitian kita diantara penelitian yang sudah
ada. Dengan demikian terlihat state of the art
penelitian-penelitian yang relevan dikaitkan dengan
Contoh penelitian terkait:
Methods
Bagian ini menjelaskan metode yang kita usulkan dalam
menyelesaikan masalah penelitian (proposed method).

Dapat menggunakan bagan/diagram untuk menjelaskan


metode yang kita usulkan.

Jika perlu menuliskan algoritma, maka algoritma ditulisa


dlaam notasi pseudo-code atau dalam bentuk uraian
deksriptif.
Results and Discussion
Bagian ini memaparkan hasil-hasil eksperimen.
Dijelaskan juga data uji yang digunakan di dalam
eksperimen
Hasil-hasil eksperimen dapat ditampilkan dalam bentuk
gambar, grafik, dan tabel
Diskusi hasil-hasil eksperimen dapat digabung pada
bagian ini atau ditulis dalam bagian terpisah sesudah
Results.
Contoh hasil-hasil eksperimen digabung dengan diskusi
hasil-hasil eksperimen:
Penting untuk memilih tipe grafik:
1. Grafik batang untuk memperlihatkan perbandingan
2. Grafik garis untuk memperlihatkan kecenderungan
(trend)
3. Grafik pie untuk memperlihatkan persentase
Conclusion
Bagian ini merangkum simpulan dari hasil-hasil
penelitian, yetrmasuk kelebihan dan kekurangan.
Juga memasukkan saran penelitian selanjutnya (future
works)
Acknowledgment
Bagian ini opsional, memaparkan:
1. Sponsor penelitian
2. Ucapan terima kasih kepada pihak-pihak yang
membantu penelitian (namun bukan anggota
peneliti), membantu proofreading, orang-orang yang
diajak berdiskusi, reviewer yang telah memberi saran
konstruktif, dan sebagainya.
mber: Dwi Hendratmo Widyantoro, Penulisan Makalah Ilmiah, STEI-ITB
References
Semua referensi yang dirujuk di dalam makalah
dituliskan pada bagian ini.
Cara penulisan referensi bergantung pada aturan jurnal
atau prosiding yang dituju.
Daftar Pustaka
1. Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Tuntunan Praktis Menulis
Makalah untuk Jurnal Ilmiah Internasional, ITB.
2. Dwi Hendratmo Widyantoro, Penulisan Makalah Ilmiah,
STEI-ITB
3. Ismunandar, Mempublikasikan Hasil Penelitian

Minat Terkait