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COMIMSA Module 6

MODULE 6
Metal Properties and
Destructive Testing
COMIMSA Module 6

1. Introduction
Today there are thousands of different metals available in the world.
These may differ not only in their composition, but also in the manner in
which they are manufacturing.
The WI should be know the mechanical and chemical properties, that may
vary for the composition.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS

Strength

Ductility

Hardness

Toughness

Fatigue Strength
COMIMSA Module 6

2. Mechanical Properties
Strength

The ability of a material to withstand an applied load

Tensile Strength

Shear Strength

Torsional Strength

Impact Strength

Fatigue Strength
COMIMSA Module 6

2. Mechanical Properties
Strength
The tensile strength is described as the ability of a metal to resist failure
when subjected to a tensile, or pulling, load. This is usually expressed in
two different ways:

Ultimate Tensile Strength - UTS

Yield Strength
UTS is the maximum carrying capacity of that metal, or the strength of that
metal at the exact point when failure occurs.

The Yield strength is the point on the change to Elastic to Plastic behavior.
Then the Ys is the strength level at which the materials response to
loading changes form elastic to plastic.
For CS, there is direct relationship between tensile strength and hardness.
COMIMSA Module 6

2. Mechanical Properties
Strength
COMIMSA Module 6

2. Mechanical Properties
Ductility
Is the ability of a material to deform, or stretch, under load without failing.

Is a important property of a metal because it can affect whether the metal


fails gradually or suddenly when loaded.
As temperature increases, metal ductility increases, and viceversa.

High ductility metal ductile

Low ductility metal brittle

The strength and ductility of a rolling metal


is greatest in the direction of rolling. In the
transverse direction of rolling, the strength
is reduced a 30%, and the ductility a 50%.
COMIMSA Module 6

2. Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Is the ability of a material to resist indentation, or penetration.
Various tests can be performed using the basic technique of indentation;
they differ in the type and shape of indenter used as well as the magnitude
of the applied load.
For carbon steel:

Hardness Strength
COMIMSA Module 6

2. Mechanical Properties
Toughness
Is the ability of a material to absorb energy. Other term notch toughness.

The difference between metals of low and high toughness is:

High Toughness metal ductile

Low Toughness metal brittle

As is the case of the ductility, the toughness of a metal will change as the
temperature is changed.
COMIMSA Module 6

2. Mechanical Properties
Fatigue Strength
Is defined as the strength necessary to resist failure under repeated load
applications.
The endurance limit is the maximum stress at which no failure will occur,
no matter how many cycles the load is applied.
Fatigue strength, like impact strength, is dependent upon the surface
geometry. Weld surface discontinuities, can affect it.
COMIMSA Module 6

3. Chemical Properties of metals


Mechanical properties of metals can be altered by the application of
various mechanical and thermal treatments. However, these properties can
be changed if the chemical composition is changed.

As well as, the chemical composition of metals will have an effect on its
corrosion resistance and weldability.
COMIMSA Module 6

3. Chemical Properties of metals


Alloys groups
Metals: Steel, Aluminum, Nickel and Copper.

Steel alloys:

Plain carbon steels: Fe, C, Mn, P, S and Si

Low-alloy steels (high strength): Ni, Cr, Mn, Si, V, Co, Al, Mo and B.

High alloy steels: SS austenitic, martensitic, ferritic, precipitation


hardening and the duplex grades
COMIMSA Module 6

3. Chemical Properties of metals


Effects of chemical elements in steel
Carbon: The most important alloying element in steel, present up to 2%.
Increment the carbon, increase the hardness and tensile strength, but
reduce the weldability.

Sulfur: Undesirable impurity in the steel, rather an alloying element. In


mounts exceeding 0.05% it tends to cause brittleness and reduce
weldability. 0.10 to 0.30% of sulfur improve the machinability.

Phosphorus: Undesirable impurity in the steel. It is found in mounts up to


0.04%. In mounts exceeding it tends to cause embrittlement.
COMIMSA Module 6

3. Chemical Properties of metals


Effects of chemical elements in steel
Silicon: Usually only small amounts (0.20%) in rolled steel. Tends to
strengthen the steel. Some filler metals may contain up to 1% to provide
cleaning and deoxidation.

Manganese: At least 0.30% in the steel for: 1).- Deoxidation; 2).- Prevents
the formation of inclusions of iron sulfide; and Promotes increasing the
hardenability.

Chromium: Increases the hardenability and improves the corrosion


resistance of alloys. At least 12% in SS.

Molybdenum: Increases the hardenability and elevated temperature


strength. To SS improve pitting corrosion resistance.
COMIMSA Module 6

3. Chemical Properties of metals


Effects of chemical elements in steel
Nickel: Increases the hardenability, as well as improves the toughness and
ductility.

Aluminum: in small amounts is a deoxidizer. Improved toughness.

Vanadium: Increases the hardenability of the steel.

Niobium (Columbium): Like to Vanadium, increases the hardenability.

Dissolved gases: H2, O2 and N2, dissolved in molten steel, can embrittle
steel or cause porosity.
COMIMSA Module 6

3. Chemical Properties of metals


Alloy Group
Aluminum alloys: Largest group of nonferrous alloys used in the
metalworking industry.

Aluminum have good strength, light weight, high thermal and electrical
conductivity and good corrosion resistance.

To improve the hardness and strength, there are two categories:

Heat treatable: Precipitation hardening

Nonheat treatable: Cold working


COMIMSA Module 6

3. Chemical Properties of metals


Alloy Group
Nickel alloys: It has excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation at high
temperatures. These alloys have a percentages in the 60 to 75%.

Monel 400, Inconel 600 and Hastelloy C-275

Copper alloys: Have a high electrical conductivity.

Is 3 times more dense than aluminum and has a thermal and electrical
conductivities wich are nearly 1-1/2 times greater.
COMIMSA Module 6

4. Destructive Testing

About destructive testing, the welding inspector should:

Understand some of the methods used in testing

Results they provide

Evaluate the results obtained


COMIMSA Module 6

4. Tensile Testing

Some properties that can be determined as a result of this test are:

Ultimate tensile strength


Yield Strength

Ductility

Percent elongation

Percent reduction of area


Modulus of Elasticity
Proportional Limit

Elastic Limit

Toughness
COMIMSA Module 6

4. Tensile Testing

Tensile Specimens

Remove from the area in the coupon indicated by the code

Preparation according to de code.

The entire length of the reduced section must be of a uniform cross


section.

Cross section should be of a configuration that can be easily


measured

Surface of the reduced section should be free of surface irregularities


COMIMSA Module 6

4. Tensile Testing
COMIMSA Module 6

4. Tensile Testing

Tensile Test

Once properly measured and marked the specimen is placed in the


appropriate grips of the tensile machine.

Connect extensometer to the specimen at the reduced section.

The tensile load is applied at some steady rate.

The values are plotted from the test data, the result is referred as
stress - strain diagram .
COMIMSA Module 6

4. Tensile Testing

Tensile Specimens

Area Calculation

The two most common cross sectional configurations for tensile specimens
are:

Configuration Area Calculation


Circular A = r2 = d2/4
Rectangular A=wxt

Gauge Length

Mark the gage length in the reduced section with a punch marks.

The most common gauge lengths are 1 in and 2 in


COMIMSA Module 6

4. Tensile Testing
Tensile Results
Calculations
Metal ductility can be determined as:

Percent of Elongation
Percent Reduction of Area

Parameter Calculation
Elongation (Lf Lo)/ Lo x100
Reduction of Area (Ao Af)/ Ao x100

Tensile Strength

Parameter Calculation
Tensile Strength Load /Area
COMIMSA Module 6

4. Tensile Testing

Tensile Results
Stress - Strain Diagram
COMIMSA Module 6

5. Hardness Testing

Hardness can be described as the ability of a material to resist penetration.

Hardness is one of the most measurable features of a metal.

The three most common types of hardness test are:


Brinell
Rockwell
Microhardness
COMIMSA Module 6

5. Hardness Testing

General Method

1) Surface preparation

2) Mounting on the hardness tester

3) Load application

4) Indentation Measurement

5) Hardness calculation
COMIMSA Module 6

5. Hardness Testing

Hardness Type Load (kgf) Indenter size ASTM Standard


Brinell 500 3000 5 -10mm ball E10
B 100 1/16 ball
Rockwell E18
C 150 Diamond
Vickers Diamond
Microhardness 100 500 g
Knoop Diamond
COMIMSA Module 6

5. Hardness Testing

In the Brinell test, the penetration is measured.


Can be determined for:
Size and type of indenter
Applied load
Diameter indented.

Brinell Hardness (BHN) multiplied by 500 is approximately equal the tensile


strength of the carbon steel.
COMIMSA Module 6

5. Hardness Testing

In the Rockwell Hardness.

A scale
B scale
C scale
Other scales.
COMIMSA Module 6

5. Hardness Testing

In the Microhardness Test.

Vickers
Knoop
COMIMSA Module 6

5. Hardness Testing
COMIMSA Module 6

6. Toughness Testing

Toughness can be described as metals ability to absorb energy.

Material absorbs energy when a load is applied very rapidly as in an impact


especially when there is a notch present on the surface.

A very important factor in impact testing is test temperature.

The most commonly notch test used is the Charpy V Notch test .

The standard specimen is a bar that measure 55 mm long and 10 mm by


10 mm square, one of the long sides has a V shapes notch 2 mm deep.
COMIMSA Module 6

6. Toughness Testing
COMIMSA Module 6

6. Toughness Testing

Results

Energy Absorption (foot-pounds)

Shear (%)

Lateral Expansion (mils)


COMIMSA Module 6

6. Toughness Testing

In addition to the Charpy test, other tests can be used to measure a metals
notch toughness include:

Drop weight nil ductility


Explosion bulge
Dynamic tear
Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD).
COMIMSA Module 6

7. Soundness Testing

Soundness tests are routinely used for the qualification of welding


procedures and welders.

There are three general types of soundness tests:

Bend
Face
Root
Side

Nick Break

Fillet weld break


COMIMSA Module 6

7. Soundness Testing

Soundness tests are routinely used for the qualification of welding


procedures and welders.

There are three general types of soundness tests:

Bend

Nick Break

Fillet weld break


COMIMSA Module 6

7. Soundness Testing
Bend Test

Face
Root
Side

Bend tests are normally performed using three types of test bend jig:
Guided Bend
Roller equipped guided bend
Wrap around guided bend
COMIMSA Module 6

7. Soundness Testing
Bend Test
COMIMSA Module 6

7. Soundness Testing

Bend Test
COMIMSA Module 6

7. Soundness Testing

Nick Break

This test is almost exclusively by the pipeline industry as described in API


1104.
COMIMSA Module 6

7. Soundness Testing

Fillet Weld Break Test

This is the only test required for


the qualification of tackers in
accordance with AWS D1.1.
COMIMSA Module 6

8. Fatigue Testing

This is a type of test which enables the determination of the fatigue


strength of a metal.

This test, help designer determine how well a metal will resist failure
when cyclically loaded in fatigue.

That loading could be planar bending, torsion, axial tension, axial


compression, or combinations of these.
COMIMSA Module 6

9. Destructive Tests for Chemical Properties

The chemical makeup of a metal determines to a great degree the


mechanical properties of that metal.

The three most common test methods are:

Spectrographic
Combustion
Wet Chemical Analysis

Another group of tests that can generally be classified as chemical tests are
corrosion tests.
COMIMSA Module 6

10. Metallographic Testing


Can be classified as either macroscopic (10 x or lower) or microscopic
(greater than 10 x).

In a macro specimen the cross section of a weld can be examined to


determine:
Depth of Fusion
Depth of Penetration
Effective Throat
Weld Soundness
Degree of Fusion
Presence of Weld Discontinuities
Weld Configuration
Number of Weld Passes
Etc.
COMIMSA Module 6

10. Metallographic Testing

Micro tests can determine features such as:

Microstructural constituents
Inclusions
Microscopic defects
Nature of cracking
Etc