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THIRD EDITION

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D.

Chapter 16
Blood

PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by


Dr. Howard D. Booth, Professor of Biology, Eastern Michigan University
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
About this Chapter

Composition of Blood
Plasma make up and roles
Various cell types, origin and roles
Red blood cells, hemoglobin & iron metabolism
How coagulation works

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Blood Components: Plasma Transports Solutes

Water, ions, trace elements


Gasses: O2 & CO2
Organic Molecules
Glucose
Nwastes
Proteins
Antibodies
Hormones

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Blood Components: Plasma Transports Solutes

Figure 16-1: Composition of blood


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Blood Components:
"Blood Count" % of Each Component

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16-2: The blood count
Blood Components: Cells

Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
O2 & CO2 transport
White Blood Cells (WBC)
Immune defense
Phagocytosis
Platelets: clotting

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Blood Components: Cells

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16-1: Composition of blood
Hematopoiesis: Blood Cell Formation

Mostly in bone marrow from stem cells


Rate regulated by cytokines & growth factors

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Hematopoiesis: Blood Cell Formation

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16-3: Hematopoiesis
Focus on RBCs:

Loose their nucleus


Cytoskeleton shape
Hemoglobin
Binds O2 in heme group
Binds some CO2 on globulin

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Focus on RBCs:

Figure 16-5c: Bone marrow


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Focus on RBCs:

Figure 16-7a, b: Bone marrow


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Iron Metabolism: Key to Hemoglobin O2 Transport

Figure 16-8: Iron metabolism


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Some Diseases of RBCs and O2 Transport

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 16-3: Causes of Anemia
Blood Components: Platelets
Coagulate, form plug, prevent blood loss
Formed by fragmentation from megakaryoctyes

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16-10c: Megakaryocytes and platelets
Overview of Hemostasis:
Clot Formation & Vessel Repair

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16-11: Overview of hemostasis and tissue repair
Hemostasis: Vasoconstriction & Plug Formation

Vasoconstriction
Platelet activation
Multiple factors
Positive feedback
Aggregation
Loose plug

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Hemostasis: Vasoconstriction & Plug Formation

Figure 16-12: Platelet plug formation


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Hemostasis: Coagulation & Clot Stabilization

Prothrombin
Ca++
Fibrinogen
Fibrin
Polymerization

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16-13: The coagulation cascade
Dissolving the Clot and Anticoagulants

Bleeding stopped
Vessel repair
Plasmin
Fibrinolysis
Clot dissolved

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Dissolving the Clot and Anticoagulants

Figure 16-14: Coagulation and fibrinolysis


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Coagulation and Disease
Hemophilia
Cardiovascular Diseases
Key problem clots block undamaged blood
vessels
Anticoagulants prevent coagulation
Keep platelets from adhering
Prevent fibrin coagulation
"Clot Busters": Prevent further clotting
Speed fibrinolysis
Limit tissue damage (heart, brain)
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Summary

Blood is about 50% plasma, water solvent &


solutes: ions, elements, gasses, proteins, wastes &
nutrients
White blood cells function in internal defense
Iron in hemoglobin is key to RBC transport of O2
Platelet activation initiates clot formation
Clotting prevents blood loss but is a problem in
cardiovascular disease

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings