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05/08/17 Security Level:

eRAN3.0 Data Transmission


Analysis Manual

LTE Performance Maintenance


Team 2012-03-05
www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential


Change History
Date Revision Description Author
Version
2011-04-07 Completed Zhu Xiyun (ID: 167826), Tong
the first draft. Changhua (ID: 107412)
2012-03-10 Adapted to Wei Zhan (ID: 128876)
eRAN3.0. Zhou Xiaoyong (ID: 151699)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 2


Technical Support Name List
Name Employee ID Contact Information
Ma Shougui 00151100 See Huawei telephone directory.
Zhang Jun 00152836 See Huawei telephone directory.
Wei Zhi 00128876 See Huawei telephone directory.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 3


Abstract
This slide describes methods of diagnosing and checking uplink (UL)
and downlink (DL) throughput faults, basic location and isolation
methods, and common fault location processes for TCP and non-TCP
problems. If a problem cannot be solved by using the solutions stated
in this document, send corresponding deliverables to Huawei
headquarters for further in-depth analysis.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 4


Contents
Symptoms of Throughput Faults

Obtaining Related Logs

Throughput Fault Location Concept and Procedure

Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms

Determining a TCP Fault or a Non-TCP Fault

Determining a TCP Fault

Determining a Non-TCP Fault

Throughput Fault Checklist and Deliverables

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 5


Symptoms of Throughput Faults
A throughout fault indicates that the UE throughput at the application layer or the
MAC layer is low or greatly fluctuates. The throughput fluctuation can be directly
observed by using the throughput measurement function of the Netmeter and
other tools.

Low throughput

The peak throughput in an outdoor test is more than 5% smaller than the baseline value and that in a
lab test cannot reach the baseline value.

The average throughput under the same path loss in a stationary test is more than 10% smaller than
the baseline value.

Compared with other competitors, the throughput under the same path loss is lower for more than 5%.
Throughput fluctuation

When the UE is stationary, the Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) fluctuates for more than 6
dB or the throughput fluctuates for more than 30%.

The throughput drop sharply.

The throughput intermittently drops.
The UL and DL throughput reference curves are provided on the next
page.

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UL Throughput Reference Value
The following gives the baseline value of the UL throughput test at Huawei
headquarters, which can be used to locate a problem.

Throughput at the bandwidth of 20 MHz Throughput at the bandwidth of 10 MHz

Note: OL: open-loop power control CL: closed-loop power control


The uplink capability and throughput of Cat 3 UE is the same as that of Cat 4 UE.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 7


DL Throughput Reference Value
The following table on the left describes the DL peak throughput baseline.

Peak Throughput
Bandwidth (Mbit/s)

CAT3 CAT4 CAT5


1.4M 7.019 7.019 7.019

3M 21.126 21.126 21.126

5M 36.073 36.073 36.073


10M 73.104 73.104 73.104
15M 102 109.712 109.712
20M 102 149.855 149.855

The table on the right describes the ratio of throughput to Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) on a fading
channel for Cat 5 UE at the bandwidth of 20 MHz in a single cell in a lab test. The baseline varies
between different UEs for about 5%. The number of radio blocks (RBs) increases and reduces
based on the bandwidth. The comparison is based on the maximum capabilities of different
category UEs.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 8


Contents
Symptoms of Throughput Faults

Obtaining Related Logs

Throughput Fault Location Concept and Procedure

Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms

Determining a TCP Fault or a Non-TCP Fault

Determining a TCP Fault

Determining a Non-TCP Fault

Throughput Fault Checklist and Deliverables

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 9


Obtaining Related Logs for Huawei Test UEs
Huawei test UEs provide perfect tracing functions and the throughput-
related data can be obtained in one-click mode on the Probe. If conditions
permit, use Huawei test UEs to locate throughput-related problems.

Probe: data tracing and


analysis software for
Huawei UEs

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 10


Obtaining Related Logs for Samsung UEs
If only Samsung UEs can be used, obtain related information by using the X-CAL.

X-CAL: data tracing and


analysis software for
Samsung UEs

E-1: LTE-S indicates that tracing items can be selected from the drop-down menu. E-2: CINR0 and CINR1
indicates the SINRs of two antenna ports.
E-3: Tx-Power indicates the current TX power of the UE. E-4: displays the BLERs of the UL and DL
channels. average number of RBs, and MCS order within the measurement period.
E-5: RSRP indicates the signal level received at the two antenna ports.

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Obtaining Related Logs by Using the
eNodeB Performance Monitoring
On the eNodeB: The monitoring functions on the M2000 are used to obtain
information or are used when the UE logs cannot be traced.

M2000: cell
performance
monitoring
and user
performance
monitoring

Choose Monitor > Signaling Trace > Signaling Trace Management > Cell Performance
Monitoring on the M2000 to query the RB utilization ratio, total throughput, cell interference
monitoring data, and number of UEs.
Choose Monitor > Signaling Trace > Signaling Trace Management > User Performance
Monitoring on the M2000 to query the power headroom, channel quality, throughput, and MCS
count number, and BLER.

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Obtaining Related Logs by Using the
eNodeB IFTS Tracing
If a fault cannot be located by using common fault location methods, make an in-depth
analysis on the problem. In this case, perform IFTS tracing and enter 33/49/132 in the
MAC layer Trace Field to trace internal scheduling information.

IFTS tracing
can trace TTI-
level data.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 13


Contents
Symptoms of Throughput Faults

Obtaining Related Logs

Throughput Fault Location Concept and Procedure



Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms


Determining a TCP Fault or a Non-TCP Fault

Determining a TCP Fault

Determining a Non-TCP Fault

Throughput Fault Checklist and Deliverables

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 14


Overall Process for Throughput Fault Location
Step 1: Check basis parameters and alarms. Check basic factors
affecting the throughput one by one.
Note 1: This type of check features low cost and must be preferentially used. If some factors are difficult for check,
leave these factors to subsequent steps. Check on each factor is deserved.
Note 2: Basic parameters include the UE subscription rate, UE capability, UE factor, UL CL power control, eNodeB
alarms, laptop, server performance, packet injection tool, license, and whether multi-UE is supported.
Step 2: Determine whether that is a TCP fault. Compare the TCP service
rate with he UDP service rate.
Note 1: Compared with UDP services, TCP services are sensitive to end-to-end packet loss, delay, and jitter.
Therefore, the TCP rate problem is closely related to the performance of the transmission equipment,
evolved packet core (EPC), UE, server, and laptop. Historical data shows that this type of problem accounts
for more than 70%.
Note 2: After a TCP fault is confirmed, subsequent operations are greatly different from those for a non-TCP fault.
Step 3: Determine a TCP fault. Check TCP parameters and use the
eNodeB TPE function and multi-point packet capture function to locate a
fault step by step.
Note: TCP parameters can be checked to determine a TCP fault; the TPE function can be used to check whether
that is a fault of a node above the eNodeB (S1 interface and above) or a fault of a node below the eNodeB;
the multi-point packet capture function is performed to locate in which segment the packet loss and out-of-
order packets occur.
Step 4: Determine a non-TCP fault. Recheck basic factors and
interference and send logs to R&D personnel for location.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 15


Contents
Symptoms of Throughput Faults

Obtaining Related Logs

Throughput Fault Location Concept and Procedure



Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms


Determining a TCP Fault or a Non-TCP Fault

Determining a TCP Fault

Determining a Non-TCP Fault

Throughput Fault Checklist and Deliverables

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 16


Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms (1/5)
Basic parameters Check Method (Specific Operations to be Described in this Document)

UE subscription rate The UE subscription rate can be viewed by performing S1 tracing or be observed on the UE side. Alternatively,
the UE subscription rate can be queried on the home subscriber server (HSS).
Query the UE capability by viewing the UE capability message. Generally, commercial UEs support category 2
UE capability and category 3. Huawei test UEs support category 4 and category 5. UEs of different categories support
different UL and DL throughput.
Individual factor of the UE Use other UEs of the same brand; use UEs of a different brand for test
Antenna of the UE If external antennas are used, you are advised to place two antennas vertically at a proper interval. If built-in
antennas are used, adjust the angle and location of the UE.
eNodeB alarm If an alarm is generated, try to clear it. If the alarm does not have clearance conditions, analyze whether the
alarm affects the throughput.
Whether multiple UEs are
Use the cell performance monitoring function of the eNodeB to check whether a cell has multiple UEs.
in the cell
Whether the throughput is The license certificate may restrict the total cell throughput and therefore the throughput is low. Run DSP
restricted by the license LICENSE to check the license status of the eNodeB.
The LTE system provides larger throughput and therefore requires servers and laptops with better
performance. During UL packet injection, a laptop needs to connect to the power supply to prevent packet
Performance check on the injection failures caused by insufficient power.
server and the laptop If there is no valid judgment method, replace a server or laptop to test for comparison. You are advised to use
a high-end ThinkPad T400 series laptop with a dual-core CPU of 2.0 GHz or above, a hard disk of 7200 RPM,
Gigabit network ports, and the operating system of windows XP SP3.

Compatibility of the Some laptops encounter faults in installing windows 7 and the Iperf tool in an outdoor test. The problem is
solved after the Gperf tool is used. Inject 1000-byte packets in the test for comparison. Replace the FTP
packet injection tool
download tool with the recommended Filezilla.

Check whether the UL CL Check whether the corresponding switch of the eNodeB is turned on, whether the UE supports the UL CL
power control. Huawei UEs support the UL CL power control. For Samsung UEs, JL1 and JI1 cannot work in
power control is valid.
CL power control mode but the JF1+Patch can.
eNodeB parameter check For details about specific operations of eNodeB parameter check, see LTE Parameter Check Manual.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 17


Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms (2/5)
Checking the UE subscription rate
UE subscription rate includes Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate (AMBR) and guaranteed bit rate (GBR). The total rate
of non-GBR services cannot exceed the AMBR. The rate of GBR bearers cannot exceed the GBR. Both the AMBR
and the GBR need to be larger than the user-required rate.
AMBR can be viewed in the Initial Context Establishment Request message traced over the S1 interface. GBR can
be viewed in the E-RAB Establishment Request or Initial Context Establishment Request message for GBR bearer
establishment, as shown in the figure on the left. The UL and DL AMBRs are 20 Kbit/s, which is insufficient.

GBR

AMBR

Unit: bit/s

AMBR can also be observed on the UE


side, as shown in the figure on the right. Huawei UE data
displayed on the OMT.
For calculation methods,
see the appendix.

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Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms (3/5)
Checking UE capability
The UE capability can be viewed in the RRC_UE_CAP_INFO
message traced over the Uu interface.
The following table shows the UL and DL throughput supported in
various UE categories.
The UE
On UL, the MCS order for UE Cat 5 can reach a maximum of 28, belongs to Cat
and that for UE Cat 3 and Cat 4 reaches 24 only. 3.

UE Cat Cat 2 Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5


Capability 1
Maximum UL 5 25 50 50 75
throughput
(Mbit/s)
Maximum DL 10 50 100 150 300
throughput
(Mbit/s)

Checking eNodeB alarms


Alarms of the eNodeB, equipment, transmission, radio frequency, and interference affect the
throughput. In case of an throughput fault, try to clear eNodeB alarms. If the alarms do not have
clearance conditions, analyze the alarms one by one to check the influence on the throughput or use
a better eNodeB for tests.

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Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms (4/5)
Whether multiple UEs are in the cell
If other UEs in the same cell are performing services,
RBs for the test UE decrease. Therefore, before Monitor the number of UEs
testing, check whether any other UE exits in the by using the cell
performance monitoring
cell and also pay attention to the access of other
function on the M2000. For
UEs during the test. Monitoring the number of UEs details about the method,
as shown in the figure on the right see the appendix.

Whether the throughput is


restricted by the license
Whether the license expires.
Whether the throughput is restricted by the
license. Check whether
Check whether the License supports UEs UEs of Cat 2, Cat
of Cat 2, Cat 3, and Cat 4. 3, and Cat 4 are
supported.
In multi-operator core network (MOCN)
scenarios, check the traffic volume ratio
between operators.

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Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms (5/5)
Whether the UL CL power control is valid (for an UL fault)
Symptom: If CL power control is invalid, the throughput and number of RBs decrease
for UEs located at a point far from the cell center or located in the middle of the cell while
UEs close to the cell center reach the peak throughput. Specifically, when the RSRP is
100 dBm, the number of RBs reaches up to 90 for UEs in 20 MHz cells and reaches 40
for UEs in 10 MHz cells if the CL power control switch is turned on and reaches a
maximum of 10 if the OL power control switch is turned on.
Check method: Run the following command to check the eNodeB switch: MOD
CELLALGOSWITCH: LocalCellId=0, UlPcAlgoSwitch=InnerLoopPuschSwitch-1;
For Huawei UEs, if the SumFiValue parameter in the Power Control window of the
Probe is not 1, the CL power control mode is adopted. If commercial UEs are used,
check which version supports the CL power control. For Samsung UEs, JL1 and JI1
cannot work in CL power control mode but the JF1+Patch can.

eNodeB parameter check


Many parameters of the eNodeB affect the throughput. Compare configured parameters of the faulty eNodeB with
baseline values or those of normal eNodeBs to find inconsistent parameters and then analyze these parameters one
by one or modify the parameter to perform a test again.
For details about specific operations of eNodeB parameter check, see LTE Parameter Check Manual.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 21


Contents
Symptoms of Throughput Faults

Obtaining Related Logs

Throughput Fault Location Concept and Procedure



Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms


Determining a TCP Fault or a Non-TCP Fault

Determining a TCP Fault

Determining a Non-TCP Fault

Throughput Fault Checklist and Deliverables

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 22


Determining a TCP Fault or a Non-TCP Fault
1. Simple method: UDP packet injection
1. Operation method
Use the Iperf. Place this software in disk C of the server and the PC connected to the UE respectively, open the DOS
window, enter cd c:\, and store the current directory under disk C where the Iperf is located.
On the receiving side(the server is UL and the PC where the UE is connected is DL), enter iperf -s -u -i 1, and press Enter
to establish the receiving connection.
On the transmitting side (the server is DL and the PC where the UE is connected is UL), enter iperf -c xx.xx.xx.xx -u -i 1
-b 100m -t 999. xx.xx.xx.xx indicates the IP address of the receiver. -u indicates UDP transmission. -i 1 indicates that the
result is displayed every one second, -b indicates the traffic volume of the packet injection; -b 100m indicates that a 100
MB packet is injected every one second (at a rate of 100 Mbit/s), -t indicates the packet injection duration, and -t 999
indicates that the packet injection takes 999 seconds.
Note: The rate and duration for packet injection can be adjusted on the transmitting side as required.
2. Judgment method
If the throughput for UDP transmission is evidently greater than that for TCP transmission (for example, greater than 10%),
a TCP fault occurs. Check reasons of the TCP fault.
If the throughput for UDP transmission is almost the same as or lower than that for TCP transmission, a non-TCP fault
occurs. Check reasons of the non-TCP fault.
2. If UDP packet injection fails, upload multiple files using multiple threads or upload multiple
files simultaneously.
1. Operation method
Upload multiple files in multiple DOS windows or using the multi-thread software, such as the Flashget and Filezilla.
2. Judgment method
If the throughput in multi-thread-based upload is evidently greater than that in single-thread-based TCP packet injection, a
TCP fault occurs. Check reasons of the TCP fault.
If the throughput in multi-thread-based upload is almost equal to or lower than that in single-thread-based TCP packet
injection, a non-TCP fault occurs. Check reasons of the non-TCP fault.
If the preceding two methods cannot be used, check reasons of a TCP fault.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential


Contents
Symptoms of Throughput Faults

Obtaining Related Logs

Throughput Fault Location Concept and Procedure



Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms


Determining a TCP Fault or a Non-TCP Fault

Determining a TCP Fault

Determining a Non-TCP Fault

Throughput Fault Checklist and Deliverables

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 24


TCP Fault Location: TCP Parameter Check
1. Check the operating system:
If the operating system is Windows XP, continue with this step; if Vista, Windows 7,
or other operating systems are used, skip this step because TCP parameters can be
automatically optimized in Vista and Windows 7, not requiring human intervention.
2. Check and set TCP parameters.
a. Use the DrTCP tool on the transmitting and receiving sides to find the corresponding
network adapters from the Adapter Settings. Then, set the parameters as follows:

b. Use the TCP parameter setting.reg tool to modify parameters on the transmitting side and
import the parameters. After completing the preceding two operations, restart the PC to
activate the modified configurations. If the parameters cannot be modified on the server,
modify the configurations only on the PC connecting to the UE.

3. If the problem persists after parameter modification, go to the next step.

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TCP Fault Location: by Using the TCP Fault
Location Module (1/3)
1. Use the IFTS TPE module of the eNodeB to locate the fault and start tracing.
Ensure that the port number used in TCP transmission has been added to the white list of the algorithm module.
(Port 20 of the FTP data link is added by default. If the iperf is used, port 5001 needs to be added manually.) Run
LST TPEALGO to view the port number and run MOD TPEALGO to add the corresponding port number.
Log in to the M2000 and choose Monitor > Signaling Trace > Signaling Trace Management. In the Signaling
Trace Management window, choose Information Collection > IFTS Trace to start the IFTS trace. Follow the
instructions to set corresponding parameters. Select L2 Performance and enter 132 in the MAC Layer Trace
Field box (132 is the ID of the TCP fault location module.), and finally click Finish to start the tracing.

Note: Perform the operations


in this order: Start the
TTI trace, reconnect the
UE, and then perform
TCP transmission.

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TCP Fault Location: by Using the TCP Fault
Location Module (2/3)
2. How to resolve the traced data?
Currently, LAE - TCP Analysis Expert is used to resolve the traced data of the TCP fault location
module. Open the TCP Analysis Expert, click Import Data Files, and select the .TMF file
obtained in the preceding step. The LAE automatically resolves the file and displays the result on
the interface.
3. How to analyze the result?
Overall conditions of all TCP links are displayed on the TOP tab page. Find the TCP link used for
services based on the port number and then open the corresponding tab page. Key and
abnormal events of TCP links are displayed in the Event column. The Location column records
the faulty point, indicating the transmission side or the eRAN side. Other columns show
corresponding information. The next page analyzes measured events.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential


TCP Fault Location: by Using the TCP Fault
Location Module (3/3)
CRC_ERR: The packet encounters CRC errors. If the errors occur between the server and the PDCP of the
eNodeB, the transmission devices on the evolved packet core (EPC) or on the S1 interface possibly encounter
hardware faults, you are advised to check whether the transmission devices on the S1 interface have alarms. If
conditions permit, replace the LPU board of the UGW. If the faults occur between the UE and the PDCP of the
eNodeB, the UE may have hardware faults, replace the UE.
WIN_SHRINK: The receiver window shrinks. If the event occurs frequently, or the corresponding notification
window is 0, the hardware performance of the PC on the receiving side deteriorates, the packet cannot be
transferred from the TCP layer to the application layer. You are advised to replace the PC on the receiving side.
Packet Lost Cause Retransmission: indicates retransmission caused by packet loss. If the number of repeatedly-
received ACK messages is smaller than 10, out-of-order packets occur; if the number is larger than 10, packet
loss occurs. In this case, check the equipment or transmission device based on the faulty point.
No TCP Packet in 500ms: Data transmission is suspended for more than 500 ms. Check the transmission
direction of the current packet. If DL transmission is performed, the fault occurs on DL, and no packet and ACK
messages are received within 500 ms on DL. The same will happen if UL transmission is performed.
PACKET_DISORDER: The packets become disordered. Check the fault location and then check the devices and
transmission status based on the corresponding faulty point.
4. If a problem persist after recommended operations are performed, collect and send related data to Huawei
headquarters. Also confirm with related personnel at Huawei headquarters whether three-point packet capture is
required.

Note: The TCP fault location module is designed to have the PDCP module record the number of Dup-ACK
messages for determining packet loss or out-of-order packets, and then determine in which segment the
packet loss occurs by checking whether the PDCP module continuously receives the Dup_ACK packet
numbers.

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TCP Fault Location: Three-Point Packet
Capture
If the operator does not believe TPE-based fault location results, you are advised to perform three-
point packet capture based points A, B, and C. If conditions permit, perform four-point packet capture.

1. On point A, capture only the 100 bytes of the packet head to save the file size and name the captured result as follows:
Site name_UEPC.pcap
2. If the gateway is deployed on the network, configure the IPSec channel as empty encryption and capture a complete
packet on point B for the purpose of properly decrypting the data. At the same time, save captured data in multiple files to
prevent a single file from occupying too much memory space. If there is no IPSec configuration, you are advised to
capture only the 150 bytes of the packet head. The captured data on point B is named as follows: Site name_eNB.pcap
3. Capture only the 150 bytes of the packet head on point C and name the captured data as follows: Site name
_UGW.pcap.
4. Capture only the 100 bytes of the packet head on point D and name the captured data as follows: Site
name_Server.pcap.
5. Configure packet capture on each point by using the Wireshark and then start data transmission. Several seconds later,
stop packet capture.
Simple analysis process:
1. Check whether packet loss occurs on point A based on the condition of "tcp.analysis.duplicate_ack_num >= 2". If packet
loss occurs, find the faulty point and compare the captured data with that captured on point B and then check the fault
based on segments.
2. Check whether a window shrinks on point A based on the condition of "tcp.window_size <1000". Compare the occurrence
time of window shrinking with that displayed in the IO Graphs of the Wireshark. If the occurrence time is consistent, the
performance of the PC connecting to the UE cannot meet requirements.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 29


Contents
Symptoms of Throughput Faults

Obtaining Related Logs

Throughput Fault Location Concept and Procedure



Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms


Determining a TCP Fault or a Non-TCP Fault

Determining a TCP Fault

Determining a Non-TCP Fault

Throughput Fault Checklist and Deliverables

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 30


Non-TCP Fault Location: Process
If it is not a TCP fault after basis parameters and alarms are checked, further locate the fault based
on specific symptoms of the problem. A throughput problem has the following symptoms: the
number of scheduling times is insufficient; the number of RBs is insufficient; the MCS order is low
and the IBLER is not diverged. In addition to the symptoms of the UL throughput, a DL throughput
fault has another symptom that the DL MIMO mode is incorrect and dual-code words cannot be
used.
After confirming symptoms of the problem, locate a fault by following the procedure corresponding to
the symptoms. If a fault cannot be located by following the following fault location procedure, send
required deliverables to Huawei headquarters for further fault location.
Abnormal throughput

The number of The number of The MCS order The IBLER is The DL MIMO
scheduling times RBs is is low. abnormally mode is abnormal.
is insufficient. insufficient. diverged.

Check Imbalance between DL correlation check


interference the main and
Limited performance Restricted diversity of a UE
of the transmitting transmission .
equipment

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Non-TCP Fault Location: Symptom
Analysis (1/3)
The number of scheduling times is insufficient.
On DL, the number of DL grants must approximate to 1000.
On UL, the number of UL grants must approximate to 1000 in a peak-throughput area. In a non-
peak-throughput area, the scheduler does not need to deliver UL grants at the time of UL HARQ
retransmission and the IBLER is generally diverged to 10%; therefore, it is normal when the
number of UL grants reaches 900 or above.
The number of scheduling times is observed on the probe as follows:

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 32


Non-TCP Fault Location: Symptom
Analysis

(2/3)
The number of RBs is insufficient.
On DL, the UE capability is not restricted and all RBs are scheduled.
on UL, if the CL power control is enabled with a path loss exceeding 120 dB to 125 dB, the UL
RBs to be scheduled starts to decrease and the MCS order ranges from order 3 to order 5. If the
path loss is less than 120 dB, all the RBs are scheduled. (All RBs Total number of RBs
Number of PUCCH RBs; the calculation result must meet rule 2-3-5. Rule 2-3-5 means that the
number of RBs for a single UE must be a multiple of 2, 3, or 5.

1. The preceding figure shows results of


Huawei UEs on the Probe. Number of
UL RBs = Total RB count/Count. Dual-
code words may be used on DL. The
number of RBs for each of the two code
words can be calculated based on code
0 and code 1.
(2) The following figure shows how to
query the number of RBs on the Web
LMT. Query the number of equivalent
DL RBs under Trace Indicator(s).

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 33


Non-TCP Fault Location: Symptom
Analysis

(3/3)
How to Identify an Excessively High BER
In a peak-throughput area, the BER must be 0 or smaller.
In a non-peak-throughput area, a BER of 10% is normal. If the BER is higher than 10%, it is
abnormal.
If the MCS is at order 0, a high BER can also be considered to be normal.
How to Identify a Low MCS Order
It is difficult to determine whether the MCS order is correct when the distance is moving towards a
remote point away from the cell center. When the path loss exceeds 120 dB to 125 dB and the
number of RBs decreases, the MCS order generally remains at orders 3 to 5. When the number
of RBs reaches the minimum, the MCS order may drop. You can use a simple way to identify a
low MCS order. That is, when the UE performs transmission at a full power of 23 dBm, if the
number of scheduling times and number of RBs are normal but the total throughput is low, the
MCS order is too low.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 34


Non-TCP Fault Location: Insufficient
Number of Scheduling
Limited performance Times
of the transmitting or RBs (1/3)
equipment
If the number of scheduling times or RBs is insufficient in UDP packet injection, the performance of the
transmitting equipment such as the server or the laptop is limited or the cooperation between the
transmitting equipment and the packet injection tool becomes faulty. In this case, you can perform the
following operations.
Use multiple threads or a server or laptop with better performance.
To avoid the compatibility problem between the server or laptop and the packet injection tool, use the
Iperf or Gperf and shut down BAM programs.
During UL packet injection, a laptop needs to connect to the power supply to prevent packet injection
failures caused by insufficient power.
For UL packet injection, set the packet length to 1000 bytes.
For DL, run the MML command to check whether the data received over the S1 interface is sufficient, as shown in
the following figure.

The figure on the right uses the DL 50 MB-packet


injection as an example. 6199732" in the red frame
can be calculated to be 49.6 Mbit/s. This is the DL
traffic volume received by the eNodeB over the GE
port. This traffic volume can be used to check
whether the DL data source is sufficient!

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Non-TCP Fault Location: Insufficient
Number of Scheduling Times or RBs (2/3)
S1 transmission is restricted in the UDP loop-back test.
If the S1 transmission is restricted, the number of scheduling times or RBs is insufficient.
If the DL data source received over the S1 interface is insufficient, the number of scheduling times or
RBs is insufficient. For UL, if UDP packets are injected, all RBs can be scheduled on the radio
interface while the application-layer rate is restricted. If TCP packets are injected, the radio-interface
and application-layer rate are restricted.
Check whether the port property (duplex/auto) and port rate (100 Mbit/s/1000 Mbit/s/auto) of each
transmission device are configured to be consistent.
If the EPC supports, perform the UDP loop-back test to check the S1 transmission bandwidth. The
principle of the UDP loop-back test is as follows: If UDP loop-back is configured on the peer end, the
local end injects a UDP packet to the peer end and the peer end sends the received UDP packet to
the source eNodeB after exchanging the source address included in the received packet with the
destination address. The source eNodeB then measures the returned UDP packet to check the
connection status, quality, and transmission bandwidth of the UDP link. The following figure is the
schematic diagram.
This function has some risks on commercial networks because the UDP loop-back is performed in the
EPC and therefore must be restricted in use.

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Non-TCP Fault Location: Insufficient
Number of Scheduling Times or RBs (3/3)
Procedure for performing S1 transmission in a UDP loop-back test
Step 1: Enable the loop-back function on the UGW in the EPC. For Huawei UGWs, click Service-
view and enter loop udp enable.
Step 2: Create a UDP test monitoring task on the eNodeB, as shown in the figure on the left. Set the
IP address, UDP port number, packet injection rate, and duration on the source and destination
nodes.
Step 3: Double-click a new task to view the UDP test monitoring result, including the packet loss rate
and delay.

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Non-TCP Fault Location: Low UL MCS
Order (1/2)
Check UL interference.
If no UE accesses the network (all UEs are powered off and there is no traffic in a cell), start the Web LMT or M2000 and
choose Monitor > Signaling Trace > Signaling Trace Management > Cell Performance Monitoring > Interference
Detect Monitoring. View the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values in columns from 1 to 101, which must
approximate to 119 + 10 x log (number of RBs) when there is no interference. The interference occurs if there is a
difference of more than 1 dB occurs in the indoor test scenario and more than 3 dB in the outdoor test scenario.
If the interference cannot be eliminated in a short term, use the increased back noise (in units of dB) to calculate the path
loss and then check the uplink throughput baseline corresponding to the calculated path loss.
The stationary RSRP in an outdoor test fluctuates for more than 6 dB. This problem is generally caused by deteriorating
radio environment. You are advised to perform the test in another area or adjust the UE location or antenna.

For details about


interference check
and elimination, see
LTE RF Channel
Manual.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 38


Non-TCP Fault Location: Low UL MCS
Order (2/2)
Imbalance between the main and diversity of a UE
Imbalance between the main and diversity greatly affects the test result. Take a test result as an example. The
main antenna 0 is 5 dB smaller than the diversity antenna 1, and the RSRP for the strongest signal is
displayed only. However, the UE transmits the message from the main antenna and the path loss is
calculated based on the main antenna. In this way, the UL channel quality is much smaller than the
displayed RSRP. The problem has the following two solutions:
1. To balance the main and diversity, adjust the main and diversity antennas when external antennas are used, and
change the UE location when built-in antennas are used.
2. Use the ratio of path loss to throughput instead of the ratio of RSRP to throughput for throughput curve generation.

Main and
diversity Main and
RSRPs of a diversity RSRPs
Huawei UE of a Samsung
on the Probe UE on the X-Cal

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 39


Non-TCP Fault Location: Low DL MCS
Description:
Order
(1/3)
High DL correlation The figure on the left shows the correlation of Huawei
UEs on the Probe. The values of the RxChCorFactor
and TxChCorFactor parameters are larger than 0.5,
indicating a high transmit-receive correlation. The value
closer to 1 indicates higher correlation and poorer
demodulation performance.

Solution:
Laboratory test:
(1) Modify the network to make the main and diversity
antennas connected separately.
(2) Cables in the VAM must also be connected
separately.
(3) Check interference in the laboratory. If the
interference is stronger than the signal, the TX and RX
signal correlation becomes high.

Outdoor test:
(1) In a scenario with line of sight, the correlation is
high. Avoid an area with line of sight.
(2) If external antennas are used, enlarge the interval
between two antennas or place the two antennas
vertically.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 40


Non-TCP Fault Location: Low DL MCS
Order
(2/3)
Strong interference from a neighboring cell

Description:
(1) Check whether there are multiple cells displayed in the
Detected Cell area on the M2000 and the difference between the
RSRP of more than one cell and that of the serving cell is within 3
dB. If the difference is within 3 dB, strong interference is received
from neighboring cells.
(2) The physical cell identifier (PCI) of a neighboring cell contained
in the detected cells cannot be the same as that of the serving
cell.
(3) Check whether the Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) of the DL
subband is excessively low in a segment. If the CQI is excessively
low in a segment, DL transmission encounters severe narrowband
interference.
(4) Estimate the difference between RSRP and SNR. If the
difference is greater than 115 dBm, strong interference is
received.

Solution:
(1) Strong interference from neighboring cells can be reduced by
adjusting the direction of the antenna.
(2) Severe narrowband interference can be eliminated by
removing interference sources detected in spectrum scanning. For
details about interference check and elimination, see LTE RF
Channel Manual.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 41


Non-TCP Fault Location: Low DL MCS
Order

(3/3)
Signal processing fault on the RRU
(1) Imbalanced channels on the RRU make the UE demodulation capability deteriorate,
resulting in a low MCS order. Observation methods are as follows:
Check the RSRP difference between two
antennas. If the RSRP difference is 5 dB or
larger, the channel is imbalanced. You need
to adjust the UE antenna.

(2) The UE receiving power generally ranges from -50 dBm to 90 dB. A receiving power greater
than -50 dBm possibly results in wave clipping and then leads to a low DL SNR. A receiving power
lower than -90 dBm may lead to a low DL SNR, affecting the DL transmission performance.
Observe the UE receiving power with the following methods:
In a lab test, the path loss can be adjusted to
resolve the problem.
In an outdoor test, you can adjust the interval
between sites and the power ratio of the eNodeB.
This problem must be reported to Huawei
headquarters for analysis and optimization.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 42


Non-TCP Fault Location: Abnormal DL
MIMO Mode
Policy for the current version: When a UE accesses the network for
the first time, the MIMO mode is TM2, and then turns to TM3 after
the signal level becomes good. In case of a link synchronization
failure, cell re-setup, or handover, the MIMO mode turns to TM2
again, and then automatically adapts to TM3. Query the air
message to observe the MIMO mode, as shown in the figure on the
top right.
In case of abnormal DL MIMO mode, check whether the eNodeB
timely configures the MIMO mode to TM3. If the MIMO mode
remains TM2, only single-code words can be used on DL. If the
MIMO mode does not turn to TM3, focus on MIMO parameters to
check whether the parameters are consistent with baseline values.
On the other hand, check whether the rank reported by the UE is
appropriate. Generally, the RSRP difference between two antennas
is no more than 3 dB. The transmit-receive correlation is no more
than 0.5. The average SINR is greater than 15 dB. Dual-codeword
transmission is available. If dual-codeword transmission is
unavailable, check the rank reported by the UE and the rank
received on the eNodeB, and then send collected data to Huawei
headquarters for analysis.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 43


Contents
Symptoms of Throughput Faults

Obtaining Related Logs

Throughput Fault Location Concept and Procedure



Checking Basic Parameters and Alarms


Determining a TCP Fault or a Non-TCP Fault

Determining a TCP Fault

Determining a Non-TCP Fault

Throughput Fault Checklist and Deliverables

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Throughput Fault: Routine Operation
Checklist
Routine Operation Analysis Operation deliverables
Confirm the Compare the test result with the baseline throughput and Problem description with detailed values
problem. describe the throughput fault. contained in the preliminary analysis report.
Check the subscription rate and the UE capability to meet
Check basic service requirements. Basic parameter check results contained in
parameters. Check whether the UL CL power control switch is turned on. the preliminary analysis report.
Check whether there are multiple UEs in the cell.
Use a different UE or a UE of a different brand.
Check the UE and
If external antennas are used, adjust the angle of the Check results contained in the preliminary
the antenna of the
antenna and the interval between two antennas. If built-in analysis report.
UE.
antennas are used, adjust the location and angle of the UE.
Check the Test results after replacement contained in
Use a laptop and a server with better performance. Try to
performance of the the preliminary analysis report, including the
shut down other software and ensure that the laptop
laptop and the UE type and version as well as the type of
connects to the power supply.
server. laptop and server.
Check the packet Change a packet injection tool (Iperf or Gperf) and revise
Test results after replacement contained in
injection tool and the packet length to 1000 bytes. Change the FTP download
the preliminary analysis report.
FTP tool. tool to the FileZilla.
Check alarms on the eNodeB and clear an alarm if any. If
Alarms and preliminary alarm analysis
Check alarms. an alarm cannot be cleared, change an eNodeB to perform
results
tests or analyze the alarm.

Check parameters of the faulty eNodeB by referring to the


Check parameters. Parameter check result
LTE Parameter Check Manual.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 45


Throughput Fault: Routine Operation
Checklist
Routine Operation Analysis Operation deliverables
Inject UDP packets or perform multi-thread
Check results contained in the
Confirm a TCP fault. TCP transmission to check whether this is a
preliminary analysis report.
TCP fault.
Check TCP Follow the instructions to confirm TCP Parameter check results and test results
parameters. parameters of the laptop and the server. after parameter modification
Configuration information about the
Check the property and rate of ports on property (duplex, half-duplex, or auto)
Check the
each transmission device over the S1 and rate (fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet,
transmission. interface. or auto) of each port on each
transmission device.
Check whether interference occurs on UL
Check interference. Interference check results
and DL.
Check imbalance
Check whether the main and diversity of a Check results of imbalance between the
between the main and UE are imbalanced. main and diversity
diversity of a UE.
Provide other deliverables listed on the next
Submit deliverables. page. Preliminary analysis report; problem log

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Throughput Fault: Deliverables
The field personnel perform the preceding routine check operations. If a throughput
fault persists, the field personnel report the problem to Huawei headquarters and send
the following deliverables.

No. Fault Deliverables


Preliminary analysis report, including the problem description and handling
1 results of routine operations performed by the field personnel Network topology
(main and diversity combined or separated) for an indoor test
Data configuration of the faulty eNodeB (in .DBS or .MML format)
2
BRD logs of the eNodeB
Driving test logs of the UE (logs on the Probe for Huawei UEs or the X-CAL for
3
Samsung UEs)
In case of a TCP fault, provide IFTS tracing results of the TCP fault location
4 module. If multi-point-based packet capture is performed, provide the captured
data.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 47


Thank you
www.huawei.com
Appendix 1: Packet Capture by Using
the Wireshark (1)
Packet capture by using the Wireshark:
1. If file upload or download does not work, trace all data. Do not limit the packet length. Start packet capture,
perform packet transmission, stop the transmission, and then stop the packet capture to save the captured
data.
2. If the throughput suddenly decreases, perform packet capture. Do not limit the packet length. Stop packet capture
two seconds after packet transmission, and then save the data. When the throughput turns to a low level,
perform packet capture again for about five seconds.
3. If the throughput fluctuates uncertainly, perform packet capture and limit the packet length as required. Then,
perform packet transmission until the problem occurs. Finally stop packet capture and save the capture data.
How to perform packet capture by using the Wireshark?
a. Run the Wireshark application, choose Capture > Options or press Ctrl+K. The Capture dialog box is
displayed.
b. In the Interface box on the Capture tab page, select the network adapter to be traced. The IP address of the
selected network adapter is displayed in the IP address box. The wireless network adapter is displayed in the
Interface box after the connection is set up.

c. Select a network adapter and then set the packet length. Capture of 100-byte packets is recommended on the
UE and the server sides while capture of 200-byte packets on the S1 transmission side.

d. Click Start to start packet capture. Press Ctrl E or click the stop button on the tool bar to stop the packet
capture.
e. Press Ctrl S or choose File > Save in the menu to save the packet capture data.
TTI tracing: Currently, the TTI tracing targets the first UE accessing the cell after the eNodeB is started. Therefore,
you need to start TTI tracing before the UE accesses the cell and uses services. If mass data is obtained in
TTI tracing, use the corresponding tool to process the data before sending the data to Huawei Headquarters.

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Appendix 1: Packet Capture by Using
the Wireshark (2)
Wireshark configuration and optional items

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Appendix 2: Data Collection by Using Step 4. Fill in

the M2000 (1) the MME and


TMSI based on
the S1 tracing
information.

Step 2. Fill in
the trace
name.

Step 1. Step 5. End


Select the
Step 3.
items to be
Select the
observed.
site address
as required.

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Appendix 2: Data Collection by Using
the M2000 (2) Step 1. Choose
IFTS tracing. Fill Step 2: Fill in the
in the trace name cell ID, select the
and cell ID to be trace layer, and fill
traced. in the MAC layer
trace field.

Step 3: Start the UE


and have the UE
access the network.
Perform traffic
transmission for
about one minute
and then export the
data.

Step 4: Save the


file.

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Appendix 3: UE AMBR Calculation
According to the LTE protocol, the APN-AMBR over the radio interface is converted based on two
8-bit symbols instead of the decimal symbol. The throughput in different segments is calculated
based on different formulas. Description of AMBR conversion in the LTE protocol is as follows:

Table 2

Table 1

This slide takes octet3, octet5, and octet7 as examples. The UL and DL conversion method is the same.
The AMBR conversion must follow the following rules:
1. When octet5 is 0 and octet7 is 0, see the value of octet3. For the conversion formula, see table 2.
2. When octet7 is 0 and octet5 is not 0, see the final converted values of octet3 and octet5. For the
conversion formula, see table 2.
3. When octet7 is not 0, see the value of octet7. For the conversion formula, see table 2.

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