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INCLUSION RATING IN STEELS AS

PER ASTM STANDARDS


MUHAMMED LABEEB
13MY06
INCLUSIONS
Inclusions are non metallic particles embedded in the steel matrix.

Chemical compounds of metals like (Fe, Mn, Al, Si, Ca etc) with non metals (O,
S, N, C, H)

Examples: SiO2,MnO,MgS,Ce2S3,AlN etc

Properties: An inclusion is a mismatch with the steel matrix. Both may have
different properties resulting in undesired effect.
INCLUSION RATING
Standard reference charts depicting a series of typical inclusion configurations (size,
type, and number) were created for direct comparison with the microscopic field of
view

Rating is done in comparison with the ASTM standard chart. [Designation: E 45]

Inclusions are assigned to a category based on similarities in morphology, that is, by


size, shape, concentration, and distribution, and not necessarily on their chemical
identity
CLASSIFICATION OF INCLUSIONS
Inclusions are classified into four categories (called Type) based on their
morphology

Each of them are classified into two subcategories based on their width or
diameter
CLASSIFICATION OF INCLUSIONS
heavy
A-Sulfide
Type
thin

Although the categories contain chemical names heavy


B-Alumina
that imply knowledge of their chemical content, the Type
ratings are based strictly on morphology thin
categories
heavy
The four categories, or Types, are partitioned into C-Silicate
Type
Severity Levels based on the number or length of thin
the particles present in a 0.50 mm2 field of view
heavy
D-Globular
Oxide Type
thin
CLASSIFICATION OF INCLUSIONS
Type A and C inclusions are very similar in size and shape

They are distinguished based on their colour when viewed under brightfield illumination

Type A-Sulfide are light gray

Type C-Silicate are black

The B-type stringers consist of a number (at least three) of round or angular oxide particles
with aspect ratios less than 2 that are aligned nearly parallel to the deformation axis

The D-type are globular in shape


PROCEDURE
The minimum polished surface area of a specimen for the microscopic
determination of inclusion content is 160 mm 2 (0.25 in.2)

Field of view is 0.50 mm2 or square of side 0.71 mm

Either of two techniques may be employed to achieve a


0.50 mm2 field of view

One method is to project the microscope image onto a viewing screen that has a
square mask with 71.0 mm sides drawn on it

Another option is to use a reticle made for the microscope, which will superimpose the
required square mask directly onto the field of view
PROCEDURE
Inclusions are classified into the before mentioned four types

After the inclusions are categorized by Type, they must be categorized by


thickness or diameter- thin and heavy series

After classification by type and thickness, the severity levels are determined for
the inclusions comparing with the chart

These values can be numerically calculated as length or number based on the


limits given in standard Table (given below)
COMPARISON CHART- A (Sulfide type)
COMPARISON CHART- B (Aluminate type)
COMPARISON CHART- C (Silicate type)
COMPARISON CHART- D (Globular type oxides)
PROCEDURE
REFERENCES
R E SMALLMAN Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

P C ANGELO Materials Characterization

ASTM E 45 05 - Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content


of Steel

ASTM E 1245 - Practice for Determining Inclusion or Second-Phase Constituent


Content of Metals by Automatic Image Analysis