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EKT150 INTRODUCTION

TO COMPUTER
PROGRAMMING
Introduction to Computer and
Computer Programming

Dr. Nik Adilah Hanin


adilahhanin@unimap.edu.
my
COURSE INFORMATION

Contributes 3 units:
2 hours lectures (28 hours)
2 hours labs (28 hours)

Main Objective:
Students can independently write, read,
compile, debug and execute computer
programs to solve problems, especially
engineering related problems.
COURSE OUTCOME
1. Ability to define and describe programming
concepts and principles.
2. Ability to apply GNU/Linux for coding,
compiling, executing and debugging computer
programs.
3. Ability to analyze and solve engineering
related problems using computer
programming techniques
4. Ability to evaluate programming techniques
and tools to design computer programs.
ASSESSMENT
4 main components:
Theoretical Tests 20%
Lab Assignments 20%
Lab Test 10%
Final Exam 50%
Assignments are assessed individually (in lab
assignment)
Theoretical tests are written tests
Attendances are compulsory!
REFERENCES
Deitel & Deitel, C How to Program,
International Edition, Pearson-Prentice Hall,
2013.
Cheng, H., C for Engineers and Scientists,
McGraw Hill, 2010.
Hanly, J.R. and Koffman, E.B., C Program
Design for Engineers, 2nd Ed., Addison-
Wesley, 2001.
ISBN : 0321204174
NOTES
This course is NOT about the language
per se, it is about analytical skills and
to apply programming to solve
problems.
Write C program in Linux
environment/GNU compiler applications
Do early reading
Do not hesitate to ask during lecture
sessions

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LECTURE OUTLINE

1. Introduction to Computer
2. Introduction to Computer
Programming
3. Introduction to C Programming
Language

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A Brief Look At Computer
Computer
is a device that receives input, stores and
processes data, and provides output in a useful
format.
Computers process data according to sets of
instructions called computer programs
Example: laptops, PCs, mainframes, mobile phones,
washing-machines, TV sets, cars contain computers
Hardware
Physical components of a computer
Example: Keyboard, screen, mouse, disks, memory,
CD-ROM, and processing units
Software
Programs that run on a computer
Example: Operating System such as windows XP
-Vista -7, Word processing packages such as MS
Word, registration program
Computer Hardware
Exercise: Distinguishing between
input-process and output-storage
The scenario:
At the end of each month, a clerk enters the employee name,
number of days present and absent, and the number of overtime done
in the system. The system then calculates the normal salary, the
amount for overtime and the total salary. The clerk then saves the
information in the computer hard disk, and takes a backup on a cd. A
report is produced for the clerk to be shown to the manager.

Task: Identify the following for that particular system


1. Input
2. Process(es)
3. Output
4. Storage
Exercise: Distinguishing between
input-process and output-storage
The scenario:
At the end of each month, a clerk enters the employee name,
number of days present and absent, and the number of
overtime done in the system. The system then calculates the
normal salary, the amount for overtime and the total salary.
The clerk then saves the information in the computer hard disk, and
takes a backup on a cd. A report is produced for the clerk to be
shown to the manager.

1. Input:
Task: the
Identify the employee
following for name, number
that particular of days present
system
and absent, the number of overtime
2. Process(es): calculate normal income, calculate
amount for overtime, calculate total salary
3. Output: Report
4. Storage: Harddisk, CD-ROM
How Computer Processes
Information?
Computers are NOT intelligent
Computers do what we tell them to do they dont do
anything by themselves.
We must clearly tell a computer what to do in a step
by step manner using a programming language.

Computers only understand electronic


High voltage/low voltage The machine language
Machine language is binary (two values: high/low) 1s
and 0s
Why We Use Computer?
Computers produce fast, accurate and reliable
results.
While computers do the boring, repetitive, ordinary
tasks, we can spend our efforts and time to work on
more interesting and creative tasks.
The use of computers in business and manufacturing
decreases the cost of goods and services
produced.
It is more difficult and needs more time to find or grow
up a skill-full labour in IT industry, while buying an
additional computer and installing the required
software on is easier and cheaper.
INTRODUCTION TO
COMPUTER
PROGRAMMING
Programming / Program /
Programmer
Programming in general term is planning or
implementation of a task or event command. In the
computing field, is instructing a computer to perform
specific tasks.
Computer programming can be defined as the
process of planning a set of sequence commands to be
executed by a computer.
Program be defined as a set of sequence commands
that have been determined to be executed by a
computer.
Computers are just electronic devices that have the
power to perform difficult tasks but they do not KNOW
what to do therefore - programmers tell the
computers what to do by writing programs
Types of Programming
Languages
Machine language
Lowest-level programming language
consist of strings of numbers giving
machine specific instructions
Example: +1300042774,
+1400593419, +1200274027
Assembly language
English-like abbreviations representing
elementary computer operations
(translated via assemblers)
Example: LOAD BASEPAY, ADD
OVERPAY
High level language
Codes similar to everyday English. Use
mathematical notations (translated via
compilers)
Example Code:
grossPay = basePay + overTimePay
Example high level languages: C, C++,
Programming Problem
Problem that can be solve using programming language.
Suppose you want to add 34 and 56, this is easy. But to add
100 numbers is difficult for us need to use calculator or paper
and pencil. Or we can write a program for computer to help
us.
Can these problems solve by computer programming?
Converting units from kilograms to grams.
Counting the number of cars on a highway.
Finding a life partner
Total rain in a week
How long we live
What we want to eat for dinner
Problem Solving using
Programming
Steps of Programming
1. Requirement Specification: Eliminate ambiguities,
Clearly understand the problem
2. Analyse the problem: Understand the inputs, outputs
and processes used for manipulating the data, formulas
and constraints
3. Design: Write the algorithm (flowchart or pseudocode)
to represent the solution
4. Implement the algorithm: Write a program
5. Testing and Verification: Check the program
6. Documentation
Properties of Well Designed
Programs
Well designed programs must :

Correct Easy to Easy to


and understa maintain
accurate nd and
update

Efficient Reliable Flexible


INTRODUCTION TO
C PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGE
Programming Basics
Computer programs are a detailed set of
instructions given to the computer
Programs are constructed based on an
ALGORITHM which is an outline of how
your computer program will work
Algorithms are a problem solving
procedure that consist of:
1. What actions you want the computer to
perform
2. The order of those actions should happen
in
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Creating Algorithms
To solve problem using algorithms,
we have to:
READ and understand the problem
THINK about different solutions to
the problem
If
needed
DESIGN an approach that will solve
the problem
IMPLEMENT that design
TEST to see if it works

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Form of Algorithms
The constructs used to build algorithms
can be described in two different ways:
1. Pseudo code
2. Flowchart

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1. Pseudo Code

When the algorithm is written out as a


well-thought series of steps, it is called
PSEUDO CODE
It is written in easy to understand language
(i.e. ENGLISH)
It is written very similar to the way that you
would code it into your 3rd Generation
Language (i.e. C Language)

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Example 1: Pseudo Code
Create a detailed set of
instructions (pseudo-code)
that will tell us:
How to eat a banana

Make your instructions as


detailed as possible, so that
even someone who has
never eaten a banana
before can understand them

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Example 1: Pseudo Code
INSTRUCTIONS OF HOW TO EAT A BANANA:

1. Using your hand, get a yellow crescent-shaped


fruit called a banana
2. Peel the outer skin off the banana
3. Eat the banana
i. Put a small section of banana in your mouth
ii.Bite down on the banana
iii.
Chew the banana by opening and closing your mouth
iv.Once the banana has been chewed, swallow the
banana
v. Repeat until banana is finished
4. Throw out the used banana peel
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Example 2: Pseudo Code
WAKE UP MAK WAKE UP MAK
MINAH 1 MINAH 2
Get out of bed Get out of bed
Take off pyjamas Take off pyjamas
The order of
Take a shower Get dressed actionsvery
are

Get dressed Take a showerimportant!


Eat breakfast Eat breakfast
Drive to school Drive to school

RESULT RESULT
Mak Minah arrives in a Mak Minah arrives in
great mood ready to not too great a mood
work since shes soaking wet

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2. Flow Chart
The algorithm can also be written as a
FLOW CHART
The flow chart is a graphic organiser (a
picture that helps organize your thoughts)
It uses a collection of basic symbols
that are used to organize your algorithm
These symbols are connected by arrows
that show how the algorithm flows

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Visual Form of Flow Chart
Flowchart: visual-form of an algorithm
Example:
Begin

Input Data

Process 1 Decision Process 2

Output Result

End 30
Algorithms: Flow Chart
BASIC SYMBOLS IN FLOW CHART
TERMINAL: Start/End of a
program
PROCESSING: shows any
mathematical operation (e.g. addition,
substraction, etc)
INPUT/OUTPUT: where the user of
the program is asked for information
(INPUT) or where the program displays a
result (OUTPUT)
DECISION: represents any action
where the computer is making a
decision
Flow direction
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Algorithms: Pseudo Code &
Flow Chart
Example 1
Write an algorithm that display a message to
the screen as Hello World!.

Pseudo Code Flow Chart


Begin
Begin
Print Message Print Hello World!
End

End

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Algorithms: Pseudo Code &
Flow Chart
Example 2:
Write a flowchart that calculates and prints the
SUM of two integers A and B.
Pseudo Code Flow Chart
Begin
Begin
Input A and B Input A, B
Calculate A + B
Print result of SUM Calculate A + B
End
Print SUM

End
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Exercises
1) Write an algorithm (pseudo code and
flow chart) to read input of 3 test
marks, calculate the average and
display the final marks.

2) Additional to (1), if the final marks is 60


and above, display mark and Passed,
otherwise display mark and Failed.
References
1) Yuksel Uckan, Problem Solving Using C, Structured
Programming Techniques, McGraw-Hill

2) Deitel and Deitel, C: How to Program, McGraw-Hill, 7th


Edition, 2013

3) Cheng, H., C for Engineers and Scientists, McGraw


Hill, 2010

4) Hanly, J.R. and Koffman, E.B., C Program Design for


Engineers, 2nd Ed., Addison-Wesley, 2001, ISBN :
0321204174