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Chapter 5 Pressure Transient Testing (I)

Weibo Sui Associate Professor College of Petroleum Engineering, CUPB

Scope of the Chapter

Scope of the Chapter • What reservoir/well testing is • What can be learned from a

What reservoir/well testing is What can be learned from a reservoir test How to analyze test data

Scope of the Chapter • What reservoir/well testing is • What can be learned from a

Reservoir/Well Testing

Reservoir/Well Testing • Dynamic reservoir description based on measureme nt of: - flow rate (sandface/wellbore) -

Dynamic reservoir description based on measureme nt of:

  • - flow rate (sandface/wellbore)

  • - pressure (sandface/wellbore)

  • - (temperature, density)

Reservoir/Well Testing • Dynamic reservoir description based on measureme nt of: - flow rate (sandface/wellbore) -

Schematic Diagram of a Well Test

Schematic Diagram of a Well Test separator choke perforations gas oil water wireline packer pressure, temperature
separator choke perforations
separator
choke
perforations
gas

gas

 
oil

oil

gas oil

water

wireline packer pressure, temperature gauge

formation

Schematic Diagram of a Well Test separator choke perforations gas oil water wireline packer pressure, temperature

Typical Job Sequence

Typical Job Sequence • Flow well at single or multiple rates for time, t • Shut

Flow well at single or multiple rates for time, t p Shut well in for pressure buildup for time, t

Measure surface flow rates of all flowing phases, an d bottomhole p, T

Typical Job Sequence • Flow well at single or multiple rates for time, t • Shut

Test Types

Test Types • Drawdown Test – difficult to maintain constant rate – analysis unreliable – no

Drawdown Test

difficult to maintain constant rate analysis unreliable no lost production

Buildup Test

rate known, q = 0 analysis more reliable production lost

DST (Drill Stem Test)

Test Types • Drawdown Test – difficult to maintain constant rate – analysis unreliable – no

Drawdown Test

Drawdown Test (5500 psi) pressure PSI 4000. 4500. 5000. 5500. 6000. 0. 10. 20. 30. (2000
(5500 psi) pressure PSI 4000. 4500. 5000. 5500. 6000.
(5500
psi)
pressure PSI
4000. 4500. 5000. 5500. 6000.
0. 10. 20. 30. (2000 STB/D, 24 hrs) 0. 10. 20. 30. rates STB/D 0. 500.
0.
10.
20.
30.
(2000 STB/D, 24
hrs)
0.
10.
20.
30.
rates STB/D
0. 500.
1500.

Time (hours)

Drawdown Test (5500 psi) pressure PSI 4000. 4500. 5000. 5500. 6000. 0. 10. 20. 30. (2000

rates STB/D

800.

400.

0.

Pressure Buildup Test

rates STB/D 0. Pressure Buildup Test (5800 psi) pressure PSI 5000. 5400. 5800. 0. 10. 20.
(5800 psi) pressure PSI 5000. 5400. 5800.
(5800
psi)
pressure PSI
5000.
5400.
5800.
  • 0. 10.

20.

30.

40.

 
   

(1000 STB/D, 24

   

(shut in for 24

hrs)

hrs)

 
 
  • 0. 10.

20.

30.

40.

Time (hours)

rates STB/D 0. Pressure Buildup Test (5800 psi) pressure PSI 5000. 5400. 5800. 0. 10. 20.

Multi-rate Test

Multi-rate Test 3500. pressure PSI 4500. 5500. 0. 20. 40. 60. 80. (2000 (1500 (2500 STB/D)
3500. pressure PSI 4500. 5500.
3500.
pressure PSI
4500. 5500.
0. 20. 40. 60. 80. (2000 (1500 (2500 STB/D) STB/D) STB/D) (1000 STB/D) 0. 20. 40.
0.
20.
40.
60.
80.
(2000
(1500
(2500
STB/D)
STB/D)
STB/D)
(1000
STB/D)
0.
20.
40.
60.
80.
Time (hours)
rates STB/D
0.
1000.
2000.

Drill Stem Test – Flow to Surface

Drill Stem Test – Flow to Surface p Pull out of hole p mud Final buildup

p

Pull out of hole p mud Final buildup Short buildup Long flow Short flow, cleanup Run
Pull out of hole
p mud
Final buildup
Short
buildup
Long flow
Short flow,
cleanup
Run in hole

p R

Time, hr

q

0 3 9 15 hr
0
3
9
15 hr
Drill Stem Test – Flow to Surface p Pull out of hole p mud Final buildup

1390.

pressure PSI

1370.

1350.

1330.

Well Test – Field Case

1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
1390. pressure PSI 1370. 1350. 1330. Well Test – Field Case 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.
0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. Time (hours) rates STB/D 0. 200.
0.
10.
20.
30.
40.
0.
10.
20.
30.
40.
Time (hours)
rates STB/D
0.
200.
600.

Well Test – Field Case

Well Test – Field Case 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 Delta-T (hr) 10 0 10
10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 Delta-T (hr) 10 0 10 -3 DP + DERIVATIVE (PSI/STB/D)
10 -3
10 -2
10 -1
Delta-T (hr)
10 0
10 -3
DP + DERIVATIVE (PSI/STB/D)
10 -2

Objectives for Transient Testing

Objectives for Transient Testing Production Engineers • Average reservoir pressure • Productivity index • Skin –

Production Engineers Average reservoir pressure Productivity index Skin

Rate dependent skin Skin components Post treatment skin after perforating, gravel packing, acid i njection, or hydraulic fracturing

Objectives for Transient Testing Production Engineers • Average reservoir pressure • Productivity index • Skin –

Objectives for Transient Testing

Objectives for Transient Testing Reservoir Engineers • Reservoir characterization – Test radius of investigation – Formation

Reservoir Engineers Reservoir characterization

Test radius of investigation Formation permeability (vertical, horizontal) Barriers to flow (sealing or leaky)

Shale bed boundaries Structural limits (fault, salt dome, pinch out) Stratigraphic limits (flow units, unconformities)

Objectives for Transient Testing Reservoir Engineers • Reservoir characterization – Test radius of investigation – Formation

Objectives for Transient Testing

Objectives for Transient Testing • Exploration well : – confirm the exploration hypothesis; – establish a

Exploration well :

confirm the exploration hypothesis; establish a first production forecast: nature and rate of produced fluids, initial pressure etc.

Appraisal well :

well and reservoir description can be refined (well productivity, reservoir permeability, reservoir boundaries etc.)

Development well :

(periodic tests)

adjust the reservoir description evaluate skin factor and the need of a well treatment, such as workover, perforation stra tegy etc. evaluate communication between wells (interference testing) monitor the average reservoir pressure

Objectives for Transient Testing • Exploration well : – confirm the exploration hypothesis; – establish a

Well Testing Analysis Techniques

Well Testing Analysis Techniques • Mathematical models • Conventional straight line analysis • Type curve analysis

Mathematical models Conventional straight line analysis Type curve analysis

pressure change type curve (semi-log plot) pressure derivative type curve (log-log plot)

Commercial software

Well Testing Analysis Techniques • Mathematical models • Conventional straight line analysis • Type curve analysis

Mechanisms Governing Transient Testing

Mechanisms Governing Transient Testing • Diffusivity Equation (P, q, r, t) • Assumption – circular, homogeneous

Diffusivity Equation (P, q, r, t) Assumption

circular, homogeneous reservoir with uniform thickness

well located in the center of reservoir, and fully penetrated producing intervals guarantee radial flow

slightly compressible fluid

Mechanisms Governing Transient Testing • Diffusivity Equation (P, q, r, t) • Assumption – circular, homogeneous

Diagram of the Reservoir and Well

Diagram of the Reservoir and Well
Diagram of the Reservoir and Well
Diagram of the Reservoir and Well

Diffusivity Equation

Diffusivity Equation • Derivation of the diffusivity equation • Solutions for the diffusivity equation • Limiting

Derivation of the diffusivity equation Solutions for the diffusivity equation

Limiting forms for solutions of the diffusi vity equation

19
19

Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation

Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation • Continuity equation – mass conservation • Darcy’s Law – flow

Continuity equation – mass conservation Darcy’s Law – flow through porous media Equation of state

Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation • Continuity equation – mass conservation • Darcy’s Law – flow

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u
u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u drdz   ( 
u rdrd
 (
u
)
rdrd
z
z
u drdz
 
(
 (
u
)
rd
dz
r
u rd
dz
r
dz
u rdrd
z
u drdz
d
dr

u )drdz

u rd

r

dz

u drdz

 

(

u

x

)]

rd

t



t

 

 

u rd

r

dz

{[

u

x

 

   

 t 

t 

dt

u rdrd

z

dz

[

u

rdrd dz

 

(

(rate of mass flow into element)

(rate of mass flow

out of element)

u

)]

drdz

[

u

z

 

(

u

z

)]

rdrd

}

(rate of accumulati on of mass within element)

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation z ) rdrd   u rdrd  z  

z

)

rdrd

u rdrd

z

 (

u

 u drdz   (     ( u ) rd  dz
u drdz
 
(
 (
u
)
rd
dz
r
u rd
dz
r
dz
u rdrd
z
u drdz
d
dr

u )drdz

 

dz

r



u drdz

(

u

r

)]

rd

t



t

dt

u rd

dz

rdrd

dz
dz

 



z
z

u rdrd

[  u 
[
u

 

(

dz

u rd

r

{[

u

r

 



t

(rate of mass flow into element)

(rate of mass flow ou t of element)

u

)]

drdz

[  u z
[
u
z

 

(

u

z

)]

rdrd

}

(rate of accumulation of mass within element)

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation z ) rdrd   u rdrd  z  

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation  u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z 

u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u drdz   ( 
u rdrd
 (
u
)
rdrd
z
z
u drdz
 
(
u )drdz
u rd
dz
 (
u
)
rd
dz
r
r
u rd
dz
r
dz
u rdrd
z
u drdz
d
dr


t

t
t
[
(
ru
)
d
dz
 
(
u
)
drdz
 
(
u
)
rdrd
]
rdrd dz
r
z
dt
   
  
Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation  u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z 

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u
u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u drdz   ( 
u rdrd
 (
u
)
rdrd
z
z
u drdz
 
(
u )drdz
u rd
dz
 (
u
)
rd
dz
r
r
u rd
dz
r
dz
u rdrd
z
u drdz
d
dr
Dividing
by
rdrd dz
:
 (
ru
)
 (
u
)
 (
u
)


r
z
t

t
t
 [
]
 
rdr
d
dz
t
   
 
Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rd  r dz  u rdrd  ( u

u rd

r

dz

u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u drdz   ( 
u rdrd
 (
u
)
rdrd
z
z
u drdz
 
(
u )drdz
 (
u
)
rd
dz
r
u rd
dz
r
dz
u rdrd
z
u drdz
d
dr
Taking
the limit
as
dr
,
,
dz dt 
,
0 :
1
 (
ru
)
1  (
u
)
 (
u
)
 (ρ
)
r
z
 0
r
 r
r
 θ
 z
 t
Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rd  r dz  u rdrd  ( u

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rd  r dz  u rdrd  ( u

u rd

r

dz

u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u drdz   ( 
u rdrd
 (
u
)
rdrd
z
z
u drdz
 
(
u )drdz
 (
u
)
rd
dz
r
u rd
dz
r
dz
u rdrd
z
u drdz
d
dr

For a fully penetrated well, we can assume that

u

and

u

z

  • 1

(

ru

r

)

r

r

1 (

u ) 
u
)

r

θ

 (  u )  (ρ  ) z    0  z
 (
u
)
 (ρ
)
z
 0
 z
 t

are zero :

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rd  r dz  u rdrd  ( u

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rd  r dz  u rdrd  ( u

u rd

r

dz

u rdrd  ( u ) rdrd z z  u drdz   ( 
u rdrd
 (
u
)
rdrd
z
z
u drdz
 
(
u )drdz
 (
u
)
rd
dz
r
u rd
dz
r
dz
u rdrd
z
u drdz
d
dr

This leaves:

1

(

ru

r

)

r

r

(ρ)

t

0

Continuity Equation in Radial Coordinates

Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation u rd  r dz  u rdrd  ( u

Darcy’s Law – Flow Through Porous Media

Darcy’s Law – Flow Through Porous Media Darcy's law for flow through a porous medium is

Darcy's law for flow through a porous medium

is given by u  

k

dp

dL

Substituting in the continuity equation

1

r

r

(

rk

r

dp

dr

)



t

0 in radial coordinates.

Note that we have not assumed that

k

r

k .

z

28
28

Darcy’s Law – Flow Through Porous Media

Darcy’s Law – Flow Through Porous Media If we now assume that kμ and we have

If we now assume that

and

we have

have no spatial variation,

k

1

r

r

(

r

p

r

)



t

On the left hand side:

r

(

r

p

r

)

r

(

r

p

r

)

r

p

r

r

29
29

Equation of State - Liquid

Equation of State - Liquid For liquids, we note that the isothermal liquid compressib ility is

For liquids, we note that the isothermal liquid compressib ility is given by

c  

1

V

(

V

p

)

T

. Since

m

/

V

, we have also that

c

1

(

p

)

T

.

Applying the chain rule for differenti ation,

p

p

c

p

Specifical ly,

r

(

r

p

r

)

r

(

r

p

r

)

r

p

r

r

r

(

r

p

r

c      p r   

2

) r

Noting that liquid compressib ility is small and assuming also that

pressure gradients are small, especially when squared,

r

(

r

p

r

)

r

(

r

p

r

)

30
30

Equation of State - Liquid

Equation of State - Liquid Note also that  ( )   t  

Note also that

(

)



t

t

t

p

p

t

p

p

t

c

t

p

t

for

c

t

c

c

f

where

c

f

1

d

dp

In general,

c

t

S c

g

g

S c

o

o

S

w

c

w

c

f

.

For oil flowing at

pressures above the bu bble point pressure,

S

g

0.

Substituting for spatial and temporal derivative terms,

k

1

r

r

(

r

dp

dr

)

c

p

t

31
31

Diffusivity Equation - Liquid

Diffusivity Equation - Liquid  k  1  r  r k c t Dividing

k

 

1

r

r

k

c

t

Dividing by

, we have

p

r

p



c

t

( r

)

k

t

The ratio

is called the diffusivity coefficient



and is given the symbol,

 

.

1

(

r

p

)

1

p

r

r

r

t

32
32

Diffusivity Equation

Diffusivity Equation • Derivation of the diffusivity equation • Solutions for the diffusivity equation • Limiting

Derivation of the diffusivity equation Solutions for the diffusivity equation

Limiting forms for solutions of the diffusi vity equation

33
33

Reservoir Fluid Flow Regime

Reservoir Fluid Flow Regime • Transient flow • Pseudo-steady-state flow • Steady-state flow

Transient flow Pseudo-steady-state flow Steady-state flow

Reservoir Fluid Flow Regime • Transient flow • Pseudo-steady-state flow • Steady-state flow

Transient Flow

Transient Flow • Pressure wave has not reached the reservoir boundary, res ervoir acts like infinite.

Pressure wave has not reached the reservoir boundary, res ervoir acts like infinite. dp/dt varies with r, t.

Transient Flow • Pressure wave has not reached the reservoir boundary, res ervoir acts like infinite.
Transient Flow • Pressure wave has not reached the reservoir boundary, res ervoir acts like infinite.

Pseudo-Steday-State Flow (PSS)

Pseudo-Steday-State Flow (PSS) • Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the re is no

Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the re is no flow across the outer boundary. dp/dt = const.

Pseudo-Steday-State Flow (PSS) • Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the re is no
Pseudo-Steday-State Flow (PSS) • Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the re is no

Steady-State Flow (SS)

Steady-State Flow (SS) • Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the o uter boundary

Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the o uter boundary pressure is constant, and the rate of fluid flow i nto the reservoir at the outer boundary is equal to the well pro duction rate. dp/dt = 0.

Steady-State Flow (SS) • Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the o uter boundary
Steady-State Flow (SS) • Pressure wave has reached the reservoir outer boundary, the o uter boundary

Solution for the Diffusivity Equation

Solution for the Diffusivity Equation • Constant terminal rate solution (inner boundary) (Well testing analysis) –

Constant terminal rate solution (inner boundary)

(Well testing analysis) Outer boundary

Infinite reservoir (Transient flow) Bounded cylindrical reservoir no-flow outer boundary (PSS) constant-pressure outer boundary (SS)

Well treatment

Line source well (r w → 0) Cylindrical source well (r w 0)

Constant terminal pressure solution (inner boundary)

(Aquifer influx model)

Solution for the Diffusivity Equation • Constant terminal rate solution (inner boundary) (Well testing analysis) –

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, constant-pressure outer boundary (SS)

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, constant-pressure outer boundary (SS) Diffusivity equation: B.C. 1 B.C. 2 1  r

Diffusivity equation:

B.C. 1

B.C. 2

  • 1

r

r

r

p

r

q

2

kh

B

p

p

e

0

r

p

r

at

r

r

w

at

r

r

e

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, constant-pressure outer boundary (SS) Diffusivity equation: B.C. 1 B.C. 2 1  r

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, constant-pressure outer boundary (SS)

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, constant-pressure outer boundary (SS) From the diffusivity equation we have 1  

From the diffusivity equation

we have

1

 

r

r

r

p

r

0

r

p

r

C

Separation of variables and integration yield

r

r w
r
w

dp

C

r

r w
r
w

dr

r

p

p

wf

C ln

r

r

w

App lying the inner boundary condition, at r

r

w

q

2

rh

k

p

B

r

r

p

r

qB

2

kh

C

Therefore we have

p

p

wf

qB

2

kh

ln

r

r

w

(SI Unit)

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, constant-pressure outer boundary (SS) From the diffusivity equation we have 1  

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, no-flow outer boundary (PSS)

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, no-flow outer boundary (PSS) Diffusivity equation: B.C. 1 B.C. 2 1  r

Diffusivity equation:

B.C. 1

B.C. 2

1

r

r

r

p

r

C

q

2

kh

B

r

p

r

p

r

=0

at

r

r

w

at r

r

e

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, no-flow outer boundary (PSS) Diffusivity equation: B.C. 1 B.C. 2 1  r

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, no-flow outer boundary (PSS)

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, no-flow outer boundary (PSS) Applying the material balance equation using compression definition, c

Applying the material balance equation using compression definition,

c

t

V

dp

dV

 

or

cV

t

dp

dt

 

qB

dp

dt

 

qB

2

c r h

t

e

Substitute into diffusivity equation,

1

 

r

r

r

p

r

Integration yields,



c

t

k

qB

c

t

2

r h

e

1



r

r

r

p

r

 

qB

r

2

2

2

r kh

e

C

1

r

 p   r 
 p
 r

 

qB

2

r kh

e

According to outer boundary condition,

0=

qB

2

r

e

2

2

r kh

e

C 1
C
1

C 1
C
1

qB

2

kh

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, no-flow outer boundary (PSS) Applying the material balance equation using compression definition, c

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, no-flow outer boundary (PSS)

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, no-flow outer boundary (PSS) Substitution yields,  p  qB  2 

Substitution yields,

 

p

qB

2

kh

1

r

 

r

r

   

2

e

 
 

r

   

Integration again

 

p

wf

qB

 

2

2

2

 

p

ln

r

r

2

r

w

 

2

kh

r

2

r

2

r

 

w

e

e

 

2

 

The term

r

w

0 since

r

=

r

. At

r

r

, we have

2 r

2

w

e

e

e

qB

ln

r

e

  • 1

 

p

 

p

wf

2

kh

 

2

 

e

 

 

r

w

By defining the volume averaged reservoir pressure,

qB

ln

r

e

  • 3

 

p

p

wf

2

kh

   

 

(SI Unit)

 

r

w

4

Bounded cylindrical reservoir, no-flow outer boundary (PSS) Substitution yields,  p  qB  2 

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient)

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient) Diffusivity equation: 1  r  r   

Diffusivity equation:

1

r

r

r

p

r



c

t

p

0.0002637

k

t

I.C.

B.C. 1

B.C. 2

p

p

i

r

p

r

141.2

q

B

kh

p

p

i

at

t

0

at

r

r

w

at r  

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient) Diffusivity equation: 1  r  r   

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient)

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient) The dimensionless groups are defined as p D  kh

The dimensionless groups are defined as

p

D

kh

141.2 qB r

r

D

r

w

p

i

p

r

eD

r

e

r

w

  • 0.0002637 kt

t

D



2

c r

t

w

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient) The dimensionless groups are defined as p D  kh

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient)

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient) Dimensionless diffusivity equation: I.C. B.C. 1 B.C. 2 1 

Dimensionless diffusivity equation:

I.C.

B.C. 1

B.C. 2

1

r

D

r

D

r

D

p

D

r

D

p

D

t

D

p

D

r

D

,

t

D

0

0

lim

r 0

r

D

p

D

r

D

 

1

p

D

r

D

 

,

t

D

0

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient) Dimensionless diffusivity equation: I.C. B.C. 1 B.C. 2 1 

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform Boltzman transform given by ε D  r D 2

Boltzman transform given by

ε

D

r

D

2

4

t

D

Assuming that

p

D

D

and using the chain rule,

the transformed diffusivity equation is

εε

D

d

2

p

D

2

dεdε

D

1

D

dp

D

0

D

The result is an ordina ry differential equation (ODE).

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform Boltzman transform given by ε D  r D 2

47

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform Initial condition: lim  D  p D ( 

Initial condition:

lim

D



p

D

(

D

)

0

Constant-rate inner boundary condition:

lim

D

0

D

p

D

d

D

1

 

2

(line source)

Infinite outer boundary condition:

lim

D



p

D

(

D

)

0

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform Initial condition: lim  D  p D ( 

48

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform For p  D  dp D , the 2nd-order

For

p

D

dp

D

, the 2nd-order ODE becomes 1st-order ODE:

d

 
 

D

dp

D

 

ε(ε)p

D

 

1

0

D

D

D

Separation of variables:

dpε

D

D

 

1

D

 

D

D

Integrating both sides: ln

pεεC

D

 

Rearranging: p

D

ln

e

  • 1 C

D

D

ln

D

  • 1

e

D

D

e

C

C e

1

D

D

ε

D

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform For p  D  dp D , the 2nd-order

49

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform

Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform From the inner boundary condition lim  D  0

From the inner boundary condition

lim

D

0

   

D

p

D

d

D

  

lim   

D

0

D

C e

1

D

ε

D

  

C

1

1

 

2

Thus

p

D

dp

D

d

D

1

e

D

 

2

ε

D

Integratin g gives

p

0

D

dp  

1

2

ε

D

e

y

y

dy

1

2

ε

D

e

y

y

dy

and p

D

1

2

ε

D

e

y

y

dy

1

 

2

Ei(

ε

D

)

p

D

1

 

2

Ei(

2

r

D

4

t

D

)

50
50

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient)

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient) By Boltzmann's Transformation or Laplace Transform, p D  r

By Boltzmann's Transformation or Laplace Transform,

p

D

r

D

,

t

D

1

 

2

Ei

2

r

D

D

4 t

The Exponential Function Ei is

Ei

x

 

x

e

y

y

dy

In field units, the solution becomes

p

p

i

70.6

qB

kh

Ei

c r

t

2

948



kt

 

Infinite reservoir, line source well (Transient) By Boltzmann's Transformation or Laplace Transform, p D  r

Applicability of line source solution

Applicability of line source solution In the time range of 3.975  10 5  2

In the time range of

3.975

10

5



2

c r

t

w

k

t

948



2

c r

t

e

k

We can use line source solution to substitute more accurate

cylindrical source solution (r

w

0).

t

3.975

10

5



2

c r

t

w

k

t

948



2

c r

t

e

k

wellbore radius has effects on p

p wave reaches outer boundary

Applicability of line source solution In the time range of 3.975  10 5  2

Diffusivity Equation

Diffusivity Equation • Derivation of the diffusivity equation • Solutions for the diffusivity equation • Limiting

Derivation of the diffusivity equation

Solutions for the diffusivity equation

Limiting forms for solutions of the diffusi

vity equation

53
53

Limiting Forms

Limiting Forms The line source solution, 2 1 r D p ( r , t )

The line source solution,

2 1 r D p ( r , t )   Ei(  ), D
2
1
r
D
p
(
r
,
t
)
 
Ei(
),
D
D
D
2
4 t
D
2
r
D
For
0.01, the exponential integral is found by Ei Table.
4
t
D
2
r
D
For
0.01, the exponential integral is approximated by
4
t
D
2
1
r
1
4
t
1
t
D
D
D
p
(
r
,
t
)
 
Ei(
)
(ln
)
(ln
0.80907)
D
D
D
2
2
2
4
t
2
r
2
r
D
D
D
1
1
1
Euler's constant,
γ...
lim
-
1
n
ln
0.57722
n 
2
3
n
In field units,
70.6 qB
kt
p
p
ln
i
2
kh
1688

c r
t
54
54

Flow States – Transient

Flow States – Transient SI Units: p  r t ,   p i 

SI Units:

p

r t

,

p

i

qB

4

kh

Ei(

2

r

4

t

)

Field Units:

p

r t

,

p

i

70.6

qB

kh

Ei

c r

t

2

948

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