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Birsan Sinziana
Dulman Grigoras Alexandra
Cojocaru Andreea
Grupa 819A
Fish diseases
Biological information
Description of new pathogens(e.g. Yersinia ruckeri biotype 1;
organism are related to ultramicrobacterium)
Improved taxonomy(vibrios; aeromonads)
Ecology(role of Aeromonas in the aquatic enviroment)
Pathogenicity(role of bacteriophage in the pathogenicity of Vibrio

Diagnostic disease:
Serology(ELISAs developed for fiel use)
Molecular methods(sequencing)

Physical/Behavioral Signs/Symptoms:
A progressive deterioration of the tail and/or fins.
Fins become frayed or their color may fade.
A bacterial infection may cause this tail
and fin rot in susceptible fishthose who
are bullied or injured by fin-nipping tank
matesespecially in aquariums with poor conditions.
Tetra Lifeguard
Remove filter carbon and turn off UV sterilizer. Add one tablet per day to each 5 gallons of
water. Treat for 5 consecutive days.
Repeat until symptoms clear. If the clamped
fins are the result of infections, a multipurpose
treatment like Tetra Fungus Guard is the first
line of treatment. Good practice of adding
1 tbs. aquarium salt per gallon will help prevent clamped fins.

Physical/Behavioral Signs/Symptoms:
Initially, youll notice a gray or whitish growth in and on the skin and/or fins.
Untreated fungus resembles a cottony growth.
Eventually, as fungus continues to eat away
at the fishs body, the fish will die.
Fish who develop fungus are already
in a vulnerable state, the result of other
serious health problems or attacks,
such as parasites, a physical injury or a bacterial infection.
Tetra Lifeguard
Remove filter carbon and turn off UV sterilizer. Add one tablet per day to each 5
gallons of water. Treat for 5 consecutive days. Repeat until symptoms clear. Many
bacterial infections are misdiagnosed as fungal, so common medications include
both a fungicide and antibiotics. Tetra Fungus Guard contains malachite green and
formalin; treat one tablet per 10 gallons once every 4 days until symptoms are gone.
Remove activated carbon and conduct partial water changes in between treatments.

Physical/Behavioral Signs/Symptoms:
A variety of different symptoms may occur, though some fish exhibit no external
Hemorrhaging of internal organs, skin and muscle.
Bulging eyes.
Bloated abdomens.
Bruised-looking, reddish tints to eyes, skin, gills and fins.
Open sores.
Abnormal behavior.
Infection that is brought into aquariums by fish already infected with a deadly virus called
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV or VHSv).
There is no known cure for this virus. Sometimes treating secondary infections with wide
spectrum antibiotics or general use treatments like Tetra Lifeguard will reduce
mortality. Add one tablet Lifeguard to each 5 gallons and treat 5 consecutive days.
Remove activated carbon and conduct a partial water change in between treatments.

Physical/Behavioral Signs/Symptoms:
Scratching against objects by the affected fish.
A protuberance of whitish-green threads from the fish's skin.
Points of attachment are marked by inflammation.
Introduced into aquariums by infected fish, young anchor worms are small
crustaceans that burrow into the fishs skin and enter the muscles. Here they
begin to develop and release eggs before they dieleaving behind damage,
which can become infected.
Common methods include physically removing the parasite and cleaning the
wound with an antiseptic like iodine. Also common is bathing freshwater fish
in a seawater bath (35ppt) for about 5 minutes for multiple days until the
parasite falls off.
Typical causes of Diseases
Fish diseases
Therapeutic / Treatment measures
Associated Problems
Short term
long term
- Not effective to treat internal
(Ex: Formalin, Salt, Copper Sulfate)
(Navare et al., 2008) - Pathogens develop resistance
Erythromycin, Streptomycin - Kills beneficial bacterial flora
Tetracycline, Vancomycin (Gonzalez et al., 2000; Gomez-
Oxytetracycline Gil et al., 2000).

Recombinant DNA (Biering et. al.,
- Not Cost effective; Difficult to
2005), Commercial DNA vaccines
(2005) and Reverse engineered & develop
multiepitope vaccines (2007)
Fish-Immune System


Anterior or Head Kidney


Non-specific Immunity- Physical Barriers; Non-specific

cellular toxicity: AMP; Phagocytosis; Complement pathway:
TNF; Lysozymes, Interferons, Interleukins, cytokines,
Natural Antibodies etc.,
Diseases control
Improved husbandry/management
Movement restriction
Genetic improvement of stock
Antimicrobial compounds(possibly will be banned in future)
Non-specific imunostimulants(e.g. , 1-3 glucan; LPS)
Dietary supliments(vitamins, etc.)
Water treatments
Vaccines (greater range of antigens needed; improved
adjuvants and oralises)
Probiotics (biological control)
Probiotics :
Microbial adjuncts which are defined as live micro-organisms that confer a
health benefit on the host .

Intestinal microflora were noticed to result in Health improvement and

promotion of growth (Moriarty,1999 & Roberson et al.,2000 ).

These were found to prevent proliferation of pathogens (Moriarty 1998;

Gomez; Gil et. al., 2000; Verschuere et. al., 2000; Decamp and Moriaty, 2005)

Strengthen immune system (Kailaspathy and Rybka, 1997).

Hence, of late, biocontrolling theory of using probiotics in aquaculture to

treat infections is more focused
Proposed mode of action of probiotics in the
intestinal tract of a host (Balcazar et al., 2006)
Probiotics Test sps Observation Reference

Bacillus sps Zebrafish Antagonistic/inhibitory Sumathi et al., 2012.


Lactobacillus sps Grouper & Nile Enhanced the growth, innate Son et al., 2009,
tilapia immune responses, and Ngamkala et al.,
disease resistance 2010.

Lactobacillus Rainbow trout Stimulated respiratory burst Nikoskelainen et al.,

rhamnosus 2003

Bacillus sp. White shrimp Stimulation of the immune Balcazar 2003

system by increasing
phagocytosis and
antibacterial activity

Bacillus subtilis Gilthead Increases phagocytic activity Salinas et al., 2005


Bacillus Tilapia Increase immune Sakai et al., 1999

coagulans responses such as MPO and
However, more attention has to be paid
on the selection of a suitable probiotic in
order to achieve the desired benefit in
the host species.

Use of bacteria with probiotic nature

isolated from the host claimed as an
elegent logic.

Studies on exploration of probiotic

nature of gut bacteria as well as their
long term administration are very
Earlier Observations
Bacteria isolated from the gut of L.rohita showed
antimicrobial activity against Vibrio harveyi,
Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila and
Escherichia coli .
B. subtilis and T. saccharophillus showed higher
inhibition of above pathogens compared to the rest.

Hence these two bacteria were chosen for isolation and

characterization of peptides ( Nicin-like Bacteriocins)
responsible for antimicrobial action.
Teleostean IgM - tetramer containing eight combining
sites (Acton et al., 1971).
Secreted mainly by plasmablasts and plasma like cells of
head kidney and elicit memory responses (Ye et al., 2011)-
major components of humoral immune system.
Known to participate in pathogen recognition and
activation of the innate immune system (Shoemaker et al.,

IgD, IgG & IgT are also found to play an

important role in teleostean fishes
The most important processes in all
poikilothermic animals (Blazer, 1991; Lange and
Magnadottir, 2003; Magnadottir, 2006).
Granulocytes, monocytes and macrophages,
neutrophils are specialized for the pursuit,
capture, ingestion and intracellular destruction
of invading microbes by phagocytosis.
The main cells involved in phagocytosis in fish
are neutrophils and macrophages (Secombes and
Fletcher, 1992). These cells remove bacteria
through a phenomenon called respiratory
Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins
found in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

These proteins are known to agglutinate

foreign cells, precipitate membrane
polysaccharides, glycoproteins or glycolipids
mediating different biological processes such
as cell cell interaction, induction of apoptosis,
antibacterial and antiviral actvitity etc.

Lectins are believed to mediate pathogen

recognition in fish immune system with
important role in innate immune response.
Bacterial fish pathogens-Brian Austin;
The wonder of probiotics John R. Taylor;
Fish diseases and health management-Ravi Kant
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