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ROMMEL K. MANWONG, Ph.D. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 1


LEA is the most comprehensive area in the

criminology board examination carrying a
weight of 20 % from the total percentage in
the scoring system. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 2

Police Org, Mgmt & Admin w/ special focus on
R.A 6975 and R.A 8551 (and new NCs)
Personnel (Human Resources Management)
Police Planning & Patrol Operations
Police Communication Systems (PCS)
Community Relations (PCR)
Police Intelligence & Secret Service
Security Management (Industrial Scty Mgmt)
Comparative Police Systems Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 3


SYSTEMS Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 4


1. What is meant by the Greek word politeia?

A. State of the Nation
B. Nationhood or Cityhood
C. Government of a City
D. Police Officers
2. Which society first use the word Police to
mean person who enforce the law?
A. Greeks B. French
C. Germans D. English Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 5


Basic Concepts
Police Politeia G, government of a city
Politia R, same meaning above
Polizei Gr, Safe keepers (territory)
Police F, persons to enforce law
**borrowed by the English and Americans
refer to LAW ENFORCER.
** constable, patrol, F in origin Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 6


3. In the history of law enforcement, which one

is considered the earliest codified law?
A. Code of King Hammurabi
B. 12 Tabulae
C. The Sumerian Code
D. Code of Kalantiao
4. An ancient police system used by the
A. Medjays B. Ephori
C. Tythingmen D. Vigiles Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 7
Historical Background

2300 B.C Sumerians Lipithstar & Eshumma set

standards on what constituted an offense against
society the Sumerian Code

2100 B.C Babylonians Code of King

Hammurabi Principle LEX TALIONES oldest harsh

1500 B.C Egyptians Court system presided by

judges appointed by the Pharoah; Marine patrol &
custom house officers protecting commerce started;
first use of dog patrol; Medjays civilian police
under the command of a military.
Ancient Greece Ephori law enforcers Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 8


5. What was the earliest Roman law?

A. The Justinian Code
B. Code of Draco
C. 12 Tabulae
D. Anglo-Saxon Law Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 9

Ancient Rome 12 Tabulae (12 Tables) the first
written laws, Emperor Augustus created the
Praetorian Guard, Urban Cohorts (City Patrol),
and the Vigiles (fire fighters); Emperor Justinian
Justinian Code became known as
Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Law)

**Vigiles first civilian police force which keep the

peace very ruthlessly, hence the word vigilantes Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 10

Anglo-Saxon (England: 849-899) -Time of King Alfred
** Tun Policing Tun (Town); Frankpledge system -
10 male residents as guardians of the town known
as tythings (10 families).
** Hue and Cry Complainant shouts for the
mandatory assembly of men to catch the culprit,
horn oldest known warning device
** Royal Judge investigates and punishes
** Trial by Ordeal painful test of guilt/innocence Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 11

Normal Period of Policing
**Shire-Rieve shire (district/country) rieve
later called Sheriff England was divided into 55
military districts under the control of a rieve.
**Travelling Judge renders judgment and gives
** Leges Henri Law of King Henri I policemen
were considered public officials
** Magna Carta laws with the demand of the
Knights of the Round Table beginning of
national/local government and legislation Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 12
Winchester Period
**Statute of Winchester- 1285 Watchmen
(16 heads) - **Statute of 1295 gate of
close at sundown curfew system adopted
** Justice of the Peace a position with
power to arrest, pursue and impose
**Star Chamber Court special court to try
offenses against the state. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 13

**Keepers of the Peace time of King Richard
appoint Knights to keep the Kings Peace
** The Charlies time of King Charles
appoint night watchers known as Bellmen
- on duty from sunset to sunrise
** Bow Street Runner time of Henry Fielding,
appointment of foot patrol, horse patrol
(mounted patrol). Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 14

Modern Period of Policing
**Metropolitan Police Act of 1829
modernize the police system of
England; creation of Scotland Yard
Robert Peel
Father of Modern Policing Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 15

In France
16th Century - Paris had two patrols: Citizen Night Guard;
and the Royal Guard for the kings protection. The Guard
motto that even today is on the French police emblem
Vigilat ut Quiescant - He watches that they may sleep
They were also called GENDARMIE slang for police officers
1791 - The position of Officers de Paix was formed
(origin of Peace Officer)
The first French Police Officers - Sergent de Ville - servant
of the city
In Italy and Spain

Italian Carabinieri
Spanish Guardia Civil Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 16

In the United States

Boston, 1636 formed the first Night Watch

they were called Leathermen

Philadelphia, 1833 instituted the first daytime,

paid police service

New York, 1844 organized the first modern

American police force based on the English
Metropolitan police. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 17

Development of Policing in the

Pre-Spanish policing is tribal in nature

1712 Carabineros de Seguridad Publico

the mounted police

1836 Guardrilleros rural police

1852 Guardia Civil town police

1901 - Organic Act # 175 Phil.

Constabulary under Capt. Henry T. Allen
first Chief

1917 PC Filipinization Brig. Gen. Rafael

Crame First Filipino Chief of PC Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 18

1935 PC Personnel were absorbed by the
Philippine Army

1936 Commonwealth Act #88 created the

State Police

1938 Commonwealth Act #343 reconstituted

the Philippine Constabulary PC became an
independent National Police Force
1939 - The Manila Police Department introduced
the bicycle patrol. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 19

Japanese Occupation
1941 - The Japanese Military Police (Kempetai)
took over MPD.

Liberation Period
1945 - The MPD was reconstituted and placed
under American control. Col. Marcus Ellis
Jones became the Chief of Police of the MPD. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 20

Aug. 1966 RA 4864 Police Act of 1966
Creation of the Police Commission - POLCOM
1975 PD 765 integration of the
national police - the PC/INP became the nucleus
of a united police force in the country
1990 R.A. 6975 Creation of the Philippine
National Police (PNP) that is civilian in character
and national in scope (Constitution) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 21

1998 RA 8551 PNP Reform &
Reorganization Act dubbed as the PNP

Most Recent Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 22


1. The law that provides the National Police

Commission to conduct Police examination is
A.R.A 2260 B. R.A 6040
C. R.A 4864 D. R.A 6141
2. Automobile patrol was introduced in the
Philippines on __
A. May 17, 1954 B. May 17, 1939
C. May 17, 1953 D. May 17, 1940 Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 23



Organization group formal or informal
** Formal structured
** Informal non structured

Administration process of POSDCRB

Management resources (5Ms) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 25

Police Organization

A group of trained personnel in the field of

public safety administration engaged in the
achievement of goals and objectives that
promotes the maintenance of peace and
order, protection of life and property,
enforcement of the laws and the
prevention of
crimes. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 26
Line Type Organization
(military type; simplest type) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 27

Functional Type Organization

(specialized; functional managers) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 28

Line and Staff Type

combination of line & functional Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 29

Police Management
Pertains to the utilization of available
resources in an organization. (5Ms)

Police administration
Refers to the processes used in the
(POSDCRB/POSDC) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 30


Planning - setting performance objectives

Organizing - dividing the work to be done
Staffing - filling the org with the right people/position
Directing - making decisions
Coordinating interrelating various parts of work
Reporting keeping executives informed
Budgeting fiscal planning, accounting, and control Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 31

Approaches in Managing
Police Organizations

Classical Approach

** Scientific Management - (F. Taylor) focus

on workers productivity
** Bureaucratic Management - (M.Weber)
focus on division of labor and hierarchy of
** Administrative Mgmt - (H. Fayol)
the 14 management principles Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 32

The 14 Management Principle (FAYOL)
Division of Work

Authority and Responsibility - right to command


Unity of Command

Unity of Direction

Subordination of individual interest to general interest

Remuneration of Personnel


Scalar Chain



Stability of personnel tenure

Espirit de Corps Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 33

Human Relations Approach
(Elton Mayo) increase productivity
Behavioral Science Approach
(A. Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs theory
(McGregor) Theory X & Y

X - (lazy) Y (hard worker) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 34

Contemporary Approach
- looking at the organization as a
(system theory)
- recognizing internal and external
variables affecting organization
(contingency theory) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 35

PRINCIPLES of Police Organization
Specialization - grouping of activities and
segregation of line, staff, and auxiliary functions.
Hierarchy of Authority - formal relationship

among supers and subordinates in any organization

Span of Control - maximum number of

subordinates at a given position

Delegation of Authority - conferring of an

amount of authority by a superior position to a

Unity of Command command should come

from one superior only Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 36

Functional Units
Bureau the largest organic functional unit within a large
department. It comprises of numbers of divisions.
Division a primary subdivision of a bureau.
Section functional unit within a division that is necessary
for specialization.
Unit functional group within a section; or the smallest
functional group with in an organization. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 37

Territorial Units

Post a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty,

such as a designated desk or office or an intersection or cross walk
from traffic duty. It is a spot location for general guard duty.
Route a length of streets designated for patrol purposes. It is also
called LINE BEAT.
Beat An area assigned for patrol purposes, whether foot or motorized.
Sector An area containing two or more beats, routes, or posts.
District a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes, usually
with its own station.
Area a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of
designated districts. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 38


Sworn Officers all personnel of the police department who have

oath and who posses the power to arrest.

Superior Officer - one having supervisory responsibilities, either

temporarily or permanently, over officers of lower rank.

Commanding Officer - an officer who is in command of the

department, a bureau, a division, an area, or a district.
Ranking Officer - the officer who has the more senior rank/higher
rank in a team or group.

Length of Service - the period of time that has elapsed since the
oath of office was administered.

On Duty - the period when an officer is actively engaged in the

performance of his duty. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 39

Leave of Absence - period, which an officer is excused from active duty by
any valid/acceptable reason, approved by higher authority.

Sick Leave - period which an officer is excused from active duty by reason
of illness or injury.
Suspension - a consequence of an act which temporarily deprives an
officer from the privilege of performing his duties as result of violating
directives or other department regulations.

Department Rules - rules established by department directors/supervisors

to control the conduct of the members of the police force.
Duty Manual - describes the procedures and defines the duties of officers
assigned to specified post or position.
Order - an instruction given by a ranking officer to a subordinate, either a.
General Order, b. Special, or c. Personal

Report - usually a written communication unless otherwise specifies to be

verbal reports; verbal reports should be confirmed by written
communication. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 40


PNP Staff and Support Units

The Chief of the Philippine National Police

Deputy Chief of Philippine National Police for Administration
Deputy Chief of Philippine National Police for Operations
The Chief of Directorial Staff Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 41

Directorial Staff (Functional Staff)

1. Directorate for Personnel - Record Management

2. Directorate for Intelligence
3. Directorate for Operations
4. Directorate for Investigation
5. Directorate for Logistics
6. Directorate for Plans
7. Directorate for Comptrollership
8. Directorate for Police Community Relations
9. Directorate for Human Resources and Doctrine Development
10.Directorate for Research and Development Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 42

Administrative Support Units

1. Logistic Support Service Legal Service

2. Medical and Dental Service
3. Computer Service
4. Crime Laboratory Support Service
5. Engineering Service
6. Headquarters Support Service
7. Finance Service
8. Communications-Electronics Service
9. Captain Service Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 43

Operational Support Units

1. Criminal Investigation
2. Narcotics Command absorbed into the PDEA
3. Traffic Management
4. Intelligence
5. Special Action Force
6. Security
7. Civil Security Force
8. Maritime
9. Police Community Relations
10. Aviation Security Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 44

Ranking System

Director General (DG) General

Deputy Director General (DDG) Lt General
Director (DIR) Maj General
Chief Superintendent (CSUPT) Brig.Gen.
Senior Superintendent (SR SUPT) Colonel
Superintendent (SUPT) Lt Colonel
Chief Inspector (CINSP) Major
Senior Inspector (SR INSP) Captain
Inspector (INSP) Lieutenant Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 45

Senior Police Officer IV (SPO IV) Master Sergeant
Senior Police Officer III (SPO III) Tech. Sergeant
Senior Police Officer II (SPO II) Staff Sergeant
Senior Police Officer I (SPO I) Sergeant
Police Officer III (PO III) Corporal
Police Officer II (PO II) Private 1st Class
Police Officer I (PO I) Private

Cadets of the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) are

classified above the Senior Police Officer IV and below the
Inspector rank in the PNP. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 46

The OLD vs. the NEW
What is Traditional Policing?
The old system or concept of policing
whereby policemen are looked upon as an
representing the government it serve rather
than as a servant of the community. Here, The
police organization is used as protector of
the few instead of the many. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 47

Yardstick of Police Efficiency
and Effectiveness

The main traditional purpose of the police is to

protect the authority (the government).

Hence, the yardstick of measuring police efficiency

under this kind of policing is the number of people
arrested of crimes and the number of people jailed.

The more people arrested and thrown to jail, the more the
police organization is effective and efficient. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 48

Comparing the old and new concepts
The Political Era

The Reform Era

The Community Era Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 49

The Political Era (1840-1930)

The police forces were characterized by:

Authority coming from politicians and

the law
A broad social service function

Decentralized organization

An intimate relationship with the

Extensive use of foot patrol Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 50

The Reform Era (1930-1980)

The police forces were characterized by:

Authority coming from the law and
Crime control as their primary function
A centralized and efficient organization
Emphasis on preventive motorized
patrol and rapid response to crime Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 51

The Community Era (1980s-
Under this era of policing, police forces are
characterized by:

Authority coming from community support,

law and professionalism

Provision of broad range of police services,

including crime control

Decentralized organization

An intimate relationship with the community

Use of problem-solving approach Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 52

Traditional vs Community
Who are the Police?
Traditional Community

A government Police are the

agency public and the
for law enforcement public are the
police Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 53

The Traditionalist The Community Oriented Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 54



IN RE: R.A 8551

Flow of Personnel CareerPointers:

Note: Qualifications p
- Morality
- Eligibility
Note: Procedures/Tests - Age Pointers:
- Height
- Agility
- Weight
- Medical
- NP
- Interview Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 56

Note: Nature of
Appointing Authorities
Note: Standards of Training
Field Training
In Service Training
Note: Purposes
Standards of Evaluation Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 57

Note: System of
Kinds of Promotion
Note: Purpose

Salaries, Benefits, Privileges

Note: Incentives/Awards
Retirement Benefit Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 58

Note: Types
Powers/Authorities to Inspect

Internal (w in units) CPNP, RD, PD, CD, COP,
External (w in community) HRDD, IAS, NAPOLCOM Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 59

Admin Offenses
LCE Mayor/Governor
Employ Utilize PNP elements
Deploy Physical movement
PLEB Central receiving office
of all citizens complaint
Composition 5
Term of office 3 years
Citizens Complaint (PLEB)
Breach of Internal Discipline
Forum Shopping Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 60

IAS Power
Inspect, Investigate, Summary Hearing,
Filing Cases, Assist Ombudsman

IAS Entry Voluntary (5 years experience)

IAS Head Inspector General (Civilian)

RAB hear decision from PLEB, RD, Mayor
NAB hear decision from CPNP Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 61

Administrative Offenses
Imposable Penalties
Light Offenses Reprimand
Forfeiture of Privilege
Less Grave Offenses

Grave Offenses Demotion from Rank

Dismissal from Service
** or any combination

Malfeasance (Misconduct) abuse power

Misfeasance (Irregularities) improper perfo

Non-feasance (Neglect of Duty) refusal Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 62

Note: Nature of Retirement

Retirement is either OPTIONAL or MANDATORY



Retirement Benefit
50% of the base pay and longevity pay of the retired grade in case
of twenty (20) years of active service, increasing by 2.5% for
every year of active service rendered beyond twenty (20) years
to a maximum of 90% for 36 years of service and over. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 63


(Management and Operations) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 64

Why is patrol referred to as the
backbone of police organization?

because it serves as the organizational

foundation from which other specialization branch
out like traffic, investigation, vice control, etc.
It is also the only division within a department
which cannot be eliminated.

..patrol activities is about 50% of all police

functions Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 65

What is police patrol?
the regular and repeated circuit of guarding a
beat, normally performed by the police in a given
area either on foot, mobile of other methods of
patrol for the purpose of enforcing the law and
prevention and suppression.

VIP: Patterns of Patrolling:

..clockwise, counter-clockwise, zigzag,
straightway, cloverleaf Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 66

What is Reactive Patrol?
the old system of police patrol activity
consist of continuously driving around the
area of patrol waiting for something to
happen and to
react accordingly in case something does

Note: Low Visibility Theory Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 67

What is Proactive Patrol?

It is the more economical alternative patrol

system, which has an objective approach
against criminality as much as practicable. It
crime at its very root before it is able to develop
into a felonious act.

Note: >> High Visibility Theory

>> Theory of Omnipresence Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 68
What is participative law
It is a system where the citizenry and the police
work together to reduce crime, prevent juvenile
delinquency and criminal behavior, maintain the
peace & reduce local problems which are the
mutual responsibility of the police & the people.

- The Peel Principle
- Koban System, COPS, Community-Oriented Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 69

Prevention v.s.
Prevention is the objective aimed towards
ways and means to reduce the desire of the
being to commit crime. (proactive)

Repression, is the act of preventing the

commission of crimes. Repression is leveled
on the prevention of the very act itself which
constitutes crimes. (reactive) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 70
What is the purpose of Police

As with any other occupation, the police uniform

is intended to separate policemen from everyone
who are not in the same line of work to avoid
confusion and to assure others of his authority
and his presence.

Proactive measure (assurance of omnipresence)

Police Visibility Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 71

Police Discretion
Use of ones own wise judgment on certain events
or circumstances not covered by SOPs.

Sample Scenario
On patrol alone
Rainy & Foggy situation, urban area
No FA, no HHR, no means of com to HQ
No flashlight, wearing Rain Coat,
3 Males in front of a pawnshop w in AOR
Suspicious looking Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 72

Understanding General Crime Reports

Index and Non- Index Crimes
Month Index Crimes Non- Index Gran
Crimes d
6425/916 CRI AL




January October 2011

January October 2011


January October 2011


January October 2011

2012 - As of April 2012, crime rate went down
by 16.77%
(According to the Philippine National Police)

Crime statistics provided by the PNP

Directorate for Investigation and Detective
Management (DIDM) indicates a 16.77%
decline in the countrys Total Crime Volume
recorded from January to March of Year 2012,
compared with the First Quarter 2011 crime

An act or omission in
violation of a law/statute
Felony As defined in the
Offense Violation of SL
Delinquency Misdemeanor

VIOLATOR offending party


SUFFERER - offended party or

injured party (Victim)

EXPECTATORS the public, a

third party or a witness
Anatomy of the Crime
The means or implements use in the commission of the crime.
(firearm, a bolo, a fan knife, ice pick, poison, a crow bar, a battery-
operated hand drill for carnapping, etc.)

The act or omission by a person (victim) which enables
another (criminals) to operate the crime.
(leaving ones home crime prone alley, wearing expensive jewelry
in the slum area, readily admitting a stranger into ones residence)

The moving power which impels one to action for a definite result.
The reasons or cause why person or group of persons
a crime.
The Criminal Formula

Where: C = Act (Criminal Act)
T = Criminal Tendency
S = Total Situation (Opportunity)
R = Resistance to Temptation
Machinery for Crime
The Criminal Justice System

Police/ Law Enforcement Pillar

Prosecution Pillar
Court Pillar
Correction Pillar
Community Pillar
The Criminal Process
initial response
arrest suspect

law abiding help PROSECUTION
prevent crimes CRIM
investigate determine
probable cause

reform change trial determine guilt
criminal behavior or innocence
The Prevention of Crime

It is everybodys concern
It is not only the job of the police to prevent
crimes but it is the job of everybody

The Peels Principle

The Police is the PUBLIC, the Public is the
Crime Prevention.

is a proactive measure against


the objective of which is aimed towards

ways and means to reduce the DESIRE
of the potential criminal to commit
Crime Repression

is a REACTIVE measure against crime

the objective of which is preventing the

actual commission of crimes.
Repression is leveled on the prevention
of the very act itself, which constitutes
To Prevent Crimes

Remove/Reduce/Prevent Criminal
Remove/Reduce /Prevent the opportunity
on the part of the would be criminal
Increase/Improve Resistance to Temptation

By not committing crimes! not violating the

lawsby simply being a LAW ABIDING citizen!

By ENFORCING THE LAWS according to

acceptable standards (REMOVING DESIRE AND

Abide with the standards of VALUE SYSTEMS

What are the Methods of
Beat Patrol
Foot Patrol VIPs
Bicycle Patrol Advantages &
Disadvantages of each
Sector Patrol (Motorized Patrol) patrol method
Automobile Patrol Practical Applications
Motorcycle Patrol Related name/terminology
Aircraft Patrol (Helicopter and Fixed Historical events
Specialized Patrol Methods 10 million smell cell of
Horse (mounted) Patrol dogs
Marine (water) Patrol German Shepherds
Canine (K-9) Assisted Patrol
Special Terrain Patrol
TV Patrol (Surveillance Cam) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 92

What are the basic types of Police

ROUTINE CALL mobile car is required to observe

all traffic laws and rules and does not normally use its
flashing lights and siren while on its way to the scene
URGENT CALL also requires the responding police car
to observe all traffic rules and does not use its
flashing lights or siren.
EMERGENCY CALL In most cases, this category
requires the use of the flashing light and fluctuating
siren although there are exceptions which include the
attempt to surprise criminals in the act. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 93

Police/Patrol Communication Systems

Police Com backbone of police tactics
Walkie talkie slang for HHR

Horn oldest communication device

Cuneiform first form of writing
dyad most basic form of interpersonal comm
Telegraph first electronic medium of comm (W. Cook)
10 Codes 10-4 (positive); 10-20 (loc); 10-35 (red alert); 10-74
(negative) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 94


PLANNING Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 95

PLANNING is a management function concerned with:

visualizing future situations

making estimates concerning them

identifying issues

analyzing and evaluating the alternative ways for

reaching desired goals

estimating the necessary funds and resources to do


initiating action to cope with the changing

conditions and contingent events. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 96

Plan - an organize schedule or sequence by
methodical activities intended to attain
goals and objectives for the
accomplishments of mission or assignment.

It is a method or way of doing something in

order to attain objectives.

Plan provides answer to 5Ws and 1H

questions. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 97
Police Operational Planning - the act of
determining policies and guidelines for police
activities or operations and providing controls
and safeguards for such activities.
It may also be the process of formulating
coordinated sequence of methodical activities
and the allocation of resources to the line units
of the police organization for the attainment of
mandated goals and objectives. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 98

Objective is a specific commitment to
achieve a measurable result within a specific
period of time.

Goal is a general statement of purpose

typically with time horizon. It is an achievable
end state
that can be measured and observed. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 99

Strategy is a broad design, method; a plan to
attain a stated goal or objectives.

Tactic a specific design, method or course of

action to attain a particular objective in consonance
with strategy.

Procedure a sequence of activities to reach a

point or to attain what is desired.

Policy a product of prudence or wisdom in the

management of human affairs. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 100
Guidelines a rule of action for the rank and file
to show them how they are expected to obtain the
desired effect.

Alternatives - are means by which goals and

objectives can be attained. They maybe policies,
strategies or actions aimed at eliminating a
problem Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 101

Strategic Planning - is a series of preliminary
decisions on a framework, which in turn guides
subsequent decisions that generate the nature
and direction of an organization. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 102

The Strategic Planning Process

TASK 1 - Develop Mission and Objectives

TASK 2 - Diagnose Environmental Threats &
TASK 3 - Assess Organizational Strengths & Weaknesses
TASK 4 - Generate Alternative Strategies
TASK 5 - Develop Strategic Plan
TASK 6 - Develop Tactical Plan
TASK 7 - Assess Results of Strategic & Tactical Plan
TASK 8 - Repeat Planning Process

Note: SWOT Analysis Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 103

Policy Making and Planning

Broad External Policy Planning

the responsibility of the legislative branch of the government.

the main concern of the police in this broad external policy

planning is assisting the legislature in determining police
guideline through the passage of appropriate laws or ordinances
for the police to enforce.

Internal Policy Planning

the responsibility of the C/PNP and other chiefs of the different

units or headquarters within their area of jurisdiction to achieve
objectives or mission of the police organization. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 104

What are the basic considerations
in Police Planning?
Primary Doctrines

FUNDAMENTAL DOCTRINE Is the basic principle in planning,

organization and management of the PNP in support of the
overall pursuits of the PNP Vision, mission and strategic
action plan of the attainment of the national objectives.

OPERATIONAL DOCTRINE Are the principles and rules

governing the planning, organization and direction and
employment of the PNP forces in the accomplishment of
basic security operational mission in the maintenance of
peace and order, crime prevention and suppression, internal
security and public safety operation.

FUNCTIONAL DOCTRINE This provides guidance for

specialized activities of the PNP in the broad field of interest
such as personnel, intelligence, operations, logistics,
planning, etc. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 105

Secondary Doctrines


formulated jointly by two or more bureaus in
order to effect a certain operation with
regard to public safety and peace and order.
This essentially involves the participation of
the other bureaus of the BJMP, BFP, PPSC,
NBI and other law enforcement agencies.

ETHICAL DOCTRINE That defines the

fundamental principles governing the rules
of conduct, attitude, behavior and ethical
norm of the PNP. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 106

Four Primal Conditions of the
Police Organization

AUTHORITY The right to exercise, decide and

command by virtue of rank and position.

DOCTRINE It provides for the organizations

objectives. It provides the various actions. It is
where procedures/plans are based.


DISCIPLINE It is imposed by command or

self-restraint to insure supportive behavior. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 107

Classifications of Police
According to coverage
Local Plan

Regional Plan

National Plan Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 108

According to Time

Strategic or Long Range Plan

It relates to plans which are strategic or long

range in application, it determine the
original goals and strategy.

Police Action Plan on the Strategy DREAMS
P-O-L-I-C-E 2000 Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 109
Intermediate or Medium Range
It relates to plans, which determine quantity and quality
efforts and accomplishments. It refers to the process of
determining the contribution on efforts that can make or
provide with allocated resources.


Master Plan Sandigan-Milenyo (Anti-Crime Master Plan)

Master Plan Sandugo/ Alpha (ISO)

Master Plan Banat (Anti-Illegal Drugs Master Plan)

Master Plan Sang-ingat (Security Operations Master Plan)

Master Plan Saklolo (Disaster Management Master Plan)

Sangyaman (Protection and Preservation of Environment,

Cultural Properties, and Natural Resources Master Plan) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 110

Operational or Short Range Planning

It refers to the production of plans, which

determine the schedule of special activity and
are applicable from one week or less than year
duration. Plan that addresses immediate need
which are specific and how it can be
accomplished on time with available allocated
OPLAN BANAT Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 111

Reactive Plans are developed as a result of
crisis. A particular problem may occur for
which the department has no plan and must
quickly develop one, sometimes without
careful preparation.
Proactive Plans are developed in
anticipation of problems. Although not all
police problems are predictable, many are,
and it is possible
for a police department to prepare a response
in advance. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 112
Visionary Plans - statement of values to be used to guide
the decision making process.

Standing Plans provide the basic framework for

to organizational problems.

Functional Plans - include the framework for the operation

of the major functional units in the organization, such as
patrol and investigations. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 113

Time-specific Plans are concerned with a
specific purpose and conclude when an
objective is
accomplished or a problem is solved.

Procedural Plans guides routine and field

Operations (Ex. Field Procedures/HQ Procedures) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 114

Tactical Plans
These are the procedures for coping with specific
situations at known locations such as plans for
dealing with an attack against buildings, attack
against the PNP headquarters by lawless elements

It include plans for blockade, jail emergencies,

special community events such as athletic contest,
parades, religious activities, carnivals, strikes,
demonstrations, and other street affairs. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 115

Police Operations

FIELD OPERATIONS - are operations in the

field directed by the police commander and
subordinate commanders aimed at the
accomplishment of the primary tasks of


(Plus Vice Control and Juvenile Control) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 116

Standard Operating
SOP #03 SIYASAT conduct of inspections to
ensure police visibility.
SOP #4 REACT 166 - prescribes the procedures
in detail of Duty Officers, Telephone Operators and
Radio Operators.





SOP #14 JERICHO - quick reaction group
SOP #20 ANTI-ILLEGAL FISHING Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 118
Oplan Jumbo Aviation Security Group Strategic Plan against terrorist attacks

Oplan Salikop CIDG Strategic Plan against Organized Crime Groups (OCG)

OPLAN BANTAY DALAMPASIGAN that sets forth the operational guidelines

on the heightened security measures and sea borne security patrols.

NAPOLCOM MC No. 95-03 Institutionalization of the Doctrine of Command

Responsibility at all levels of Command in the PNP

EO No. 226 - Institutionalization of the Doctrine of Command Responsibility in

all Government offices Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 119


Police Blotter
A police blotter is a logbook that contains the daily registry of all crime
incident reports, official summaries of arrest, and other significant
reported in a police station.

A separate Police Blotter is maintained for crime incident reports

violence against women and children and those cases involving a CICL
protect their privacy pursuant to Republic Act Number (R.A. No.) 9262
(Anti-Violence Against Women and Children Act of 2004) and
R.A. No. 9344. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 120

Police Intervention Operations
(arrest, raid, search and seizure, checkpoint,
demolition, civil disturbance management)

marked police vehicle

led by a Police Commissioned Officer

personnel in prescribed police uniform

***Warning shot not allowed! Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 121


The establishment of checkpoints must always be

authorized by the PNP and manned by uniformed
PNP personnel assigned in the area.
Other units directly involved in an operation may
establish mobile checkpoints in coordination with
the Commander of the Unit/Station in the area. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 122

Police Check Point Composition
Team Leader preferably (at least Police Inspector)
Spotter - profiler of suspected vehicle
Spokesperson - solely in charge of communicating
with the motorists subject for checkpoint;
Investigation Sub-team - investigation & documentation
Search/Arresting Sub-Team - designated to conduct
search, seizure and arrest, if necessary
Security Sub-Team - tasked to provide security
Blocking/Pursuing Sub-Team - tasked to block/pursue
fleeing suspects/vehicle Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 123

Internal Security Operations

The PNP is mandated to provide active support

to the AFP in Internal Security Operations
for the suppression of the Communist Terrorist
Movement (CTM) and other serious threats to
national security
(PNP lead role in urban areas sustained law
enforcement action) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 124

Samples of the PNP
Programs and Strategies

P-REVENTION and suppression of crime through COPS
O-RDER, maintenance, peacekeeping and internal
L-AW enforcement without fear or favor
I-MAGE, credibility and commonly support
C-OORDINATION with other government agencies and
non-government agencies organizations and
international securities
E-FFICIENCY and effectiveness in the development and
management of human and material resources Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 125


D-ISPERSAL of policeman from the headquarters to the street

and enhancement of crime prevention program

R-ESTORATION of trust and confidence of the people on their
police and gain community support

E-LIMINATION of street and neighborhood crimes and
improvement of public safety
A-RREST of all criminal elements common or organized in
coordination with the pillars of the CJS and other law
enforcement agencies
M-APPING up and removal of scalawags from the pole of

S-TRENGTHENING the management and capability of the PNP
to undertake/support the dreams operations and activities Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 126


AND SECRET SERVICE Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 127

If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the
result of a hundred battles.
If you know yourself and not the enemy, for every victory, you
are a fool who will meet defeat in every battle - SUN

Against organized crime, internal affairs

in my defensive arm; Intelligence is my offensive arm. W.
Definition of Terms

National Intelligence the total product of intelligence developed

by all governmental agencies that cover the broad aspects of national
policy and security.
Military Intelligence it is used in the preparation of military
policies, plans and programs. It includes the strategic and combat
Strategic Intelligence that knowledge pertaining to the
capabilities and probable courses of action of foreign nations.
Combat Intelligence is required by the commander in order to
determine the best use of his available firepower and maneuver
forces, to accomplish his mission, and to maintain the security of his
Counter Intelligence an integral part of all intelligence operations
and as such cant be separated from combat and strategic
intelligence. Its objective is to safeguard information against
espionage, material and installations against sabotage, and personnel
against subversive
Technical Intelligence concerns foreign technical developments, which have
a practical military application and the physical characteristics, performance,
capabilities, and limitations of material and installation, used by and for foreign.

Area of Operation those aspects of the operational environment exclusive of

the military/police forces involved. It concerns weather economics, politics,
sociology, hydrographic (study of seas, lakes, etc.) and characteristics of the
environment of an area in which military/police operations are taking place or

Capabilities form a police/military standpoint, enemy capabilities are courses

of action which the enemy can adopt and which, if adopted, will influenced the
accomplishment of the friendly mission, either favorable or not. From a broader
national standpoint, capabilities of a nation are the available, workable, courses
of action to accomplish national objectives.

Vulnerabilities A nations vulnerabilities are the weaknesses, which make it

susceptible to any action, which reduces its war, potential, and or its will to fight.

One of the first recorded formalized intelligence efforts, with
format, can also be found in the Holy Bible Numbers 13:17

And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan and
said unto them, get you up this way southward, and go up
into the mountain; and see the lands, what it is; and the
people that dwell therein, whether they are strong or weak,
few or many; and what the land they dwelt in, whether in
tents, or in strongholds; and what land is; whether it be fat
or lean, whether there be wood therein, or not. And be of
good courage and bring of the fruit of the land. The
scriptures also named the twelve intelligence agents whom
the Lord directed Moses to sent into the land of Canaan and
records that all those men were heads of the children of


IGAL THE SON OF JOSEPH Tribe of Issachar
HOSHEA THE SON OF NUN Tribe of Ephraim
PALTI THE SON OF RAPHU Tribe of Benjamin
GADDI THE SON OF SUSI Tribe of Joseph, that is from the Tribe of
The Harlot of Jericho (Joshua 2:1-21) who
sheltered and concealed the agents of
Israel, made a covenant with the agents
and duped their pursuers. She was not
only an impromptu confederate of
immense value for the Jewish leader of
that far distant day, but also established
a plot-pattern which is still of periodic
relief to motion picture producers.
The Philistine used her when she allowed
Philistine spies to hide in her house (Judges
16). Delilah was an impromptu intelligence
agent. Apart from her tonsorial specialty, she
also allowed sex to gain intelligence from a
powerful enemy. She achieved the largest
effective force of her employers adversaries
and contriving the stroke which put that
force out of

Sun Tzu
A Chinese philosopher, creator of the
The Art of War
Information must be obtained from
men who knew the enemy situation.
Know thy enemy and know yourself,
you need not fear the results of a
hundred battles
If you know yourself and not the
enemy, for every victory, you are a fool
who will meet defeat in every battle.
Alexander the Great

When Alexander the Great was

marching to Asia, were rumors of
disaffection growing among his allies
and mercenaries, he sought the truth,
and got it by simplest expedient by
devising the first letter sorting and
opening to obtain information.
He was the Roman Commander in Spain who possessed
a White Fawn and allowed it to become widely known -
that he derived secrets and guidance from the fawn. His
intelligence agents credited their information to the
supernatural power of animals.

He was known to be the sagacious master of the
Hindustan. He employed more than 4,000 agents for the
sole purpose of bringing him the truth that his throne
might rest upon it.
Genghis Khan

He was known The Great Mongol, who used

intelligence to conquer China and invade Cathay.
He instructed his Generals to send out spies and
used prisoners as sources of information. The
leader of the so-called MONGOL CONQUERORS -
made use of effective propaganda machine by
spreading rumors of Mongol Terror, they
collected information on weaknesses and
rivalries of Europe. The leaders usually disguised
as merchants.

With the rise of Nationalism and development of modern armies,

intelligence became apparent to large states. In England, Sir
Francis Walsingham, under Queen Elizabeth, organized the first
National Intelligence Service. He employed spies on the staff of the
Admiral in Command of the Spanish Army and able to obtain
information regarding Spanish Army as to their ships, equipment,
forces and stores. He protected Queen Elizabeth I from countless

In France, Richlieu introduced the network of covert collectors

who transmitted prompt and accurate information to Paris regarding
the activities of the rebels and dissidents of the kingdom.

Louis XIV systematized political policy, continuous surveillance,

postal censorship and military intelligence organization were his
The French Intelligence System continued since 15th

Napoleon Bonaparte once said, One Spy in the right

place is worth 20,000 men in the field. He organized two
Bureaus of Interest: Bureau of Intelligence which
consolidate all incoming information regarding the enemy
for presentation to the emperor and to obtain information
as desired, and Topographic Bureau which maintains
a large map which covers the latest information regarding
both enemy and friendly forces. He maintained Military
Intelligence and Secret Political Police Service all over
Europe. His main arm was Spy against spy concept.
Frederick the Great

He was known as the Father of Organized Military


He has divided his agents into four classes:

Common spies those recruited among poor folk, glad to earn
a small sum or to accommodate as military officer.
Double spies are unreliable renegades, chiefly involved in
spreading false information to the enemy.
Spies of Consequences couriers and noblemen, staff
officers, and kindred conspirators, requiring a substantial
bribe or bait,
Persons who were forced to undertake espionage against their
own will.
He was considered one of the brilliant military strategists in
the history of military intelligence. He had developed an
effective intelligence system for 15 years in Rome. He usually
roam around the city often disguise himself as a beggar to
gather first hand information.
Julius Caesar
During his time, the staff of each Roman Legion includes ten
speculators who served as an information-collecting
agency. The speculators were the first intelligence
personnel to appear definitely in a military organization.
Military success of the Romans was aided by communication
system. Made use of carrier pigeons, which made possible
the amazing speed with which intelligence of Imperial Rome
was transmitted. They also employed ciphers to ensure
secrecy of communications.
George Washington
Conspirator under oath abounds in the history of every nation.
George Washington was grand master in intelligence. He mobilized
the Free Masons of the colonies at the outbreak of the American war
of Independence.

Karl Schulmeister
He was Napoleons eye, Napoleons military secret, born on August 5,
1770. He began his career in offensive espionage under a cover role.
He was able to infiltrate the Austrian General Staff.

Wilhelm Stieber
He incorporated intelligence in the General Staff Support System. He
further device military censorship and organized military propaganda.
He introduced military censorship and organized military propaganda.
He works as a census taker and developed informal gathering of data.

Alfred Redl
He was one of the most brilliant intelligent agents. Though a
homosexual, he became Chief of the Austro Hungarian Secret
Service. He became a double agent of Russia.
Brahma Kautilya

In Ancient India, he overthrew the Nanda Dynasty and

established the first MAYURYAN king in the Indian
throne. He recommended to his king that for the ruler
to succeed, the ruler should strike at his enemys weak
points by means of spies. He proposed the following
means to conquer enemys stronghold: Intrigues and
spies - Winning over enemys people - Siege and assault
- Before beginning military operation, a conqueror
should know the comparative strength and weaknesses
of himself and his enemy. No war should be undertaken
without careful examination of all factors reported by
the kings spies.
Maj. General Donovan
He was the organizer of the OSS, builder of a central
intelligence system - OSS whose exploits become legendary in
World War II.
V2 Rackets - OSS agents working in conjunction with the
British Intelligence, through penetration and technical
intelligence discovered Punemundo which was the V2 guide
missile research project of Nazi Germany. It resulted to its
destruction and heavy bombing.
Battle of Midway
In June 1442, the turning point of the Naval in the Pacific, the
victory gained by the Americans was due to the disrupted
messages from the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
April 1943, He was the crypto analyst of the U.S. Navy
Communications Intelligence intercepted a top-secret signal
relaying the travel of the Admiral. En route, he was
intercepted and crashed in the Jungles of Baungainville.
State Informer
Edward I, King of England in 1725 organized a systematic police
system so called Witch and Ward. By Royal proclamation, the
profession State Informer was created in 1734 enjoining all
informers to expose criminal activities and be compensated.
Joseph Fouche
Father of Police Intelligence Operations. A Frenchman
born in 1759, rose to become the most feared and respected
intelligence director in French history. He created a network of
agent. His assistance founded the modern system of spying on
spies, which later was known as counter espionage.
Joseph Petrosino
He was member of the New York Police Department in early
1900, he was the head of the Italian Squad. Through extensive
intelligence network, he was credited to smash and
neutralization of the Black Society.
Federal Bureau of Investigation
First established in 1908 as an investigative arm of the U.S. Department of
Justice and became what is known as the F.B.I. under its first director John
Edgar Hoover in 1924. On September 6, 1939 by a presidential directive, it
came to its responsibility the task of a domestic intelligence.

Central Intelligence Agency - The agency was created under the US

National Security Act of 1947. It was the Central Intelligence group
established during the time of President Truman in January 1946. The CIA
was under the National Security Council.

Committee for State Security - Russia - The Intelligence agency known

as the KGB - Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (KGB)

British Secret Service Great Britain

Mossad Israel

Britain: Scotland Yard, London Metropolitan Police Force

It was established by Sir Robert Peel in 1829 which signaled the beginning of
a colorful legendary police force and considered one of the most efficient in
the world today.
Intelligence and the World

1900 Europe powers developed modern staff systems and place intelligence
on the same level with personnel, operations and logistics. Intelligence then
functioned in time of peace and war. Intelligence during this period,
concentrated on information about the armed forces of the enemy and their
capabilities. AIRCRAFT was introduced as a method of conducting aerial
reconnaissance. WIRELESS TELEGRAPH was used wherein CODES AND CIPHERS
were applied. ARMY INTELLIGENCE rapidly expanded during this period.

GERMAN INTELLIGENCE gained a high reputation for offensive effectiveness

throughout Europe but declined at the outset of the war.

BRITISH INTELLIGENCE succeeded greatly by means of censorship and its

CODE ROOM combined with skillful use of COVERT agents.


COUNTERINTELLIGENCE became a principal activity. At this time US created
three branches of its Intelligence System: POSITIVE BRANCH function of
collecting evaluating and disseminating intelligence. Prepare situation estimate
and translate documents; NEGATIVE BRANCH it is the counterintelligence
functions which involve in investigating disloyalty and sedition, investigate
enemy activities, investigate graft and fraud in organization; GEOGRAPHIC
BRANCH Produces maps, photographs, and terrain studies. SECTIONS -
Administration, Collection by attaches and troops, Codes and ciphers

GERMAN INTELLIGENCE started the war with the worlds best

organized intelligence service through advance preparation of
intelligence accompanied by troop movements. GERMAN
INTELLIGENCE WEAKENED by the attitude of the Officer Group wherein
they subordinated intelligence to operation and did not regard
intelligence assignment worthy of a soldier.

JAPANESE INTELLIGENCE failed because it was not provided with

sufficient number of trained personnel to assemble and evaluate the
mass of materials which were collected although Japanese Intelligence
was involved in short war and defensive in nature.

BRITISH INTELLIGENCE the delay in the use of German V-BOMB

against them was their main achievement during this time.

In 1942 a female special agent was able to transmit vital information

concerning the activities and installations of the main research station
at Penemuenda. Its intelligence failed in the defeat of GENERAL
US INTELLIGENCE In 1941, The US Strategic Service was established to
research and analyze military, political and economic information as it affected
the security of the country. US JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFFS was organized to act in
support of the army and the navy in the collection and analysis of strategic
information and to be responsible for the planning and operation of special
services. US greatest contribution to intelligence was the development of the
AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE where coordination of many types of intelligence
activities was required to provide adequate knowledge of the successful
operation of a complex military force transported over water with the objective
of establishing itself on an enemy held shore against opposition. US successes
in WW II were based on personnel drawn from CIVILIAN POPULACE, BUSINESS

CHINESE INTELLIGENCE In 1932, TAI LI organized the Chinas Secret Police to

conduct espionage and counterespionage against Japanese Spies and Chinese

SOVIET INTELLIGENCE AMTORG was organized for the purpose of purchasing

all kinds of materials for the Soviet Union.

SMERSH or DEATH TO SPIES was organized during the war as

counterintelligence concerned with disaffection among Soviet troops and anti-
communism in any form. Its five major divisions are: Administration, Operation,
Investigation, Prosecution, and Personnel.
POST WAR PERIOD: The superpowers

Soviet Intelligence System

may cross the borders of the USSR without being detected. This means that all
communications are rigidly controlled. Its contribution to modern intelligence
was the dissemination of false information designed to mislead and confuse
opponents and prospective victims. The MGB MILITARY INTELLIGENCE AND THE
MINISTRY OF STATE SECURITY formerly NKGB was concerned on political
espionage and propaganda abroad and for the control of espionage activities of
foreign communist countries. The KGB resumed the former function of the old
MGB. It is now the official secret police agency of the Soviet Union, in charge of
the state security KGB means (Commission of State Security) K- Omissija G-
Osudarstyennoj B Ezopasnosti or Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti

British Intelligence System

It is composed of several intelligence agencies such as the BRITISH MILITARY
INTELLIGENCE DIVISION (MID) which is divided into 20 different departments.
The M15 devoted to counterespionage and security. It is the special branch of
the SCOTLAND YARD charged with guarding the Royal Family and important
British officials and Visiting Foreign Dignitaries.
French Intelligence System
ESPIONAGE (SDECE-FOREIGN Intelligence and counterintelligence
Service) was under the office of the Prime Minister. GENERAL CHARLES
DE GAULLE set up the Bureau Central de Renseignements et d Action
(BCRA Central Office for Intelligence and Action in London in 1940. It is
an expansion of the Service De Reassignments (SR-Intelligence Service
which is a part of the Old Renzieme Bureau (Second Bureau) of the
French General Staff. SDECE concerned on Strategic and
Counterintelligence while SURETE NATIONALE became part of French
Intelligence Service.

German Intelligence System

The RED GESTAPO which serves as security service organized by East
Germany to combat the covert activities of West Germany Group when
Germany was still divided by the Berlin Walls.

United States Intelligence System

The CIA and the FBI the CIA is one among the biggest in the world in
terms of intelligence networking. CIA and the FBI and the other state/
federal units of intelligence services were US main intelligence agencies.
Agents of Betrayal
Intelligence is sometimes described as a world of deceit and
betrayal. Some of the high personalities which evidence this
description are:

JUDITH COPLON, a political analyst of a Department of Justice,

was accused of taking unlawful possession of government
documents and spying for a foreign power.

DR. EMIL JULIUS KLAUS FUCHS was accused of releasing

American Atomic Secrets to the Soviet in 1945 and to the British
in 1947. He detailed knowledge of the construction of atomic

ERNST HILDING ANDERSON was a Royal Swedish Navy who

provided military secrets to a foreign power and was found guilty
and sentences to life imprisonment in 1951.

Intelligence Defined

Webster defines intelligence as the capacity for understanding and for

other forms of adaptive intellect of behavior; the mind in operation; the
power of meeting any situation, especially a novel situation, successfully
by proper behavior adjustments; the ability to apprehend the
interrelationships of presented facts in such a way as to guide action
towards goal; knowledge of an event, circumstances, etc., received or
imparted; the gathering or distribution of information; the staff of persons
engaged in obtaining such information.

Base on Psychology- Intelligence is the capacity of a person to adjust to

new situations through the use of what has been previously learned.

According to Government - Commission Task Force - It means the

collection, processing, collation, interpretation, evaluation and
dissemination of information, with references to national security. In
certain context, it may also mean the network or the system for the
collection, collation, interpretation, evaluation, processing, and
dissemination of information. The term as used here doesnt include any
police powers or authorities, any investigative function other than those
involve in the collection of information nor any function involved in the
enforcement of laws, orders, or regulation.
According to Military Terminologies - Intelligence is
the end product resulting from the collection,
evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of
all available information which my have immediate or
potential significance to the development and
execution of plans, policies and programs of the users.

According to Police Parlance - The end product

resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis,
integration and interpretation of al available
information regarding the activities of criminal and
other law violators for the purpose of affecting
criminals and other law violators for the purpose of
affecting their arrest, obtaining evidence, and
forestalling plan to commit crime.
The Principal Areas of Interest
Military offensive and defensive tactics, war plans,
strategic concepts and tactical principles, organizations,
installations, industrial lease, armed forces, command
structure, command personnel, material, tactics, morale,
General topographical and hydrographic characteristics,
historical backgrounds
Diplomatic foreign policies, alliances, diplomatic
establishment, foreign service personnel, technique of
conducting foreign relations
Political ideology, traditions, institutions, personalities,
area of friction
Communications and Transportation telephones,
telegraphs, wireless, railways, shipping, automobiles and
trucks, highways, aviation, ownership, policies,
organization, personnel
Social nationality structure, classes and caste, historical factors,
census, personal aspects, characteristics and mentality of people
forces, social legislation, radio, television, press, motion picture

Intelligence organizations, methods and personnel of competing

intelligence system

Economic - On economics, the areas are on:

Financial Monetary policies, Currency structure, Transactions,

Institutions, Personalities
Commercial trade policies, markets, trading methods, price policies,
Industrial structure of Capacity, manufacturing plants and processes,
raw material, energy rotations, labor relations, personalities
Mining Mineral Resources, Production method, Output
Agriculture policies, crop structure, cultivation method, mechanization,
financing, specific characteristics of rural population
Principles of Intelligence

Objectivity - in intelligence, only the well guided succeed. It is a

basic intelligence concept that there must be unity between
knowledge and action. It follows therefore that intelligence should
interact and condition the decision. Intelligence must be adapted
to the needs of the decision; it is both giver and taker. Action or
decision is planned by knowledge and guided by it at every step.

Interdependence - Intelligence is artificially subdivided into

component elements to insure complete coverage, eliminate
duplication and to reduce the overall task or manageable sizes.
Nevertheless, each subdivision remains as essential part of unity;
contributes proportionately to the end result; possesses a precise
interrelationship; and interacts with each other so as to achieve a
balanced and harmonious whole.

Continuity - Intelligence must be continuous. It is necessary that

coverage be continuous so that the shape of what happens today
could be studied in the light of what happened before, which in
turn would enable us to predict the shape of things to come.
Communication - Intelligence adequate to their needs must be
communicated to all the decision makers in manner that they
will understand and form that will permit its most effective use.

Usefulness - Intelligence is useless if it remains in the minds, or

in the files of its collectors or its producers. The story must be
told and it must be told well. The story must be convincing and
to be convincing it must not only be plausible or factual but its
significance must be shown.

Selection - Intelligence should be essential and pertinent to the

purpose at hand. Intelligence involves the plowing through a
maze of information, considering innumerable number of means
or of picking the most promising of a multitude of leads. The
requirement of decision-making covers very nearly the entire
span of human knowledge. Unless there is selection of only the
most essential and the pertinent, intelligence will go off in all
directions in one monumental waste of effort.
Timeliness - Intelligence must be communicated
to the decision maker at the appropriate time to
permit its most effective use. This is one of the
most important and most obvious, for
Intelligence that is too soon or too late are
equally useless. Timeliness is one principle that
complements all the others.

Security - Security is achieved by the measures

which intelligence takes to protect and preserve
the integrity of its activities. If intelligence has
no security, it might be as well being run like a
newspaper to which it is similar.
General Activities

Strategic Intelligence it is an intelligence activity which is primarily long

range in nature with little practical immediate operation value.

Line Intelligence it is an intelligence activity that has the immediate

nature and value necessary for more effective police planning and operation.

National Intelligence - it is the integrated product of intelligence developed

by all the governmental branches, departments concerning the broad aspect
of national security and policy. It is concerned to more than one department or
agency and it is not produced by single entity. It is used to coordinate all the
activities of the government in developing and executing integrated and
national policies and plans.

Counter-Intelligence phase of intelligence covering the activity devoted in

destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign activities and to the protection
of info against espionage, subversion and sabotage.

Undercover Work is an investigative process in which disguises and

pretext cover and deception are used to gain the confidence of criminal
suspects for the purpose of determining the nature and extent of any criminal
activities that maybe contemplating or perpetuating.
Functional Classification
of Police Intelligence

Criminal Intelligence refers to the

knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes
and the investigation, arrest, and prosecution of
criminal offenders.
Internal Security Intelligence refers to the
knowledge essential to the maintenance of
peace and order.
Public Safety Intelligence refers to the
knowledge essential to ensure the protection of
lives and properties.
Forms of Intelligence
Sociological Intelligence deals with the demographic and
psychological aspects of groups of people. It includes the population
and manpower and the characteristics of the people, public opinion
attitude of the majority of the people towards matter of public policy
and education.

Biographical Intelligence deals with individuals personalities

who have actual possession of power.

Armed Force Intelligence deals with the armed forces of the

nation. It includes the position of the armed forces, the constitutional
and legal basis of its creation and actual role, the organizational
structure and territorial disposition, and the military manpower
recruitment and Order of Battle

Geographical Intelligence deals with the progress of research

and development as it affects the economic and military potential of
a nation.

Strategic Intelligence as defined earlier, it is an

intelligence data that are not of an immediate value. It is
usually descriptive in nature, accumulation of physical
description of personalities, modus operandi. It does not
have immediate operational value but rather long range that
may become relevant to future police operations.

Line Intelligence It is the kind of intelligence required by

the commander to provide for planning and conduct tactical
and administrative operation in counter insurgency. This
pertains to knowledge of People, Weather, Enemy and
Terrain (PWET) used in planning and conducting tactical and
administrative operation in a counter insurgency.
Intelligence information to be determined in Line
Intelligence are:

People - living condition of the people, sources of income,

education of the people, government livelihood projects,
extent of enemy influence to the people
Weather visibility, cloudy, temperature, precipitation
(rain), wind
Enemy - location of the enemy, strength of the enemy,
disposition, tactical capability, enemy vulnerability
Terrain - relief and drainage system, vegetation, surface
material, man made features. There are military aspects of
terrain which includes cover and concealment, obstacle,
critical key terrain features, observation and fields of fire,
and avenues of approach.
Counter Intelligence (CI) - this kind of intelligence
covers the activity devoted in destroying the
effectiveness of hostile foreign activities and to the
protection of info against espionage, subversion and
sabotage. Hence, the three activities of CI are:
protection of information against espionage; protection
of personnel against subversion; and protection of
installations and material against sabotage.

Measures in CI must be both passive and active. Passive

measures are those measures which seek to conceal
info from the enemy while active measures are those
which seek actively to block the enemys efforts to gain
info or engage in espionage, subversion or sabotage.
Counter Intelligence is also known as Negative Intelligence - a generic term
meaning three different things;

Security Intelligence means that the total sum of efforts to counsel the
national policies, diplomatic decisions, military data, and any other information
of a secret nature affecting the security of the nation form unauthorized
persons. It is an effort to deny information to unauthorized persons by
restricting to those who are explicitly authorized to possess it.

Counter-Intelligence - counter intelligence is the organized effort to protect

specific data that might be of value to the opponents own intelligence
organization. Some of its functions are: Censorship of the following:
correspondence, broadcast, telecast, telephone conversations, telegrams and
cables, etc., prevention of the dissemination of any information that might aid
an opponent; maintenance of files of suspect; surveillance of suspects; mail
reading, wire tapping and recording; infiltration of the enemy intelligence
organized to procure information about its method, personal, specific operations
and interest.

Counter-Espionage - In counter-espionage, negative intelligence becomes a

dynamic and active effort. Its purpose is to investigate actual or theoretical
violation of espionage laws, to enforce those laws and to apprehend any
Five Categories of CI Operation
Military Security it encompasses the measures taken
by a command to protect itself against espionage, enemy
operation, sabotage, subversion or surprise. Examples are:
Secrecy discipline - Special safeguarding of classified
information - Security of troop movement - Special
handling of weather & escapes - Counter subversion with in
the armed forces - Tactical measures in combat area

Port Frontier and Travel Security has to do with the

application of both military and civil security measures for
CI control at point of entry and departure, international
borders or boundaries. Examples are:Security screening
and control of frontier Security control of merchants,
seaman and crew of commercial aircraft, Security control of
frontier crossing point
Security control of seaports
Civil Security it encompasses active and passive CI
measures affecting the non-military nationals
permanently or temporarily residing in an area under
military jurisdiction. Examples are: Systematic
registration of civilians and aliens
Control of circulation, Curfew, Surveillance of suspected
political organizations, Security screening of labor,
Issuance of passes and permits, Control of internal

Censorship it is the control and examination of the

civil, national, armed forces, field press, and POWs.

Special Operations counter subversion, sabotage

and espionage
Categories of CI
Counter Human Intel (HUMINT) seeks to overcome
enemy attempts to use human sources to collect
information or to conduct sabotage and subversion which
includes CI special operations, liaison, counter security, and
CI screening.

Counter Imagery Intel (IMINT) - includes action taken to

determine enemy SIGINT and related enemy weaknesses,
capabilities and activities. These actions include
surveillance radar, photo thermal and infrared systems.
Successful counter IMINT operations rely heavily on
pattern and movement analysis and evaluation of the

Counter Signal Intel (SIGINT) determine enemy SIGINT

and related enemy weaknesses, capabilities and activities,
assess friendly operations to identify patterns, profiles and
develop, recommend and analyze counter measures.







Planning the Collection Effort

This phase of the cycle involve the

determination of the requirements of
intelligence. It is concerned with
identifying the so called Essential
Element of Information (EEI) - an
item of intelligence or information of the
characteristics of the area of operations
and the enemy, which the commander
feels he needs before he needs before
he can reasonably arrive at a decision.
What are their capabilities and
What are the physical characteristics of the
probable area of operation?
What major policies, plans and decisions
must be made in the near future?
What step must be taken to preserve the
security of the nation?
What is the information required by the
higher, lower or adjacent echelons within the
government or armed forces?
Collection of information

This phase of the cycle is concerned with identification

of the collecting agency, the formulation of procedures
on the manner of collecting the information in
conjunction with the plans as achieved in phase one.

Methods of Collection information can be collected

through overt method (open system) or covert method
Collecting Agencies depending on the type of
operation, the collecting agency could be Government
Agencies, Intelligence units, or Organizations
Trade Crafts includes the use of photography,
investigations / elicitation / interrogation, surveillance,
sound equipment, surreptitious entry keys and locks,
use of an artist, communication
Processing the Collected Information
This phase of the cycle is concerned with the examination and collation
of all collected information.

Steps in Processing Raw Information

Collection organization of raw data and information into usable form;

grouping similar items of information so that they will be readily

Recording is the reduction of info into writing or some other form of

graphical representation and the arranging or this info into writing or
some form of graphical representation and the arranging of this into
groups of related items. Police log book and Journal, Intel-work Sheet -
Intel Files, Situation Maps - Rouges Gallery, Modus Operandi Files
Evaluation examination of raw information to determine intelligence
value, pertinence of the information, reliability of the source and
agency, and its credibility or truth of information.

Evaluation is the determination of the pertinence of the info to the

operation, reliability of the source of or agency and the accuracy of the
A - Completely 1 - Confirmed by
reliable other
B - Usually reliable 2 - Probably true
C - Fairly reliable 3 - Possibly true
D - Not usually 4 - Doubtfully true
reliable 5 - Improbable
E - Unreliable 6 - Truth cannot be
F - Reliability cannot judged
be judged
As to Source of
T- InfoObservation by Comdr/Chf of Unit
U- Report by DPA or Resident Agent
V- Report by PNP/AFP Troops
W- Interrogation of Captured Enemy
X- Observation of govt/civilian employee
Y Observation from populace
Z- Documentary
Dissemination & Use of Information

This phase of the cycle refers to the

activities of transferring the processed
information to the proper users, most
particularly the authority that requires the
activity. Processed information can be
disseminated through annexes, estimates,
briefing, message, reports, overlays, and
or summaries.
Methods of Dissemination
Fragmentary orders from top to bottom
of the command
Memorandum, circulars, special orders
Operations order, oral or written
Conference staff members
Other report and intelligence
Personal Contact
Who are the users of intelligence?
National leaders and military commanders
formulation and implementation of national policies.
Advisors and Staff preparations of plans and
Friendly nations or other branches of the armed forces.
Processor basis for evaluation and interpretation.
Head / chairman of an organization
Any person with authority for purposes of planning.




Intelligence is Knowledge = Knowledge is


Information refers to all evaluated materials of every description

including those derived from observation, reports, rumors,
imagery, and other sources from which intelligence in produced.
Information is a communicated knowledge by others obtaining
by personal study, investigation, research, analysis, observation.

Two General classifications of sources of information:

Open Sources 99% of the information collected are coming

from open sources.
Close Sources 1% of information are collected from close
Overt Intelligence is the gathering of information or documents
procured openly without regard as to whether the subject or target
become knowledgeable of the purpose
Open Sources: Includes information taken from
Enemy activity
POW and Civilians
Captured documents
Map - Weather, forecast, studies, report - Agencies

Covert Intelligence is the secret procurement of information,

which is obtained without the knowledge of the person or persons
vital intelligence interest.
Close Sources: Include information which maybe taken through:
Casing and Elicitation
Surreptitious entry
Employment of technical means (Bugging and Tapping device)
Tactical Interrogation
Observation and Description (ODEX)

Informant Net It is a controlled group of people who

worked through the direction of the agent handler. The
informants, principal or cutouts supply the agent
handler directly or indirectly with Intel information

Informants (Asset) people selected as sources of

information, which could be voluntary, or in
consideration of a price.
Informant refers to a person who gives information to
the police voluntarily or involuntarily with out any
Informer those who give information to the police for
price or reward
Types of Informants

Criminal Informant an informant who give information to

the police pertaining to the underworld about organized
criminals with the understanding that his identity will be

Confidential Informant is similar to the former but he gives

information violate of the law to includes crimes and

Voluntary Informant a type of informant who give

information freely and willfully as a witness to a certain act

Special Informant those who gives information concerning

specialized cases only and it is regarded a special treatment
by the operatives (ex. teachers, businessmen)

Anonymous Informant those who gives information through

telephone with the hope that the informant can not be
Sub-type of Informant
Incidental Informant a person who casually imparts
to an officer with no intention of providing subsequent information
Recruited Informant A person who is selected cultivated
and developed into a continuous source of info

Categories of Recruited Informants:

Spontaneous or Automatic Informant Informants who by
the nature of their work or position in society have a certain
legal, moral or ethical responsibilities to report info to the police
Ordinary (out-of-their-will) Informants those under the
compulsion to report info to the police
Special Employee informants who are of a specific operational
Other Classification of Informant
Other terms related to people who gives
information are Automatic Informant,
Penetrating Agent , Infiltrating Agent ,
Full time Informant , Rival Elimination
Informant, False Informant, Frightened
Informant, Self- aggrandizing Informant,
Mercenary Informant , Double Crosser
Informant , Woman Informant ,
Legitimate Informant.
Motives of Informants
People give information to the police due
various reasons. Their motives include
reward, revenge, fear and avoidance of
friendship, patriotism, vanity, civic-
mindedness, repentance, competition,
and other motives.

Selection it is particularly desirable to be able to identity and

recruit an informant who has access to many criminal in-group or
subversive organization. Wide access is probably the single most
important feature in the consideration of recruiting the potential
Investigation the investigation of the potential informants that
has tentatively identified as a probable must be as thorough as
possible. It must establish possible existing motives as to this
person might assist the police Intel community. Failure to do so will
deny this office who must perform the approach and persuasion
phase with little more that a guess. If necessary, conduct complete
background investigation (CBI)
Approach must be done in a setting from which might include
pleasant surroundings, perhaps a confidential apartment,
completely free form any probability of compromise, preferably in
an adjacent city or a remote area foreign to the informants living
Testing the testing program should begin, of course, with the
limited assignment, with a gradual integration into the more
important areas. The occasional testing of an informant should
continue through the entire affiliation

Intelligence Operations is the result of

intelligence planning, planning is always ahead
of operation
although an operation can be made without a
plan, it is usually due to sudden and inevitable
situations but definitely this is poor intelligence

Mission and Target

Infiltration the insertion of action agent inside the target organization
Penetration recruitment of action agent inside the target organization
Partial Background Investigation (PBI) or Complete Background Investigation
Recruitment - the only qualification of an agent is to have an access to the target
Communication - technical method like telephone/radio, non-technical method
like personal meeting, live drop or dead drop
Payments depends upon the motivation of informant
Disposition involve activity on rerouting, retraining, retesting, termination
Operational Testing

Cover - the means by which an individual

group of organization conceals the true nature
of its
acts and or existence from the observer.
Cover story a biographical data through
fictional that will portray the personality of the
agent he assumed, a scenario to cover up the
Cover Support an agent assigned in target
areas with the primary mission of supporting
the cover story.
Undercover Assignment is an investigative technique in which
agent conceal his official identity an obtain information from that

Uses of Undercover Assignment

Use independently to get first hand info about the subject of
investigation like:
a) Security evaluation of every installation
b) Gain confidence of suspended persons
c) Agent penetration
d) Verify info from human resources
e) Uncover concealed identity

Supplement other investigative techniques like:

a) Playing ground works for raids and searches by going entry
b) To assist in locating evidence
c) To install, maintain investigative equipments of undercover
Special qualifications include knowledge of the language,
background regarding events, knowledge about the custom
and habits, physical appearance, and must be an artist.

Factors considered in Selecting Cover Story

Mutual Point of Interest
Justification of presents
Previous and permanent address
Efficiency of role and freedom from the movement
Means of communication
Social and financial status
Optional alternate plan
Safe departure
Selecting Action Agents

Placement location of prospective agent with

respect to the target
Access it is the capability of a prospective agent
to obtain the desired info for the Intel organization
or to perform to Intel collection mission in the area.
Primary Access it is the access to the desired info
Secondary Access it is the access to the desired
info through a principal source where the latter has
the direct access
Outside Access the agent is employed outside the
target and merely monitor info from a third person
who is monitoring info n the area
CONTROL authority to direct the agent to carryout task or
requirement on behalf of the clandestine organization in an
acceptable manner and security

Two Categories of Control

Positive Control is characterized by professionalism and
rapport like Agent motivation and Psychological control
Negative Control characterized by threat and it include the
Disciplinary Action includes verbal reprimand for poor
performance or insecure actions withholding certain material
rewards, reduction of agents salary or in extreme situation
the threat of terminating professional relationship
Escrow Account control of an agent by putting hi salary in
a bank to be withdrawn only after a fulfillment of a condition
Procuring Different Type of Agents

Agent in Place an agent who has been recruited by an

intelligence service within a highly sensitive target, who is
just beginning a career or have been long or (outside)
Double Agent an enemy agent who has been captured,
turned around and sent back where he came from as an
agent of his captors
Expandable Agent an agent whom false information is
leaked to the enemy.
Penetration Agent an agent who has such reached the
enemy gets information and would manage to get back
Agent of Influence an agent who uses influence to gain
Agent of Provocation one who provoke the enemy to give

Concept of Surveillance
Surveillance is a form of clandestine investigation
which consists of keeping persons, place or other
targets under physical observation in order to obtain
evidence or information pertinent to an investigation.
Surveillance of persons is called Tailing or
Shadowing, Surveillance of place is called Casing
or Reconnaissance, and Surveillance of other
things, events, & activities is called Roping.
In Surveillance, the following are considered:
Pre-Surveillance Conference a conference
held among the team members, the police
intelligence unit before surveillance is conducted.
Surveillance Plan a plan established the as
required according to type of personnel, and the
general and specific instructions for surveillance.
Area Target Study refers to the area of
operation (AOR) of surveillance activities.
Surveillant a person who conducts surveillance with includes only
Stakeout or Plant is the observation of places or areas from a fixed
Tailing or Shadowing it is the observation of a persons movement.
Undercover Man it refers to a person trained to observe and penetrate
certain organization suspected of illegal activities and later reports the
observation and informations that proper operational action can be made
Liason Program the assignment of trained intelligence personnel to
other agencies in order to obtain information of police intelligence value.
(Agencies like the press, credit agencies, labor unions, telephone
Safehouse is a place, building, enclosed mobile, or an apartment,
where police undercover men meet for debriefing or reporting purposes.
Drop any person is a convenient, secure and
unsuspecting place where police undercover men meet his
action agent for debriefing or reporting purposes.
Convoy an accomplice or associate of the subject used
to avoid or elude surveillant.
Decoy a cover supporting the surveillant who can
become a convoy whenever surveillant is burned.
Contact any persons whom the subject picks or deals
with while he is under observation & identifies the
Made when subject under surveillance becomes aware
that he is under observation and identifies the observer.
Lost when the surveillant does not know the
whereabouts of his subject or the subject had eluded the

According to Intensity and Sensitivity

Discreet subject person to be watch is unaware that he is
under observation
Close subject is aware that he is under observation varied on
each occasions
Loose applied frequently or infrequently, period of
observation varied on each occasion
According to Methods
Stationary this is observation of place usually a bookie stall,
a gambling, joint, a residence where illegal activities are going
on (fixed position)
Moving surveillance follow the subject from the place to
place to maintain continuous watch of his activities
Technical this is a surveillance by the use of communications
and electronic hardwares, gadgets, system and equipment
Special Equipment (Technical Supports)
Camera with telephoto lens
Moving Picture camera
Tape recording apparatus
Wire taping device
Other instrument miniaturized one-way radio

Methods available to employ in Surveillance

Ordinarily, the methods are surveillance of place, tailing or
shadowing (1-2-3 man shadow), undercover investigation,
special methods includes: wire tapping - concealed
microphones - tape recorder -television - electric gadgets
Counter Surveillance the conduct of
operation is coupled with counter intelligence
measures such as window shopping, use of
convoys and decoys, stopping immediately on
blind corners, getting out immediately on
public conveyances, retracing, entering mobile
Casing is the term use in the police organization
while reconnaissance is used in military terms.
Casing or reconnaissance is the surveillance of
a building place or area to determine its
suitability for Intel use or its vulnerability in
operations. It aids in the planning of an
operation by providing needed information. It
assists the agent handler to install confidence in
his agent during briefing phase by being able to
speak knowingly about the area of operation.
Casing is also considered a security measure
because it offers some degree of protection for
those operating in an area unfamiliar to them.
Method of Casing
Personal Reconnaissance the most effective
method and will produced the most info since you
know just what youre looking for.
Map Reconnaissance it may not sufficient but it can
produce a certain amount of usable information
Research - much info can be acquired through
Prior Information your unit and of the unit will have
file report that they may provide you with info
Hearsay info usually gain by the person operating
in the area and performing casing job

Observation a complete and accurate

observation by an individual of his
surroundings an encompasses the use of all
the major sense to register and recognized
its operational or Intel significance

Description the actual and factual

reporting of ones observation of he
reported sensory experience recounted by
It is a system or plan whereby information of
intelligence value is obtained through the process
direct intercommunication in which one or more of
he parties to the common is unaware of the specific
purpose of the conservation. The three phases are
determination of the mission, selection of the
subject, and accomplishment of the mission.

Two Devices in the conduct of Elicitation

Approach process of setting people to start
Probe to keep the people taking incessantly
Example of Approach:
Teacher Pupil Approach the subject
is treated as an authority then solicit
his view point and opinion on a subject
Good Samaritan Approach is the
sincere and valid offers of help and
assistance are made to the subject
It is a means of using descriptive terms in
relation to the personal features of an individual
and it can be briefly described as a word
description or a spoken picture.
(Anthropometry - no two human beings has the
same body measurement)
(BI- PSI or CBI)
Information needed:
Domestic Background
Personal Habit
Business History
Social or Business Associates
Medical History
Educational Background
Family History

The need for obtaining information of

the highest degree of credibility taken
on the minimum of time can be through
interrogation which varies and
dependent entirely on the situation.
Types of Interrogation

Screening - usually accomplished as soon as after

capture, apprehension or arrest of an interrogee. The
objective is to obtain background information about the
interrogee and determine his area of knowledge and
Formal Interrogation (Detailed) the systematic
attempt to exploit to an appropriate depth those areas of
the interrogees knowledge, which have been identified in
the screening process
Debriefing a form of eliciting information, which is
generally used when the area of intellectual capability of
the interrogee is known. Maximum use of the narrative and
not try to trap the person being debriefed with leading
question. The debriefer/interrogator must be familiar with
the subject in which the interrogation is being conducted.
Interrogation of Lay Personnel (Specific Type) the
techniques used are the same as in the interrogations,
however, especial effort must be made to established a
common frame of reference between the interrogator and
the interrogee. The amount of information obtained from
this type will depend on the interrogators inequity in
establishing common terminology on the source can
understand which will enable the interrogator to get the
desired information.

Technical Interrogation the level of interrogation

where the source has specific and such detailed
information that requires a trained expert in the subject
matter to be explored. It usually covers the specific
subject and time is not as limited as during other
Phases of Interrogation

Planning and Preparation

Approach (Meeting the Interrogee)
Recording Reporting

Techniques of Approach the purpose is to gain the cooperation of

the source and induce him to answer questions which will follows.
The Open Techniques the interrogator is open and direct in his
approach and makes no attempts to conceal the purpose of the
interrogator. It is best employed when the interrogee is cooperative. It is
frequently used at the tactical level where time is a major interrogator.
The Common Interest Technique the interrogator must exert
effort to impress the interrogee of their common interest. The
interrogator must look for he point out the real advantages the
interrogee will receive if he cooperates
Record File (we know all technique) the interrogator prepare a file
on the source listing all known information (record should be padded to
make it appear to be very extensive). The information must contain the
life history of he interrogee to include his activities and known associates
(Party- bio-data of the interrogee is important). The we know all s used
in conjunction with the record file. During the approach, the interrogator
may ask the interrogee about a subject, if he refuses to cooperate, the
interrogator may provide the answer in order to impress him that the
interrogator knows him very well (all is known).
Exasperation Techniques (Harassment) effectively employed against
hostile type interrogee. The interrogator must be alert because the
interrogee may fabricate information to gain relief from irritation
(monotype). Subject Interrogee is placed in a longer period of interrogation
without rest or sleep. The interrogator permits the source to go to sleep and
subsequently awaken for another series of questioning (this is done
repeatedly). After many repetitions, the interrogee will be exasperated and
will finally cooperate hoping that he can be allowed to rest or sleep. Ask a
question, listen to a reply and then ask the same question repeatedly (use a
tape recorder if possible). The purpose is to bore the interrogee thoroughly
until he begins to answer questions freely to end the harassment.

Opposite Personality Technique also known as Mutt and Jeff, Threat

and Rescue, Bud Guy God Guy, Sweet and Sour, Sugar and Vinegar,
Devil and Angel. Use of two (2) interrogators playing opposite roles.

Egotist Techniques (Pride and Ego) usually successful when employed

against an interrogee who has displayed a weakness or a feeling of
insecurity. You may reverse the technique by complimenting the interrogee
in hopes of getting him to admit certain information to gain credit.
Described him as the best person, superior or comrade.
Silent Technique employed against nervous or
the confident type of interrogee. Look out the
interrogee squarely in the eye with sarcastic smile
(force him to break eye contact first). He may ask
questions but the interrogator must not answer.
Patience is needed until the interrogator is ready to
break silence.

Question Barrage Technique (Rapid Fire

Questioning) intended to confuse the interrogee
and put him into a defensive position. The interrogee
become frustrated and confused, he will likely reveal
more than he intended, thus creating opening for
further questioning.

(WITH R.A 5487) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 219


SECURITY state of being safe/secured/out of

danger/free from hazard


resources by a security organization in
its goals and objectives.

SECURITY SYSTEMS application of various

methods/measures of protection Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 220
Security Systems are varied
The three (3) General Categories

- protective security systems

- human/workforce/employees/VIPs


- classified matters/sensitive information Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 221

Security Systems

Physical Security

a system of barriers
placed between the potential intruder and
matter to be protected. It is concerned with
the physical measures adopted to prevent
unauthorized access to equipment, facilities,
material, and documents, and to safeguard
them against espionage,
sabotage, damage and theft. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 222
Physical Security Systems
Protective Security - those measures taken
an installation or unit to protect itself against
sabotage, espionage or subversion and at the
same time provide freedom of action in order to
provide the installation of the unit with the
necessary flexibility to accomplish its mission.

Examples: Industrial, Banks, Hotel, School,

Supermarket, etc. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 223

Protective security
A barrier can be defined as any structure or
physical device capable of restricting,
deterring, delaying, illegal access to an

VIP Types of barriers: Human, Energy, Animal,

Natural, Structural Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 224

Protective security
Three Line of Physical Defense

First line of Defense- perimeter fences/ barriers

Second line of defense- doors, floors, windows,
walls, roofs and grills and other entries to the
Third line of defense- storage system like steel
cabinets, safes, vaults and interior files. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 225

Protective security
Perimeter fences
Protective Lightings
Protective Alarms
Protective Locks and Keys Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 226

Personnel Security
are measures designed to prevent unsuitable
individuals or persons of doubtful loyalty to the
government, from gaining access to classified
matter or to any security facility, and to prevent
appointment, or retention as employees of
such individuals.
** Personal Security = VIP/Executive
Protection Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 227

The Guard and Guarding Systems
(focus on RA 5487) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 228

Brief History
June 1, 1969 - RA 5487 otherwise known as the Private
Security Agency Law was enacted.
August 4, 1969 - Philippine Constabulary Security and
Investigation Agency Supervisory Office (PCSIASO) was
June 29, 1970 Renamed as PC Supervisory Unit for
Security and Investigation Agencies (PCSUSIA).
May 1996 creation of Security Agencies And Guards
Supervision Division (SAGSD) as one division under the
Civil Security Group
July 10, 2003 New IRR
May 2008 Amended IRR took effect on 2009 Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 229

PADPAO stands for the Philippine Association of
Detective and Protective Agency Operators.
It is a non-stock private organization formed in May 1958.

R.A. 5487 an act that regulates the organization and

operation of the private detective, watchmen or security
guard agencies. (Private Security Agency Law)

Note: Prior to R.A. 5487 there was no law on private

security operations, what was needed was only a
permit from the city or municipal mayor to hire a
security guard.
PCSUSIA Philippine Constabulary Supervisory Unit for Security
and Investigation Agencies formed as a result of the approval of
R.A. 5487, which directs the Chief PC to issue rules and regulations
concerning the implementation of R.A. 5487. Later was change to
PNPSOSIA- when the Philippine Constabulary was dissolved and
the personnel was merged to the PNP.

PNPSOSIA PNP Supervisory Office for Security and Investigation

Agencies responsible for the issuance of implementing orders
regarding the rules & regulations affecting security agencies
At present

PNPSAG/SD PNP Security Agency Guards/

Supervision Division for national and
PNP FE/SAGS PNP Firearm and Explosives/

Security Agency Guard Services for local -

it directs the Chief of PNP to issue rules and
concerning the implementing rules of
R.A. 5487 - 2003 Revised Rules and
Regulations Implementing R.A. 5487 as
amended. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 232
Are measures adopted in securing classified
matters and sensitive information.

It is based on the premise that the government

has the right and duty to protect official papers from unwarranted
indiscriminate disclosure.
In answer to this problem, Malacanang dated August 14, 1964
entitled Promulgating rules governing security of classified
matters in
Government Officers was promulgated. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 233



Policing is the most obvious and apparent
aspect of the criminal justice system
Police Systems around the world varied in
terms of approach and practices in achieving
police goals due to diversity of culture.
However similarities are placed on the
purpose of their existence law enforcement,
peace and order, crime prevention. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 235

Basis of the Course
CHED Memo 21 S 2005
Course Description:
This study covers the different transnational
crimes, it nature and effects as well as the
organization of the law enforcement set-up in
the Philippines
and its comparison of selected police models
and their relation with Interpol and UN bodies in
campaign against transnational crimes and in
the promotion of world peace. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 236
Concept of the word
Denotes the degree or grade by which a person,
thing, or other entity has a property or quality
greater or less in extent than that of another
- Similarities and Differences -Example:
Japanese Police System
vs. Philippine Police System
***The study of comparative police system, criminal
justice and law is a fairly new field and has
corresponded with rising interest in a more established
comparative criminology. Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 237
What is comparative Police System?

It is the process of outlining the similarities

and differences of one police system to
another in order to discover insights in the
field of international policing.
What is Globalization?
Is the system of interaction among the countries of the
world in order to develop the global economy.
Globalization refers to the integration of economics and
societies all over the world. Globalization involves
technological, economic, political, and cultural
exchanges made possible largely by advances in
communication, transportation, and infrastructure.(see
notes) Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 238

TAKING!! Dr. Rommel K. Manwong 239