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Review of Related

To obtain background knowledge of your research
To show the capacity of your research work to introduce new
To expand, prove, or disprove the findings of previous research
To increase your understanding of the underlying theories,
principles, or concepts of your research
To explain technical terms involved in your research study
To highlight the significance of your work with the kind of
evidence it gathered to support the conclusion of your research
To avoid repeating previous research studies
To recommend the necessity of further research on a certain
Traditional Review of Related Literature
summarize present forms of knowledge on a
specific subject; structure resembles that of an
Systematic Review of Related Literature
involves sequential acts of a review of related
literature; it is bias-free style; ensures
objectivity (Fraenbell 2012); structure is based
on the research questions
A traditional literature review provides an overview of the
research findings on particular topics. A traditional literature is
written by examining a body of published work, then writing a
critical summary (an impressionistic overview) of the body of
literature. The purpose of a literature review is make clear for
a reader what the research collectively indicates with regard
to a particular issue or question. Literature reviews are vital
documents for organizing and making accessible the major
findings in an area of inquiry. Literature reviews are often
used, for example: to inform policy and future research
directions. Conducting of literature is particularly important as
a field of inquiry expands or changes.
A traditional literature review is not foolproof- it has some
strengths and weaknesses. The method involves authors
reading original (primary) studies, taking notes, organizing
Strength: when a traditional review is systematically
conducted by an expert in the field, insightful, varied
syntheses of the research literature can be developed and
sometimes unique insight is generated.

Weakness: the traditional literature method leaves authors

vulnerable to unintentional and intentional bias in the
selection, interpretation and organization of content. In
addition, it is difficult for the statistical power of empirical
studies to be considered interpreting main studies. As a
result, traditional reviewers regularly emphasize the
statistical significance results, rather than the effect sizes. In
fields with research that has low power, traditional literature
reviews maybe compromised by this potentially serious
The research questions will tell you what to collect and where to
obtain those data you want to collect.
Plan your manner obtaining the data (what keywords to use for
easy searching and how to accord courtesy and respect to people
or institutions from where the data will come)
Do the literature search. Use keywords, search from the Internet,
books, journals, periodicals, government publications, general
references, and the like.
Using a certain standard, determine which data studies or sources
of knowledge are valuable. Junk the rest if not reasonable.
Determine the methodical soundness of the research soundness.
Use checklist/criteria to assess.
Summarize what you have gathered from various sources of data.
Concisely present a synthesis of your report (use graph such as
table and other format)
Sample RRL from Unpublished
Most articles found in this research agree that women was
advantageous during the World War II period. However, these
changes were not all welcomed. In most cases women faced
discrimination from just about everyone around them. Women in the
workplace were often placed in positions of inferiority or treated as
being less physically able to do the same work the men did. Many
women were often not trained because they were viewed as
temporary employees who were only there for the duration of the war
(Bruley, 2003, pp. 221-222). Women were very rarely given equal pay
as men, even though some of them did the same work. Women in the
military faced not only mental abuse but also physical harm from their
male counterparts. According to Cornelsen (2005), there were many
instances where female aviators were injured or killed due to being
made to fly ill-maintained aircrafts that had been sabotaged (p. 114).
Sample RRL from Unpublished
Moreover, Perez (2009) highlighted that social structure
provides an organized and focused quality to group
experiences. By virtue of social structure, we link certain
of our experiences, terming them for example, the family,
the church, the neighborhood and others. Social structure
gives us the feeling that life is characterized by
organization and
Perez, A. (2009). The stability.
Modular Approach in Teaching Literature Subjects: Its Effect in the
Learning Performance of
Tertiary Students at Divine Word College of Calapan. (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Divine
Word College of
Sample RRL from Unpublished
This is supported by the study of John Lye (2003)
mentioned by Gutierrez (2008) titled On the Uses of
Studying Literature. He emphasized the wisdom thesis
which says that literature explores the texture and
meaning of human experience in a complex, compelling
way, and led us to insight and rich reflection, hence
wisdom, concerning our lives and the nature of human
Gutierrez, J. (2008). An Analysis of Selected Filipino Short Stories in English using Formalism.
experience. (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Divine Word College of Calapan.

Sample RRL from a

Short story book
is a brief fictionalprosenarrativethat is
shorter than anoveland that usually deals with only a few
characters. It is usually concerned with a single effect
conveyed in only one or a few significant episodes or
scenes. The form encourages economy ofsetting, concise
narrative, and the omission of a complex plot;characteris
disclosed in action and dramatic encounter but is seldom
fully developed. Despite its relatively limited scope,
though, a short story is often judged by its ability to
provide a complete or satisfying treatment of its
characters and subject (2014 Encyclopedia Britannica).
Sample RRL from internet
sourceto Magdirr, Facebook is still growing in Asia with
over 351 million active users at the last count. The
Philippines, contributes more than 30 million people to
that facebook Asian number. But for Filipinos, services like
facebook are for more than just posting, liking and reading
through feeds social media has proved to be powerful in
many other ways.

Phoebe Magdirr, 5 Ways that Social Media rocked the Philippines in 2012,
Date Retrieved: February 2014
Sample RRL from a
journalis not balanced and well-rounded
Education unless it
relates to the technological world. In todays modern and
highly technological world, new things and new
information are coming out regularly that it has become a
pre-condition for coping with change to keep on learning.
Even the so called experts learn many things every day.

The Modern Teacher, Technology Breaking Barriers in Education, Creating Future Schools
Today. July 2012, Vol. 61. No. 02.
Sample RRL from a
In the Higher Education Review Magazine May 2017
issue, Dr. Ritesh Chugh ,Senior Lecturer Central
Queensland University Australia cited that Social
media is rapidly evolving and higher education institutions
need to keep up with the pace of his powerful medium

Ex: The Higher Education Press, Queensland Australla. Vol. II page 13. copyright 2017