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Copyright 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 Pearson, Education, Inc.

6.4

Dividing
Polynomials: Long
Division and
Synthetic Division
Dividing a Polynomial by a Monomial

Dividing a Polynomial by a Monomial


Divide each term in the polynomial by the
monomial.

ab a b
, where c 0.
c c c
Example

Divide.
12a 3 36a 15 12a 3 36a 15

3a 3a 3a 3a

5
4a 12
2

a
Example

4 3 2
Divide 10t 35 t 5t .
2
5t
10t 4 35t 3 5t 2 10t 4 35t 3 5t 2
5t 2 5t 2 5t 2 5t 2

2t 2 7t 1
Dividing Polynomials

Dividing a polynomial by a polynomial other


than a monomial uses a long division
technique that is similar to the process known
as long division in dividing two numbers, which
is reviewed on the next slide.
Dividing Polynomials
168 Divide 43 into 72.
Multiply 1 times 43.
43 7256 Subtract 43 from 72.
43 Bring down 5.
295 Divide 43 into 295.
258 Multiply 6 times 43.
Subtract 258 from 295.
37 6 Bring down 6.
344 Divide 43 into 376.
32 Multiply 8 times 43.
Subtract 344 from 376. We then write our result as
32
Nothing to bring down. 168 .
43
Dividing Polynomials

As you can see from the previous example, there is


a pattern in the long division technique.
Divide
Multiply
Subtract
Bring down
Then repeat these steps until you cant bring
down or divide any longer.
We will incorporate this same repeated technique
with dividing polynomials.
Dividing Polynomials

4x 5 Divide 7x into 28x2.


Multiply 4x times 7x+3.
7 x 3 28 x 23x 15
2
Subtract 28x2 + 12x from 28x2 23x.
Bring down 15.
28 x 12 x
2
Divide 7x into 35x.

35 x 15 Multiply 5 times 7x+3.


Subtract 35x15 from 35x15.
35 x 15 Nothing to bring down.

So our answer is 4x 5.
Dividing Polynomials

2x 10 Divide 2x into 4x2.

2 x 7 4x 6 x 8
2 Multiply 2x times 2x+7.
Subtract 4x2 + 14x from 4x2 6x.
4 x 14 x
2
Bring down 8.

20x 8 Divide 2x into 20x.

20x 70 Multiply 10 times 2x+7.


Subtract 20x70 from 20x+8.
78 Nothing to bring down.

We write our final answer as 2x 10 78


( 2 x 7)
Example
2
Divide: 3c 2
c
c 1
1. Divide the leading term of
c the dividend, c2, by the
c 1 c 2 3c 2 first term of the divisor, x.


c2 c c c2 c
2. Multiply c by c + 1. 2c
c(c 1) c 2 c

3. Subtract c2 + c from c2 + 3c 2.
( c 2 3c ) ( c 2 c ) 2c
Continued
Example (cont)

c 2
c 1 c 2 3c 2

c2 c Bring down the next term
to obtain a new
polynomial.
4. Repeat the process until the 2c 2
degree of the remainder is less 2c 2
than the degree of the binomial
divisor. 4 Remainder

5. Check by verifying that (Quotient)(Divisor) + Remainder = Dividend.


(c 2)(c 1) (4)
c 2 3c 2 (4) c 2 3c 2 c 2 4
c 1 c 1
c 2 3c 2
Example

Divide: (y2 5y + 6) (y 2)
y 3
y 2 y2 5y 6
y2 2y
3y + 6
3y + 6
0
No remainder

Check : (y 2)(y 3) = y2 5y + 6

(y2 5y + 6) (y 2) = y 3
Synthetic Division
To find the quotient and remainder when a polynomial of
degree 1 or higher is divided by x c, a shortened version of
long division called synthetic division may be used.

Long Division Synthetic Division Subtraction signs


x 2 x 2 are not
necessary.
x 1 x 2 3x 2 x 1 x 2 3x 2
( x 2 x ) x The original terms in
2x red are not needed
2x 2 2 because they are the
( 2 x 2) 4 same as the term
4 directly above.
Continued
continued

x 2 x 2
x 1 1 3 2
x 1 x 2 3x 2
x 1
The variables are
2x 2 not necessary.
2 2
4 4

x 2
x 1 1 3 2
1 2 The boxed
numbers can be
2 4 aligned horizontally. Continued
continued
x 2
x 1 1 3 2
The first two numbers in the last row are
1 2 the coefficients of the quotient, the last
1 2 4 number is the remainder.

The leading coefficient of the


To simplify further, the top
dividend can be brought down.
row can be removed and
instead of subtracting, we
The x + 1 is 1 1 3 2 can change the sign of
replaced 1 2 each entry and add.
with a 1.
1 2 4
Quotient Remainder
Remainder Theorem

If a polynomial P(x) is divided by x c, then the


remainder is P(c).
Example

Use the reminder theorem and synthetic division to


find P(4) is P(x) = 4x6 25x3 + 35x4 + 17x2.

4 4 25 35 0 17 0 0
16 36 4 16 4 16
4 9 1 4 1 4 16

remainder
Thus, P(4) = 16, the remainder.