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Wajid hussain
Hamza khan
Furqan khan
Shahab- ud -Din
Asad khan
Asim Irshad
Amjid khan
Ashfaq khan
Muhammad Bilal
Coal what is it?
Inhomogeneous organic fuel
65- C formed mainly from
Elemental Composition

95% decomposed plant matter.

2-7% H Over 1200 coals have been
<25% O classified.
<10% S Coalification forms different
1-2% N coal types:
20- Cha (Peat)
Proximate Analysis

70% r Lignite
5-15% Ash Bituminous coal Time,Coal

2-20% H2O Anthracite

Coal Applications
Homes heat and
Transportation steam
Industry metal works
Electricity power
Basic process of coal
Coal is an organic fuel. When
heated, the organic matter of coal is
pyrolyzed, and then evolves as
volatile. The remaining solid is a
mixture of carbon and mineral
matter, which is referred to as
char. The combustion of coal is
primarily the combustion of carbon
as well as the volatile matter
Stages of combustion
Principal combustion process of coal involves
three basic stages:
(1) The release of the volatile matter resulting
from the heating of coal,
(2) The burning of the released volatile matter
(3) The burning of the remaining char.
Depending upon specific combustion conditions,
the burning process of volatile matter and coal
char may take place simultaneously,
sequentially, or with some overlapping
Coal devolatization and volatile
The release of the volatile matter resulting
from the heating of coal belongs to the
devolatilization stage. During this stage,
moisture present in the coal will evolve as the
temperature of coal rises. As the temperature
further increases, gases and heavy tarry
substances are emitted. The content of these
matters can vary from a few percent up to
7080 percent of the total coal weight, with
coal types and heating conditions, etc
. Depending on the size, type, and
temperature condition of coal,
devolatilization takes a few
milliseconds or several minutes to
complete. A variety of products
including tar, hydrocarbon gases,
etc. are produced during coal
devolatilization. These products are
combustible. They react with oxygen
in the vicinity of coal particles and
Coal-Char Combustion
The residual char particles, enriched in
carbon, containing most of the mineral
matter of the original coal and some surplus
nitrogen as well as sulfur are
often spherical, very porous and have many
cracks, which result from the escape of
gaseous products and heat stress.
The characteristics of the char depend on
the type and size of the original coal as well
as on the heating conditions
The residual char particle can be burned out under an
oxidizing condition at sufficiently high temperature.
The reaction between the char and oxygen is a gas-
solid heterogeneous reaction. The gaseous oxygen
diffuses to, and into, the char particle, being
absorbed, and reacting on the pore surface of the
particle. This heterogeneous process is often much
slower than the devolatilization process, requiring
seconds to several minutes or more. The rate of this
process varies with coal types, temperature,
pressure, char characteristics, (the size, surface area,
etc.), and oxidizer concentration
Other reactants, including steam,
CO2 and H2, can also react with
char, but the rates with these
reactants are considerably slower
than with oxygen.
The primary reactions of char
combustion and the heat of the
reactions are
Reactions Heat of Reaction (kJ)
C + O2 = CO2 -392.9
C + 1/2 O2 = CO -111.2
CO + 1/2 O2 = CO2 -281.7
C + CO2 = 2CO +170.5
Main Processes in Coal

combustion CO2, H2O,
coal particle
p-coal, d=30-70m
combustion CO2, H2O,


tdevolatile=1-5ms tvolatiles=50-100ms tchar=1-2sec

The lowest temperature at which
coal can be ignited is referred to as
the ignition temperature. The ignition
temperature for a certain coal is
variable under different conditions
because of the complexity of the
ignition process. For the convenience
of comparison, the ignition
temperature is specified in terms of
specific conditions.
Table shows the ignition
temperatures of different types of
coal. It is obvious that the ignition
temperature of coal refers to the
temperature that triggers off the
release of the volatile. In general,
coals containing a higher volatile
content have a lower initial volatile
releasingtemperature and are
easier to be ignited.
Coal Type Ignition Volatile
Temprature initial
lignite 250-450 130-170

Bituminous 450-500 200-300

Anthracite 700-800 380-400
Stoichiometric Air Requirement.
Coal combustion for
insufficient air
Combustion of Sulfur
Combustion of Hydrogen
Example 2: Combustion Calculation for a Coal
A coal has the following ultimate analysis:
% by mass
Carbon 90
Hydrogen 3
Oxygen 2.5
Nitrogen 1
Sulfur 0.5
Ash 3
(a) the volumetric air supply rate required if 500 kg/h of
coal is to be burned at 20% excess air and
(b) the resulting %CO2 (dry) by volume in the
combustion products.

Lay out the calculation on a tabular basis using 1 kg coal:
Mass (per kg) O2 Required Products
Carbon 0.9 0.9
2.4 0.9
Hydrogen 0.03 16
0.03 0.24 0.03 0.27
Sulfur 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
32 32
Oxygen 0.025 -0.025 -
Nitrogen 0.01 - 0.01
Ash 0.03 - -

Un burnt gas loss
Dry flue gas loss
Combustible in ash loss.

Unburnt Carbon in C.V. Liberated in

% of Excess Air Unburnt Gas Loss
Ash Furnace

CO2, O2, N2, H2O, CO,

0% 10 % 75 %
CH4(15 %)

CO2, O2, N2, H2, CO(1

15 % 2% 97 %

100 % 0.5 % 99.5 % CO2, O2, N2

Particulate Matter

Bottom Ash Fly Ash

PM composition and emission levels are a

complex function of:
1. Coal properties,
2. Boiler firing configuration,
3. Boiler operation,
4. Pollution control equipment.
In PC power plants, since combustion is almost complete, the emitted PM is
primarily composed of inorganic ash residues.
PM controls (AP-42, EPA)

Mainly post combustion methods:

Electrostatic 99% (for 0.1>d(m)>10)

precipitator (ESP) <99% (for 0.1<d (m)<10)

Fabric filter (or As high as 99.9%

Wet scrubber 95-99%

Cyclone 90-95% (d(m)>10)

Trace metals
Concentration of metal in coal, physical and chemical properties of the
metal, combustion conditions.

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

Elements that are Elements that are Elements which are
approximately equally enriched in fly ash emitted in the gas
concentrated in the fly relative to bottom ash phase (mainly Hg).
ash and bottom ash (Ar, Cd, Pb, An)
(Mn, Be, Co, Cr)

Control of total Collection of fine Sorbents ???
particulate matter particles.
Basic Coal Furnace
System for coal burning

1)Moving Grate
2)Fixed Bed
3)Fluidized bed
4)Pulverized Coal flame
Combustion Process Coal sizing

1)Grate Furnaces(Stoker firing

Fixed bed: mud, dust, tiny ,thick,
peas, nut,
Moving grates: peas, nut(10-30mm)
2)Fluidized beds
I. Bubling <25mm
II. Circulating; 6mm
3)Pulverized Coal furnaces
Bituminous coal R90=25-30% R200<
Lignite coal R90 = 48-55%
Uses of coal
Coal is burned to
1) Create Electricity
2) Manufacturing cement, steel, other
industrial products.
3) heating homes