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PURVIEW

Concreting Operations- Batching, Mixing,


Tpt, Placing, Compaction and Finishing.

Form Work.

Curing.

Cold and Hot Weather Concreting.

Concrete Defects and their Mitigation.


CONCRETE
The ingredients of good concrete and bad concrete are the
same.
If meticulous care is not exercised, and good rules are not
observed, the resultant concrete is going to be of bad quality.
The various stages of manufacture of concrete are:
a) Batching.
b) Mixing.
c) Transporting.
d) Placing.
e) Compacting.
f) Finishing.
BATCHING
The process of measuring concrete mix
ingredients by either mass or volume.
To produce concrete of uniform quality, the
ingredients must be measured accurately for
each batch.
Most concrete today is batched and mixed by
ready mixed concrete plants
Weigh Batching

Weigh batching is the correct method of


measuring the materials.
Use of weight system in batching, facilitates
accuracy, flexibility and simplicity.
Large weigh batching plants have automatic
weighing equipment.
Volume Batching
Volume batching is not a good method for
proportioning the material because of the difficulty it
offers to measure granular material in terms of
volume.
Volume of moist sand in a loose condition weighs
much less than the same volume of dry compacted
sand.
The effect of bulking should be consider for moist fine
aggregate.
For unimportant concrete or for any small job.
Volume Batch Quantities for Various
Mixes

Relative Proportion of
Ingredients by Volume In
Aggregat
Grade of
Cement : Sand : Grade General
e
Concret Fine Coarse We
e 1Cement
: 2 Aggregat
: 4 AggregatM-15 Specify It
e e As
1 : 1.5 : 3 M-20

M 10 1 1: 1 :3 2 6 M-25 1:3:6
M 15 1 2 4 1:2:4
M 20 1 1.5 3 1:1.5:3
IS-456 Recommendations
Avoid confusion. Have one type of mix at a time.
Qty of all ingredients be measured in mass.
Engr in Charge to Chk grading of aggregates as frequently as
possible.
Accuracy of measuring eqpt : (+/-) 2% for cement & (+/-) 3% for
aggregate .
Endeavour to make densest possible mix.
Use bulk densities of aggregates est in adv.
Engr in Charge to ensure exact water cement ratio.
Measure exact moisture content in aggregates.
Vol batching allowed only where weigh batching is impractical.
Prefer RMC.
MIXING
Thorough mixing of the materials is essential
for the production of uniform concrete.
The mixing should ensure that the mass
becomes
Homogeneous.
Uniform in colour.
Consistency.
There are two methods adopted for mixing
concrete:
Machine mixing
Machine Mixing
In normal concrete work, it is the batch mixers that are
used. Batch mixer may be of pan type or drum type.
As per I.S. 17911985 and IS 456
Mix in a mechanical mixer.
Mixer should have water measuring device.
Achieve uniformity in materials, colour and consistency.
Remix if segregation of aggregates takes place.
Mix at least for 02 minutes.
For hydrophobic cements: Engr - in - Charge to decide.
Recommended Dosages of following
Retarders 0.5%
Plasticisers 1%
Mixing Timings
S NO CAPACITY (cu m) TIME ( min)

1 0.8 1

2 1.5 1.25

3 2.3 1.5

4 3.1 1.75

5 3.8 2

6 4.6 2.25

7 7.6 3.25
Hand Mixing
Hand mixing is practised for small scale
unimportant concrete works.
As the mixing cannot be thorough and efficient, it
is desirable to add 10 per cent more cement to
cater for the inferior concrete produced by this
method.
Hand mixing should be done over an impervious
concrete or brick floor of sufficiently large size to
take one bag of cement.
Spread out the measured quantity of coarse
Mech Concrete Mixers
Ready Mixed Concrete
Shrink-mixed concrete.
Mixed partially in a stationary
mixer and completed in a truck
mixer
Truck-mixed concrete.
Mixed completely in a truck
mixer.
Ready Mix Plant
TRANSPORTION
Transport as rapidly as possible.
Prevent segregation, loss of ingredients or
ingress of foreign matter/water.
Maintain workability.
Reduce water loss by evaporation during
summer and heat loss during winters.
PLACING
Basic Requirements for Placing
Concrete
Preserve concrete quality
Water-cement ratio.
Slump.
Air-content.
Homogeneity.
Avoid separation of aggregate and mortar.
Placing
Moisten the subgrade.
Trim the subgrade.
Compact the subgrade.
Choose the right equipment for concreting.
Maintain sufficient placement capacity.
Compact each layer before next is placed.
Avoid excessive horizontal movement.
Timely placement & consolidation prevents flow lines
and cold joints.
Placing
Avoid segregation, displacement of reinforcement
and movement of form work.
Max height of permissible free fall : 1.5 m
Deposit continuously and place as near as possible
in final position.
Avoid re-handling.
Should be placed and compacted well before initial
setting time.
Should be compacted in its final position within 30
minutes of leaving the mixer.
Segregation Control in Filling
Hopper
Segregation Control in Discharge of
Concrete from Hopper
Segregation Control at the End of
Chutes
Placing Concrete from Buggies
Placing Concrete in Deep Walls
Placing Concrete in Deep Walls
Placing Concrete on Sloping
Surface
Donts while Depositing Concrete
Disturb saturated subgrades so bearing capacity is
maintained.
Deposit on frozen subgrade.
Dump in separate piles & then level and work
together.
Deposit in large piles & then move horizontally into
position (These practices result in segregation as
mortar flows ahead of coarser material).
Rate of placement be such that previously placed
concrete sets before the next layer is placed upon it.
COMPACTION
Concrete should be thoroughly compacted and
fully worked around the reinforcement,
embedded fixtures and corners of form work.
Use mech vibrators (IS 2505, IS 2506, IS 2514,
IS 4656).
Avoid over / under vibration.
Design of formwork and disposition of
vibrators requires consideration.
Compaction

Internal Vibration

External Vibration

Placing and
Finishing
Concrete
Compaction
Internal Vibration
Vibrator

1
R
Radius of Action
Systematic Vibration of Each
New Lift
CORRECT
Vertical penetration of a few
inches into previous lift (which
should not have set) of
systematic regular intervals will
give adequate compaction,
INCORRECT
Haphazard random penetration of
the vibrator at all angles and
spacing without sufficient depth
will not assure intimate
Placing and
combination of the two layers
Finishing
Concrete
Placing Concrete in a
Sloping Lift
CORRECT
Start placing at bottom of slope so
that compaction is increased by
weight of newly added concrete.
Vibration consolidates the concrete.
INCORRECT
When placing is begun at top of
slope the upper concrete tends to
pull apart especially when vibrated
below as this starts flow and
removes from concrete above.
External Vibration
Form vibrators.
Vibrating tables.
Surface vibrators.
Vibratory screeds.
Plate vibrators.
Vibratory roller screeds.
Vibratory hand floats or
trowels.
Placing and
Finishing
Concrete
CONCRETE FINISHING
Concrete Finish

Concrete can be finished in several different ways:


Smooth (basements, shop floors)
Brushed (sidewalks, steps, porches)
Stamped (sidewalks, patios, interior finish)
Permissible Tolerance in Laying
(IS 1443)
The permissible deviation from datum depends on
the area involved.
For large open areas, a deviation of up to 15 mm
may be tolerated.
Localized deviations of 3 mm in any 3 m may be
accepted in a nominally flat floor.
Screeding

Screeding brings the surface to the required


elevation by striking off the excess concrete.
Hand Screed
Mech Screed
Screeding (Strikeoff)

Process of cutting off excess concrete to bring the top surface


to proper grade.

Placing and
Finishing
Concrete
Mechanical Screeding
Screeding (Strikeoff)

Vibratory
Screeds
Placing and
Finishing
Concrete
Floating (Power or Hand)
To embed aggregate particles just beneath the surface
To remove slight imperfections, humps, and voids
To compact the mortar at the surface in preparation for
additional finishing operations.

Placing and
Finishing
Concrete
Bullfloating

Placing and
Finishing
Concrete
Darbying

Placing and
Finishing
Concrete
Troweling
Creates smooth, hard,dense surface
Exterior concrete should not be troweled because:
It can lead to a loss of entrained air caused by
overworking the surface
Troweled surfaces can be slippery when wet.
Brooming

Placing and
Finishing
Concrete
Tining

Placing and
Finishing
Concrete
FORM WORK

Well designed.
Strong and Sound.
Good Finish.
Easy to install and remove.
Tight joints.
Safe to use.
Provide access for placing and compacting.
Not outlived its life.
Formwork Stripping Timings (IS 1468
Good Form Work
Good Form Work
Failure of Formwork
Failure of Formwork
Failure of Formwork
Failure of Formwork
Generally some unexpected event causes one member
to fail, then others become overloaded or misaligned
and the entire formwork structure collapses.
Improper stripping and shore removal.
Inadequate cross bracing and horizontal bracing of
shores.
Vibration.
Passing traffic.
Movement of workers & equipment on the formwork .
Effect of vibrating concrete to consolidate.
Failure of Formwork

Lack of attention to formwork details.


Inadequate control of concrete placement.
CURING

If any of these factors are


neglected, the desired
properties will not develop
Effect of Curing on Concrete

Strength.
Water tightness.
Abrasion resistance.
Freeze-thaw resistance.
Volume stability.
Effect of Moist Curing
Effect of Curing Temperature on
Strength
Curing Methods

1. Supply additional water


with:
Ponding or immersion
Spraying or fogging
Saturated wet coverings
Curing Methods

2. Seal in mixing water:


Plastic sheets
Membrane-forming
curing compounds
Strength vs. Curing Temperature
COLD WEATHER CONCRETING
IS 7861- 1997
Concreting operations done at less than 5 Deg C
atmospheric temperature.
Effects
- Delayed setting.
- Freezing of Concrete at early stage.
- Repeated freezing and thawing.
- Stresses due to temp differentials.
Permissible Concrete Temp at Placing

CSA A23.1
Temperature, C
Thickness
of Section, m Minimum Maximum

< 0.3 10 35
0.3-1 10 30
1-2 5 25
>2 5 20
Cold-Weather
Concreting
Effect of Temp on Strength
Development

40

30

20

10
Effect of low Temp on Strength
Development
Effect of F/T on Strength of Concrete

Cold-Weather
Concreting
Max. Permissible Temp. Differential Between Concret
Surface and Ambient Air Wind up to 25 km/hr.

Max. permissible temp.


differential, C
Thickness of
L to H ratio of structure
concrete,
m 0 3 5 7 20 or
more

0.3 29 22 19 17 12
0.6 22 18 16 15 12
0.9 18 16 15 14 12
1.2 17 15 14 13 12
1.5 16 14 13 13 12
Checking Fresh Concrete Temperatures

Cold-Weather
Concreting
Cold Weather Concreting Recommendations

1. Temperature control of Concrete ingredients


Aggregates ( CA and FA ) : 15 Deg C
Sand and water : 40 Deg C
2. Temperature Control of Concrete :-
Temperature at placing : Not less than 5 Deg C
Temperature for hardening : To be maintained at
above 2 Deg C
3. Proportioning of Concrete Mix Materials
Addl Qty of OPC.
Use of Rapid Hardening Cement.
Use of Accelerating Admixtures ( Calcium Chloride
Air - Entraining Agents.
Cold Weather Concreting Recommendations
4. Protection :-
Insulate Materials.
Use Wind Breakers to protect batching plants.
Use Steam generating plants.
Train workers.
5. Control on Concreting Operations.
Temperature of Fdn Subgrade.
Temperature at forms.
Cold Weather Concreting Recommendations

7. Control of Curing.
Not so urgent and frequent.
Water temperature : 25 Deg C.
Low pressure wet steam curing , the best method.

8. Removal of Forms.
Keep forms for Longer periods ( Ref Table in IS).
Use of Heated Enclosures/ Chambers and Steam
heating.
HOT WEATHER CONCRETING

Any operation of concreting done at atmospheric


temperatures above 40C.
OR
Any operation of concreting ( other than steam curing)
where the temperature of concrete at time of its
placement is expected to be beyond 40C.
Effects of Hot Weather on
Concrete

Accelerated Setting.
Reduction in Strength.
Increased Tendency to Crack.
Rapid Evaporation of Water During Curing Period.
Difficulty in Control of Air Content in Air Entrained
Concrete.
Measures To Control Concrete Temp
(IS 7861, Part -2)

I. Temp control of ingredients.


Shading stockpiles from direct rays of the sun.
Sprinkle the stockpiles of coarse aggregate with
water and keep them moist. This results in cooling
by evaporation.
When coarse aggregates are stockpiled during hot
weather, successive layers should be sprinkled as
the stockpile is built up.
If cold water is available, heavy spraying of coarse
aggregate immediately before use.
Coarse aggregates be inundated in cold water or by
Measures To Control Concrete Temp
(IS 7861, Part -2)

Effect of cooled mixing water and ice on concrete


Measures To Control Concrete Temp
(IS 7861, Part -2)

II. During production and delivery


Minimise mixing time and time for placement.
Keep the surface of mixer cool by painting white/yellow
and spraying with water.
Use a concrete of consistency that allows rapid
placement and consolidation.
Control proportioning of concrete mix materials and
Concrete mix design.
High heat of hydration use min cement keeping other
functional reqmts.
High water demand - use water reducing admixtures.
Reduced workability use set retarding admixtures.
Measures To Control Concrete Temp
(IS 7861, Part -2)

III. During Placement and finishing.


Forms, reinforcement, and subgrade shall be sprinkled
with cool water just prior to placement of concrete.
Keep the area around concreting cool by wetting.
Speed of placement.
Employ enough manpower.
Place concrete in thin layers and small areas.
Use fog sprayers, cotton mats etc.
Measures To Control Concrete Temp
(IS 7861, Part -2)

IV. Extra care for curing


Use foggers immediately before setting, thereafter
wet (not dripping)gunny bags/ hessian cloth.
Moist curing after 12 hours.
Continue curing min for 10 days (specific reqmt based
on mix prop, size of member or environmental
condition be followed).
Provide wind breakers.
Evaporation of surface moisture
Bug Holes / Pinholes


Formwork / Mould



Cement Slurry Leakages


Honey Combing


Rebar Exposed & Concrete Cover


Concrete Cover Spacing



Proper Covering Block will avoid the Rebar Exposed Defects and Design
Failure
Cold Joints


Top Surface Finish and Defects


Dimensional Deviations & Chip Off
Damages

Damages occurring mainly due to Inadequate Supervision &


Negligence.
Dimensional & Formwork Deviations
Possible Causes
Poor concrete compaction due to ineffective
vibration or rebar congestion.
Concrete slurry leakage along the perimeter side
forms due to:
Loose or missing supports /fixing bolts.
Damaged rubber gasket seal.
Defective formwork/mould
Inadequate concrete vibrator and negligence to
vibrate .
Less concrete cover and spacing between the
reinforcement.
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