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Hasang Hydro Power Plant

The Hasang Hydroelectric Power Plant


is a a 42-megawatt conduit type
hydroelectric power plant in Toba
Samosir, located in the northern area
of Sumatra Island in Indonesia and
POSCO Engineering conducted the
project using an EPC turnkey method,
from the blueprints and purchasing to
construction. This provides a maximum
of 242 GW of power to Sumatra Island
annually.
System Components of the Power Plant
Figure 1. System Components of the Hydroelectric
Power Plant
a. Weir
The weir is designed to divert water from the river. Due to the limited
height of the structure, no reservoirs created
b. Desander
Fine sand contained in the water is settled out in the desander to
avoid silting of the subsequent structures and to protect the turbines.
Desanders have no moving parts. The larger the internal diameter of the
desander is, the greater the amount of drilling fluids it is able to process
and the larger the size of the solids removed.
c. Headrace
They carry water to the turbines from the reservoir. The choice of
open channel or a pressure conduit (Penstock) depends upon site
conditions. The pressure conduit may be in the form of a flared intake
passage in the body of the dam or it may be a long conduit of steel or
concrete or sometimes a tunnel extending for few kilometers between
the reservoir and the power house.
The pressure conduit does not follow the ground contours and any
gradient is given to suit the site conditions. The velocity of water in the
power conduit is also higher than in the open channel. Up to about 60
metres head the velocity may range between 2.5 to 3 0 m/sec.
d. Penstock
Apenstockis asluiceorgateor intake structure that controls water flow, or
an enclosed pipe that delivers water tohydro
turbinesandseweragesystems.Penstocks forhydroelectricinstallations are
normally equipped with a gate system and asurge tank.
The penstock used in the Hasang hydro power plant measures 1700 meters
long pressure pipe to finally reach the power house.
e. Tail race
The channel into which the turbine discharges in case of impulse wheel and
through draft tube in case of reaction turbine is called a tail race. The suction
pipe or draft tube is nothing but an airtight tube fitted to all reaction turbines on
the outlet side. It extends from the discharge end of the turbine runner to about
0.5 meters below the surface of the tail water level. The straight draft tube is
generally given a flare of 4 to 6 degrees to gradually reduce the velocity of
water.
f. Turbine
Turbine converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical
energy developed by a turbine is used in running an electric generator. It is
directly coupled to the shaft of the turbine.
Three Francis turbines with a total capacity of 42 MW generate 275 gigawatt
hours of electricity per year.
g. Powerhouse
The generating room, the main portion of the power house, contains the
main units and their accessories, and usually there is a power or hand operated
overhead crane which spans the width of the power house. The switch board and
operating stand are usually near the middle of the station, either at floor level or,
Figure 2. Powerhouse Site
Operating Condition of the Power Plant System
Safety Conditions in the Power Plant System
C. Safety considerations
Typically, new hydropower stations are well designed
and comply with appropriate safety standards and local
building codes. Larger hydropower stations can have
safety systems as complex and thorough as those in
modern multi-floor commercial buildings. However,
older plants were often designed with little regard to
safety, and now need urgent attention to comply with
modern workplace health and safety standards.
While safety facilities are readily incorporated into
new hydropower schemes, they may be more difficult to
retro-fit into existing stations. The scope of work will
need to take into account the interfaces with existing
facilities and the tailoring required to suit the specific
site and location.
a. Flood Protection
Flood protection schemes can be implemented
to automatically close intake gates or hilltop valves
and keep turbines operating to attempt to drain
the headworks and penstocks of water to control
flooding, and to automatically stop the hydro plant
before the water levels become critical.
b. Emergency and crisis management
Safety at hydro stations involves more than
simply having the correct equipment or hardware
present at the site. It involves an ongoing
commitment by the owner, management, operator
and employees to provide and maintain a safe and
healthy work environment.
c. Station Evacuation
The primary consideration should be to provide safety facilities to
get personnel out of a hydropower station safely beforeconditions
inside become dangerous. The second consideration should be
providing facilities to get people out safelyafterconditions become
dangerous. Only then think about safety facilities to prevent damage to
the plant itself.
This commitment should be documented in writing and form part of
a workplace health and safety policy supported by safe work systems
and documentation. These should include a written risk control
program and fire protection program, hazard register, site induction
procedures, attendance boards, permit to work systems, local safety
teams, and a detailed crisis and emergency plan.
d. Fire and smoke control
Fires need to detect as early as possible, prevent them from
spreading, alert all personnel, and provide safe and well-lit means of
evacuation as soon as possible.
Smoke control and ventilation are also extremely important. Fire
will rapidly fill a hydro station with thick, black, acrid smoke, which is
often a far greater hazard to personnel than the fire itself, as it
obscures vision (preventing occupants from finding safe escape routes,
as well as hindering search and rescue operations). It can also
asphyxiate or poison people well before the temperature of the fire or
smoke causes injury.
Performance Parameter of the Power Plant
The design discharge of the Hasang
Hydroelectric power plant is 25m3/s.
The run of flowing water is 1.2
kilometers in the open channel and
1700 meters in pensctock. This utilizes
3 Francis type turbine with a capacity
of 14MW each. The net head of the
power plant is approximately 189
meters.
Latest Technology utilized in the power plant
operation
River-run, hydro systems, also called
hydrokinetic power, sit in running
waterways like rivers, irrigation canals
and even wastewater ditches, and
generate power without needing to
build a massive dam that interrupts
water flow completely that allows
other users of the waterwayfrom
ships to fishunobstructed access
while power is generated.
Environmental Management
Hasang hydroelectric is a cleaner and better
renewable energy project. This run-of-river plant is
designed to optimize the utilization of the natural
hydro power resource, thus, minimizing potential
impact of the local population and the environment.
By selecting appropriate design and construction
methods, the land use and hence the environmental
impact of the power plant is reduced to a minimum.
The hydro power plant avoids emissions of more
than 200,00 tons of carbon dioxide per year by
replacing approximately 70,000 tons of fossil fuel.
System description
The run-of-river plant is designed to optimize the utilization of the natural
hydropower resource, thus, minimizing potential impacts on the local population
and the environment. The weir is designed to divert water from the river. Due to
the limited height of the structure, no reservoirs created.
Fine sand contained in the water is settled out in the desander to avoid silting
of the subsequent structures and to protect the turbines. From the desander, the
water flows through a 2.7 kilometer long tunnel. By selecting appropriate design
and construction methods, the land use and hence the environmental impact of
the power plant is reduced to a minimum.
The following 1.2 kilometer long open channel conveys the water further to
the headpond which is located 200 meters above the Koala River. From the
headpond, the water flows into the penstock, a 1700 meter long pressure pipe to
finally reach the powerhouse. Three Francis Turbines with a total capacity of 42
megawatts generate 275 gigawatt hours of electricity per year.
Based on the average consumption on the Sumatran island this production is
sufficient to supply electricity more than 150,000 households in the region. The
hydro power plant avoids emission of more than 200,000 carbon dioxide per year
by replacing approximately 70,000 tons of fossil fuel.
Evaluation of the power plant operation and
performance

This presents the multiple realistic


constraints that have been considered
in the evaluation of the power plant
operation and performance including
efficiencies, power and losses.
Related calculations of the plant performance such as thermal
efficiency, net power output, heat rates, flow rates, etc.
Operating conditions of the hydroelectric power plant:
Values obtained in the research:
HE= 189m
LP = 1700m
DP= 1.25m
Q = 25 m3/s
QL= 0.254 m3/s
HC = 1.25m
HR = 0.85m
EP = 42MW
Friction= 2000 kW

Solving for the efficiencies:
Net Effective Head, HE:
HE = H G - HL
Where,
HL = (Darcy-Weisbach Equation)
HL =
HL = 69.31702345m
Substituting the values,
HG = 189m + 69.31702345m
HG = 258.3170234m
Penstock
Efficiency, np:
nP = x 100%
nP = x 100%
nP = 73.16590967%
Volumetric
Efficiency, nV:
nV = x 100%
nV = x 100%
nV = 98.984%
Hydraulic
Efficiency, nh:
nh = x 100%
Where,
HU = HE (HC + HR)
nh = x 100%
nh = 98.88888889%
Blade Power, BLP:
BLP = (Q QL)HU
BLP = (9.81 kN/m3)(25m3/s
0.254m3/s)(186.9m)
BLP = 45,371.51879kW
Mechanical
Efficiency, nm:
nm = x 100%
where,
BP = BLP Friction loss
BP = 45,371.51879kW - 2000 kW
BP = 43,371.51879 kW
Substituting the values,
nm = x 100%
nm = 95.59194831%

Turbine Efficiency, nt:
nt = x 100%
Where,
Water Power, WP:
WP = QHE
WP = (9.81kN/m3)(25m3/s)(189m)
WP = 46,352.25 kW
Substituting the values,
nt = x 100%
nt = 93.56939262%
Generator
Efficiency, ng:
ng = x 100%
ng = x 100%
ng = 96.83774323%
Sound recommendations for possible
improvement of the plant operation
Friction losses should be diminished for the output
power to be effective and efficient. To further
evaluate efficiency of the power plant, other plant
indicators may be used such as head such as
elevation, velocity and pressure head, specific speed
and peripheral coefficient.
In the environmental aspect of the plant operation,
strengthening management of hazardous pollutants
by monitoring local ambient concentrations, regularly
updating and publishing inventories of toxic releases
and cost-effectively assessing residual risk will
greatly reduce environmental impacts.
270MW Gujarat Solar Park at Charanka, Patan
(Solar Power Plant)

System Components of the Power Plant
The Inverter
It is used to make the electricity supplied by solar power suitable
for use in domestic homes. It refers to the device which converts
DC current to AC current. An inverter works in a very simple way,
using a series of switches which flips the DC current backwards
and forwards 50 times a second, to create the AC current.

The Distributor
The distributor is the device that distributes the AC power
created by the inverter to the grid, and sometimes to homes in
which the solar power system has been installed and the grid.
The output from the inverter is fed to a dedicated breaker in
your house's electric panel, and then through to your home.

The Panels
PV (photovoltaic) panels are the most common type of
panel, especially for residential installations.

The Battery
Not all solar power systems have a battery, but some
systems that produce more electricity than is needed
for the building their powering have a battery
connected to store this excess energy. The stored
energy can then be used when the solar panels are not
providing enough energy, such as dark and rainy days.
Operating Condition of the Power Plant System
The Gujarat Solar Power Plant will produce
energy all year round, but will produce
significantly less during the winter months.
Regular amounts of rainfall are essential to
the efficient operation of solar panels, as this
cleans off any dust and dirt that could settle on
them and could prevent the suns rays from
being efficiently harnessed. This also helps to
keep the panels cool, which benefits the panels
as they operate with greater efficiency at lower
temperatures.
Safety Conditions in the Power Plant System
Installing solar systems is a risky
business. Lifting and arranging
unwieldy solar panels, the potential for
falls off, panels that heat up as soon as
theyre uncovered these are some of
the serious hazards that solar workers
face.
Every Worksite Presents Different Risks
No two worksites are the same. Before a solar
installation begins, its essential for the installer to visit the
site, identify the safety risks and develop specific plans for
addressing them. Plans should include:
Equipment to be used for safe lifting and handling of solar
panels
Type and size of ladders and scaffolding if needed
Personal protective equipment for each installer
All equipment needed for the job should be inspected
and verified to be in good working order before being
brought to the worksite.

Lifting and Handling Solar Panels


Solar panels are heavy and awkward to lift and carry.
Loading and unloading panels from trucks and onto roofs
can cause strains, sprains, muscle pulls and back injuries
as well as cumulative trauma that stresses the spine. The
Solar Electrical Safety
Solar electric (photovoltaic or PV) systems include several
components that conduct electricity: the PV solar array, an inverter
that converts the panels direct current to alternating current, and
other essential system parts. When any of these components are
live with electricity generated by the suns energy, they can cause
injuries associated with electric shock and arc-flash. Even low-light
conditions can create sufficient voltage to cause injury.
Its also important to recognize that with PV systems, electricity
comes from two sources: the utility company and the solar array that
is absorbing the suns light. Even when a buildings main breaker is
shut off, the PV system will continue to produce power. This makes
isolating the power source more difficult, and requires extra caution
on the part of the solar worker.
Safety measures for solar workers:
Cover the solar array with an opaque sheet to turn off the suns
light.
Treat the wiring coming from a solar PV array with the same caution
as a utility power line. Use a meter or circuit test device to ensure
that all circuits are de-energized before working on them.
Lock out the power on systems that can be locked out. Tag all circuits
youre working on at points where that equipment or circuit can be
energized.
Personal Protective Equipment

Personal Protective Equipment is an essential part of


every solar installation. Its the employers job to assess
the workplace for hazards and provide the PPE deemed
necessary for the employees safety. Hard hats, gloves and
steel-toed shoes with rubber soles are among the
commonly required PPE for solar projects.
Employees are in turn responsible for using PPE in
accordance with their employers instructions, maintaining
it in a safe and reliable condition and requesting
replacements when necessary.
Risk is part of running any business, but when it comes
to an employees safety and health, risk should be avoided
at all cost. Proactive safety planning and its successful
implementation on the job can help ensure that accidents
dont happen.
Performance Parameter of the Power Plant
The power plant requires large area
of land to produce the necessary
power output. Also, it requires good
temperature and weather to enable
adsorption of energy from the sun.
Latest Technology utilized in the power plant
operation
Gujarat Solar Power Plant is a power
plant which is installed to the land of
Charanka, Patan uses regularly
monitored web based systems
especially develop for timely
accessibility of data and information in
the power plant.
System Description
The largest site within the Gujarat Solar Park
is being built on a 2,000-hectare (4,900-acre)
plot of land near Charanka village in Patan
district, northern Gujarat. This hosts about 19
different projects by different developers. On 19
April 2012, a total of 214 megawatts
(287,000hp) had been commissioned. It also
became the world's third largest photo voltaic
power station. When fully built out, the
Charanka Solar Park will host 500 MW of solar
power systems using state-of-the-art thin film
technology. The investment cost for the
Charanka solar park amounts to some US$280
million.
Evaluation of the power plant operation and
performance

This presents the multiple realistic


constraints that have been considered
in the evaluation of the power plant
operation and performance including
efficiencies, power and losses.
Related calculations of the plant performance such as thermal
efficiency, net power output, heat rates, flow rates, etc.
Operating conditions of the solar power plant:
Values obtained in the research:
EP = 270MW
A = 20m2
mW = 0.05 kg/s
tl = 70oC
te = 15oC
QLOSS = 0.35 QSUN
Z = 2m
Solving for the energy,
Solar Energy, QSUN:
EP = QSUN
QSUN = (Rate)(Area)
Rate = 270 MW/ 20,000m2
Rate = 13,500 W/m2
Water Power, QW:
QW = mWcw(tl - te)
QW = 760 kg/s(4.187kJ/kg-K)(70 - 15)K
QW = 175,500 kW
Losses, QLOSS:
QLOSS = 0.35 QSUN
QLOSS = 0.35(270 MW)
QLOSS = 94.5 MW
Potential Energy, PE:
PE = mgz
PE = (0.05kg/s)(9.81m/s2)(2m)
PE = 0.981 W
Sound recommendations for possible
improvement of the plant operation
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun should
be harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies
such as solar heating, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal
electricity, solar electricity and artificial photosynthesis.
For a better means of energy production, large areas of
land should capture the suns energy. Cloudy skies should
be reduced to improve its effectiveness. The elevation of
water should be increased to enhance the power of the
solar power plant; the higher the elevation, the higher the
potential energy, the better energy production be
established.
In environmental aspects, there is no need to change
since solar energy does not cause pollution.