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The Human

Eye
The Human Eye
Refractive index of lens
different for each
wavelength (colour)

Cool colours (blues)


appear closer; warm
colours (reds) further
away

Agree?
The Human Eye
The Human Eye
Structure & Function

IRIS
coloured part of eye
controls light entering

PUPIL
black hole in iris
where light enters
Structure & Function
SCLERA
whites of the eye
supports eyeball
provides attachment
for muscles

LENS
converging lens
allows us to see
objects near and far
Structure & Function
CORNEA
transparent bulge over
pupil
focuses light (refracts)
onto retina

RETINA
internal membrane
contain light-receptive
cells (rods & cones)
converts light to electrical
signal
Blind Spot
On retina where optic
nerve leads back into
the brain
No rod or cone cells
Other eye
compensates for this
area
Try this test to prove
you have a blind spot
Close left eye and approach
screen while staring at the
letterswatch the dot!
Structure & Function

OPTIC NERVE
Transmits electrical

impulses from retina to


the brain
Creates blind spot

Brain takes inverted

image and flips it so we


can see
Accomodation

This is the focusing of light by the lens


Dilation & constriction
Photoreceptor
Cells
RODS
120 million cells
detect brightness
(black & white)
for night vision
CONES
6 million cells
detect colour (RGB)
GANGLION CELLS
Detect movement and
patterns
Normal Eye Focus

Blind spot
Video

YouTube
The Human Eye and How the Human Eye
Works
Focusing Problems

HYPERMETROPIA
Far-sightedness

Problem seeing close

objects
Distance between lens

and retina too small


Light focused behind

retina
Corrected with

converging lenses
Far-Sighted (Hyperopia)
Focusing Problems

PRESBYOPIA
Form of far-sightedness

Harder for people to

read as they age


Lens loses elasticity

Corrected by glasses

with converging lenses


Focusing Problems

MYOPIA
Near-sightedness

Problem seeing objects

far away
Distance between lens

and retina too large


Light focused in front of

retina
Correct with diverging

lenses
Near-Sighted (Myopia)
Diseases of the Eye

ASTIGMATISM
Eye cannot focus an

objects image on a
single point on retina
Cornea is oval instead

of spherical
Causes blurred vision

Some types can be

corrected with lenses


Diseases of the Eye

GLAUCOMA
Group of diseases

Affects optic nerve -

pressure
Loss of ganglion cells

Gradual loss of sight

and eventual blindness


Check eyes regularly

Can be treated
Diseases of the Eye
CATARACTS
Clouding forms in lens

due to denaturing of
lens protein
Obstructs passage of

light
Caused by age, chronic

exposure to UV, or due


to trauma
Removed by surgery
Diseases of the Eye
COLOUR BLINDNESS

unable to fully see red, green or blue light.

There are different causes of colour blindnesss:


deficient colour vision the condition is genetic and has been
inherited from their mother (a recessive allele)
as a result of other diseases such as diabetes and multiple
sclerosis or
acquired over time due to the aging process, medication etc
Diseases of the Eye
COLOUR BLINDNESS
Diseases of the Eye
COLOUR BLINDNESS
Diseases of the Eye
COLOUR BLINDNESS
Vision Correction

CONTACT LENSES
Artificial lens placed

over cornea
Same as glasses

Corrects for both near

and far-sightedness
Also used for cosmetic

purposes (eye colour,


Hollywood)
Vision Correction

LASIK
Laser Assisted In Situ

Keratomileusis
Refractive surgery

using laser
Corrects near and far-

sightedness and
astigmatisms