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States of Matter Y9 Diffusion

Define diffusion
__________________________________________
_______________________ ________________________________
The smoke forms
nearer to the
ammonia end
why?._______________
Pressure ____________________-
Define pressure
__________________________________________
_______________________ ________________________________
Draw a particles
(circles) diagram State 4 ways to increase pressure
________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Heating and cooling curves _________________________________________________________
Label the graph with _________________________________________________________
the state at each Separation techniques draw a labelled
point. diagram for the following and give an example of
each
filtering Chromatography
Why does the
temperature not
change when
something changes
state
Distillation Fractional distillation
_______________________
Define Solvent _______________________
_________________________________________
_______________________
Define Solute
Crystallisation Purity testing
_________________________________________
Define insoluble
Chemical reactions Y9 Metallic/Ionic/Covalent Bonding
Give 4 signs that a chemical reaction has
taken place
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
Element/compound or
Can contain any number
mixture
of substances in a
different ratio A/B/C/D
Element/compound or
mixture
Contains one type of
atom A/B/C/D
Element/compound or
mixture
Contains more than one
type of atom chemically
bonded A/B/C/D
lement/compound or Covalent Bonding Draw on the
nic Bonding Draw the ions for the following
mixture electrons to show bonding
Hydrogen
Diamo Graphi Chlorine
nd te
Use Water
Oxygen
Bonding
(diagram
Methane
)
(CH4)
Carbon dioxide
Propertie (CO2)
s
Subatomi Mass Char
of the
c particle ge
Name the 3 parts
nucleus. +1
_
a_________________
__ _
b_______________ -1
_
c_________________

Colour on the Periodic table 0


non-metals
unreactive gases
Match the pictures above with the
alkali metals are found (very words below and define the words
reactive) Element
Atoms in the same group have
similar properties because they
have the same number of Compound
_____________ in the outer shell.
The mass number is the total
number of ________ and _______. Mixture
The atomic number is the number
of __________.

Complete the sentences with the following words. (some are red herrings!) Isotopes
Ionic element sodium electron covalent chlorinechlorine Isotopes are atoms of the same
sodium Na+ Na- Cl+ compound Cl- element with the same/different
Sodium chloride NaCl is a ____________. There are __________ bonds numbers of protons. Isotopes are
atoms of the same element with the
between the two elements _________ and _________. When these atoms
same/ different numbers of
bond one ____________ from the ___________ atom is donated to the
electrons.
_____________ atom. This results in 2 ions : _______ and _______. Isotopes are atoms of the same
ion Lost/ Number
element with the same/ different
Complete gained? of
numbers of neutrons.
the Complete electron
the s
electron
arrangem electron Mg 2+
lost 2
ent of a arrangem
ent of a Cl -
boron
atom boron ion
Li +
Label
Periodic Table y10 Nucleon number and Proton
number (LHS)
Subatomi Mass Char Protons neutrons Electrons
c particle ge (RHS)
of the
Name the 3 parts
atom. +1
_
a_________________
_
b_________________
__ __ __ _
c___________ -1

0
Colour on the Periodic table
non-metals
unreactive gases
alkali metals are found (very reactive)
Atoms in the same group have similar properties because
they have the same number of _____________ in the outer shell.
The nucleon number is the total number of ________ and _______.
The proton number is the number of __________which is
equal to the number of ________________.
Halogens
Transition
Give two examples of halogens
Alkali Metals metals ______________________________________
What do they look like? Describe what they look like
What are their physical
______________________________________ properties? _______________________________________
_________________________ Why does reactivity decrease down the
Why are they stored under oil?
_________________________
_______________________________________ group?
Why does reactivity increase down the What are their chemical _______________________________________
properties? _____________________________________
group?
_________________________
_______________________________________ _________________________
_______________________________________
Write the equation for sodium with What are their uses?
water produces sodium hydroxide _________________________
Define Rate of Reaction
Rates of Reaction y10 _______________________________________
What FOUR things cause a reaction to
increase? Explain using particle theory! Two reasons a reaction stops?
________________________________________
1. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________ What 2 things need to occur for a reaction to
3. ______________________________________________________ happen
4. ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________
______________________________________
Draw the apparatus to investigate the rate of
reaction

Describe the role of light in photochemical reactions


and the effect on the rate (speed)
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
Equilibrium & Breaking Bonds
Define exothermic reaction _______________________
_______________________________________________
Define endothermic reaction
______________________
_________________________________________________
Define equilibrium _______________________________
_________________________________________________
Define Dynamic
___________________________________
Exothermic/endothermic?
_________________________________________________
Amount of energy needed to break bonds less than
amount of energy released.
Exothermic/endothermic

If the energy taken in to break bonds is more than the


energy released Exothermic/endothermic
Burning a fuel in air Exothermic/endothermic

Hydrogen Biofuel Nuclear fuel

2 pros

2 cons
Increasing Increasing Increasing
Pressure Concentration temperature
Rules This reaction takes place in the blast furnace:
REDOX y10 Oxidation state of
Fe2O3 (s) + 3CO ( g) 2Fe (l) + 3CO2( g)
an element is 0 The word equation for the reaction is:
Ionic compounds
oxidation state is its
charge

Hydrogen = +1 It is a redox reaction, because


OILRIG stands for
Oxygen = -2
O_________ I__ L_______ o __ e_________
Oxidation states in a
R__________ I__ G_______ o__ e_________ compound = 0 The reducing agent
Which is inoxidised
being this reaction is
and which is being
reduced?
....
Work out the oxidation states : What is the oxidation
2Mg + O2 2MgO state of: a) Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2
Mg = ______ Cu in CuO ___________
O = _____ b) 2CO + O2 2 CO2
MgO ______ Cu in Cu2O ___________
Has the Mg been oxidised/reduced? Fe in FeCl2 ___________ c) 3H2 + N2 2NH3
Has the O been oxidised/reduced?
Fe in FeCl3 ___________ d) 4Na + O2 2Na2O
Electrolysis y10 Chemi Uses
cal
What is a conductor?
____________________________ Sodium
What is an insulator? chloride
___________________________
Why are the only solids that conduct are Chlorine
metals and graphite
___________________________________
________________________________________________ Hydroge
Electrolysis
Why do ionic substances only conduct n
Define
whenelectrolysis _______________________
molten/dissolved
______________________________________
Sodium
4 uses of electrolysis _____________________ hydroxi
______________________________________ de

RULES FOR ELECTROLYSIS


At cathode (-), either a metal/hydrogen Electrolysis of Brine
forms
If a metal is more reactive than hydrogen its ions stay in Ionic equation at cathode
solution and hydrogen bubbles off ___________________________
If the metal is less reactive than hydrogen the metal forms. Ionic equation at anode

At anode (+) a non-metal other than ___________________________


hydrogen forms.
If it is a concentrated solution of a halide then halogens Test for chlorine
form. _______________
If the halide solution is dilute /no halide oxygen forms.
Electrolysis of copper with copper
Match the keyword electrodes
Anode negative ions Ionic equation at cathode

Cathode liquid which conducts ___________________________


electricity Ionic equation at anode
Anions
positive electrode ___________________________
Cations
Positive ions
Electrolyte
Gas Calculations
Moles y10 What volume does 0.25moles of a gas occupy at rtp?
1 mole occupies 24 dm3
Avagadros constant is 6.02x1023 so 0.25 moles occupies 0.25 x 24 dm3 = 6 dm3
So 0.25 moles of any gas occupies 6dm3 at rtp.

Q 3 What volume of nitrogen reacts with 10 kg of hydrogen


to form ammonia?
Atom calculations N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g)
How many atoms of carbon are in a 10 g diamond
Moles = mass/RMM = 10/12= 0.833 moles Q4 What volume of oxygen reacts with 510 g of ammonia?
1 moles = 6.02x1023 0.833 x 6.02x1023 = 5.02x1023
4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)
Q1 What mass of silicon contains 1.25x1022 silicon atoms

Q2 What mass of titanium contains 1.204x1024 atoms


Concentrations
Solution A contains 2.5g copper sulphate in 1dm3 of water
Solution B contains 125g copper sulphate in 0.5dm3 water
What mass of aluminium oxide is produced when 135 g of Change the mass to moles.
aluminium is burned in oxygen? Mr of copper sulphate is 250
2 Al + 3 O2 Al2O3
Solution A : 2.5g = 0.01 moles 1dm3 there are 0.01 moles/dm3

Solution B : 125g in 0.5dm3, which is 250g in 1dm3 =1 moles/dm3 = 1M


What mass of iodine is produced when 7.1 g of chlorine
reacts with excess potassium iodide? Q5 What is the concentration of a solution containing.
Cl2 + 2 KI 2 KCl + I2 a) 4 moles in 2 dm3 of solution
b) 0.3 moles in 200cm3 of solution

For each of the following compounds the M r and the empirical Q6 The Mr of sodium hydroxide is 40. How many grams of sodium
formula is shown. Work out the molecular formula of each hydroxide are in
compound. c) 500cm3 of a molar solution
d) 25cm3 of a 0.5M solution
1. empirical formula = CH3 Mr = 30
2. empirical formula = NH3 Mr = 17
3. empirical formula = CH2 Mr = 98
4. empirical formula = CH Mr = 78
Calculate the percentage of the elements shown in the
Behaviour of Metals y10
Where are metals found in the periodic table?
__________________

Name 5 properties of metals


_________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Chemical properties of
metals________________________________
________________________________________________________

Draw a picture of an alloy What is an alloy?


___________________
______________________ Why does aluminium not rust?
______________________________
_______________________________________________________
Explain 2 ways you can protect iron from rusting?
Iron reduces copper oxide (OIL RIG) _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
Equation ______________________________________________________
Fe (s) + CuO (s) FeO (s) + Cu(s)

Half equations __________________________________


_________________________________

Ionic equations _________________________________

Thermal Decomposition Reactions


_____________ Oxide + carbon dioxide (except Na &K)

_____________ Oxide + Water (except Na & K)

_____________ Oxide + nitrogen dioxide + oxygen


(except Na & K)
Extraction of metals from
USES of METALS y10 Labelthe ores
on the right Which ones are
Name two uses of aluminium? extracted by electrolysis, which are found
______________________________ naturally and which are burnt with
_______________________________________________________ carbon
Ores and reduced
Two uses of copper ? What is haematite ?
_____________________________________ ______________________
Two uses of zinc? _____________________________________ What is bauxite?
_________________________
Extracting zinc
Name the uses of mild steel
________________________________ How do you extract zinc from zinc blende?
_______________________________________
Name the uses of stainless steel _______________________________________
_____________________________ _______________________________________
Label the blast furnace
_______________________________________________________
Name an iron ore used in
Name the uses of copper related totheits properties
blast furnace.
______________ _________________________
Name two substances
_______________________________________________________
that are mixed with iron
ore
___________________________
_______________________
Name one of the gases
leaving the blast furnace.
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Name two substances
which react together to
produce most of the
energy required to heat
the furnace to 1400C
___________________________
_____________________
What impurities are found
and how are they
removed.
___________________________
___________________________
AIR and WATER Y11 Separation of air
You can separate gases from air by fractional distillation.
What is the equation for respiration ________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________
2 uses of oxygen
What is the equation for combustion _______________________________________
2 uses of nitrogen
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________
Water treatment
What is the equation for photosynthesis 2 uses
Add theoflabels
noble gases
chlorination(kill bacteria)
_______________________________________
coagulant sand filters and charcoal
_______________________________________________________ add air
What is thermal decomposition?

_______________________________________________________

What is the composition Define solution_________________________________


of air? Define solvent _________________________________
Define soluble_________________________________
Complete the pie chart for 2 tests for water?
oxygen, nitrogen, carbon ________________________________________________________
dioxide and other gases ________________________________________________________
Name 4 pollutants in air
_______________________________
_______________________________
______________________________

Rusting
What 2 conditions are needed for rusting?
_______________________

Write and equation __________________________________________

How can you stop rusting _____________________________________


__________________________________________________________
Thermal decomposition
Non-Metals Y11 Define Thermal decomposition
Making fertilisers ______________________________

Element What it is used for? 2 Uses of Calcium oxide


____________________________________
Nitrogen _______________________________________
What is the equation for calcium oxide when it reacts
Limestone
Phosphorous _______________________________________ with water?
Formula of Limestone?
________________________________________________________
___________________________________
Potassium _______________________________________
2 uses of limestone
_____________________________________
Formula of Lime
_______________________________________
Equations for making fertilisers
2 uses of lime
Ammonia + nitric acid __________________ ________________________________________
Formula of Slaked Lime
________ + Sulphuric acid ammonium _________ ___________________________________
2 uses of Slaked Lime
Ammonia + ___________ acid _________ phosphate ____________________________________

Potassium hydroxide + nitric acid potassium ____ +water

Ammonium chloride + calcium hydroxide calcium chloride +


water + _______

Haber Process
What does the Haber process make?
______________________
What is the equation ?
__________________________________

Where does the nitrogen come from?


______________________
Where does the hydrogen come from?
_____________________
Organic Chemistry Y11 Cracking
Difference between alkanes and alkenes What is cracking? __________________________________________
__________________________________________________ _______________________ ________________________________
__________________________________________________ What conditions are needed for cracking?
What can you use to test if something is an alkane ________________________________________________________
or alkene? What is a hydrocarbon? _____________________________________
__________________________________________________
Combusti
on
What is combustion?
________________________________________
Equation for Complete Combustion
________________________________________________________
Two ways to make alcohol Equation for Incomplete Combustion
__________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________ Fractional Distillation
The crude oil enters the column at the _________ where it is
extremely ________. Here the different fractions _________ and
evaporates. The higher they rise the _________ they become.
When they _________ enough they will turn back to _________.
The fractions can be collected at the __________ of the column.
Fractions with ___________ boiling points are found at the
bottom. Ones with _________ boiling points are found at the top.
Match up the following
Polymers Y11

5 uses of plastics
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
______________________
5 properties of plastics
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
_____________________

How can plastics be


disposed of
__________________________
________________________
Acids and Bases Y10
Zinc reacts with oxygen. Zinc oxide is made.
What are the reactants?________ ________
What is the product?_____________
Complete the word equation for this reaction
___________+ ____________ __________ ________

2Zn + O2 2ZnO
How many Zinc and Oxygen atoms are on the left-hand side?
Zn ______ 0_______
How many Zinc and Oxygen atoms are on the right-hand side?
Zn ______ O______
Reactions with Acids. Complete the equations Is this equation balanced? Yes/No
Acid+ metal salt + hydrogen
Hydrochloric acid + _________ magnesium chloride + pH Colour Acid Alkali,
hydrogen with neutral?
_________ acid + zinc zinc sulfate + Hydrogen Universal
Acid + metal oxide salt + water 2 indicator
Acid + metal hydroxide salt + water
7 Purple Strong Alkali
Nitric acid + copper oxide- ___________ ___________ +
water Red
Sulphuric acid + ________ _______ zinc sulfate + water 8
___________acid + sodium hydroxide sodium chloride + 14
______ Blue
Acid+ metal carbonate salt + water + carbon Acids have pHs of _____ to _____
dioxide Bases (soluble alkalis) have pHs of _______ to ______.
Which What do you do? What happens? Green
Hydrochloric acid + sodium carbonate ______ ________ + Neutral is pH _______
gas
water + ___________ ____________ Indicators are used to.
Gives a squeaky pop

Bubble through Complete the equation for a neutralisation reaction:


limewater Acid+ Alkali ________ + _________

Oxygen Tick which of the following are real uses of neutralisation


reactions.
Indigestion tablets (neutralising stomach acid)
In cars (neutralising battery acid)
On fish and chips (vinegar is an acid)
In Gardening (Neutralising acidic soils)
Ion tested Solution added colour
In the Lab Y11 Barium chloride + dilute
hydrochloric acid
Chloride (Cl) A white precipitate
Metal Colour of flame
Copper
Copper

Lilac zinc

Lithium Sodium hydroxide White precipitate in NaOH, which dissolves


in excess
Brick-red Sodium hydroxide with
Sodium aluminium foil and heat
Iron(III), (Fe3+(aq))
Barium
Hydrochloric acid Bubbles of carbon dioxide are given off.
2+
Iron(II) (Fe (aq))

Colourless precipitate

Iodide (I)

Barium chloride + dilute A white precipitate of barium sulfate is


hydrochloric acid formed.