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GENESIS

TANAH
Foto: smno.kampus.ub.janu2013
MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH. Smno.jursntnh.fpub.febr2013
Soil: Definisi

Material padatan di permukaan bumi


yang telah mengalami perubahan oleh
proses-proses fisika, kimia dan biologi,
sehingga ia mampu menunjang
kehidupan tumbuhan berakar.

Definisi ke-teknik-an: Anything that


can be removed without blasting

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Pembentukan tanah

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Pembentukan Tanah: Input

Konversi batuan menjadi tanah

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Pembentukan Tanah: Output

Gerakan tanah menuruni


lereng

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Ketebalan Tanah: Storage
input output = Ketebalan tanah
atau: Konversi batuan transpor tanah = ketebalan

that is, soil thickness reflects the balance between rates


of soil production and rates of downslope soil
movement.

1. Kemiringan
2. Laju
pelapukan

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Pembentukan Tanah - Pelapukan

Ion-ion hara
mineral dalam
larutan
Oksida Fe dan Al

Silika

Liat Liat
3 2
Debu lapis
lapis
Batuan Pasir/
induk Kuar
Bahan sa
induk
halus

DIUNDUH DARI: www.indiana.edu/~g225/G225-Soils.ppt ....... 10/2/2013


Beberapa tipe tanah:

1. Loess : tanah-tanah subur yang berkembang dari bahan induk debu


glasial yang diangkut angin pada jaman es.

2. Laterites: tanah-tanah merah kaya oksida besi, di daerah tripika


basah-panas, berkembang dari pelapukan intensif bahan induk

3. Pedalfers: rich soils with brown color, high in aluminum and iron;
typical of cooler, wet temperate climates world-wide.

4. Pedocals: soils typical of warm, arid regions; high in calcium and


commonly contain caliche (white deposits of calcium carbonate)

5. Tanah-tanah Tundra : tanah yang terbentuk pada kondisi iklim


salju permanen menutup permukaan (permafrost).

DIUNDUH DARI: www.indiana.edu/~g225/G225-Soils.ppt ....... 10/2/2013


Apakah Tanah itu?
Tanah merupakan lapisan di permukaan bumi terdiri atas batuan
lapuk, mineral dan bahan organik yang mampu mendukung kehidupan
tumbuhan.

Komposisi spesifik
suatu tanah.

Soil is composed of Persentase


mineral matter from komposisi tanah
weathered rock;
water, gases, and
organic matter (the
remains of plant and
animal material and
bacteria).

DIUNDUH DARI: www.indiana.edu/~g225/G225-Soils.ppt ....... 10/2/2013


Sumur pompa
dapat
menurunkan
permukaan
groundwater

DIUNDUH DARI: www.indiana.edu/~g225/G225-Soils.ppt ....... 10/2/2013


Penggunaan
tanah Produksi
untuk Produksi serat Produksi
pangan kayu
mendukung Siklus
kemanusiaan. Hara Siklus
karbon

Sumber
Simpana bahan
n banguna
air n

Filtrasi Buangan Landasan


air limbah bagi
konstruksi
DIUNDUH DARI: www.indiana.edu/~g225/G225-Soils.ppt ....... 10/2/2013
Struktur Tanah
Horison O, seresah
dedaunan, bahan
organik

Horison B, Zone
akumulasi

Horison R, bahan
induk yang belum
Model profil tanah terlapuk
DIUNDUH DARI: www.indiana.edu/~g225/G225-Soils.ppt ....... 10/2/2013
PROFIL TANAH

Horizon A
Zone eluviaSI
Horizon B
Zone iluviaSI
Horizon C
Bahan lapuk
Horizon D
Batuan belum
lapuk

DIUNDUH DARI: www.csbs.edu.hk/.../ppt/Soil%20and%20Soil%20Forming%20Proces........5/2/2013


TANAH: Soils
Salah satu fenometa
penting di
permukaan bumi
untuk produksi,
penghancuran
partikel sedimen, dan
komponen-komponen
terlarut.

Pedogenesis =
DIUNDUH DARI: Pembentukan tanah .
smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt
Profil tanah yang ideal

ANATOMI
TANAH
Terorganisir
menjadi lima
lapisan yang
berbeda,

disebut

Horison Tanah

DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .


Horison - O
1. Characterized by in-situ
accumulation of plant
material
2. Occurs only as a surface
horizon, unless buried by
sediment
3. Tidak semua tanah
mempunyai Horison O

4. Typical of Everwet Lowlands


Kalau horison O terkubur, ia
akan menjadi sumberdaya
ekonomi berupa gambut
dan batubara

DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .


A-Horizons
1. Zone pencucian ion-ion larut,
proses eluviasi.
2. Akumulasi akar tumbuhan dan
bahan organik
3. Organic acids and chelates to
promote weathering of minerals
for plant nutrients
4. Unless an O-horizon is present, A
horizons will occur at the surface
of the soil
5. Semua tanah mempunyai Horison
A
6. Dicirikan oleh warna gelap dari
bahan organik
DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .
Horison B
1. Zone of accumulation of new and residual
minerals from chemical weathering and
physical transport (illuviation)
2. Kebanyakan tanah mempunyai horison B,
tetapi tidak semua tanah
3. Dicirikan oleh perkembangan struktur tanah

Struktur Struktur Struktur


Granuler Blocky Prismatik

Struktur Struktur Butir-tunggal


Kolumner Pipih lepas
DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .
Horison C

1. Terdiri atas bahan induk tanah


yang baru sedikit terlapuk
2. PARENT MATERIAL is rock
(igneous, metamorphic or
sedimentary) or sediment upon
which the soil forms
3. Tidak mempunyai struktur tanah,
dan sifat batuan aslinya masih
tampak
4. Hampir semua tanah mempunyai
Horison C

DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .


Horison R

} Tanah - Soil

Horison R

1. Bahan induk yang kondisinya sementasi dan belum


lapuk, tidak terpengaruhi oleh proses pembentukan
tanah.
2. With time, this cemented material will be
disaggregated and dissolved to form new sedimentary
particles.
DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .
PROSES
GENESIS TANAH
PROSES GENESIS TANAH

A large number of processes are responsible for the


formation of soils. This fact is evident by the large
number of different types of soils that have been
classified by soil scientists.
However, at the macro-scale we can suggest that there
are five main principal pedogenic processes acting on
soils.

Proses-proses pembentukan tanah :


1. Laterisasi,
2. Podsolisasi,
3. Klasifikasi,
4. Salinisasi
5. Gleisasi.
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013
PROSES GENESIS TANAH

LATERISASI
Laterisasi merupakan proses pedogenesis yang banyak terjadi
pada tanah-tanah di lingkungan tropis dan subtropis.

High temperatures and heavy precipitation result in the rapid


weathering of rocks and minerals. Movements of large amounts
of water through the soil cause eluviation and leaching to
occur. Almost all of the by products of weathering, very simple
small compounds or nutrient ions, are translocated out of the soil
profile by leaching if not taken up by plants for nutrition.

Dua perkecualian bagi proses ini adalah senyawa Fe dan Al.


Oksida-oksida Fe memberikan warna kemerahan pada tanah-
tanah tropis.

Pencucian yg intensif juga menyebabkan tanah-tanah ini


mempunyai pH masam karena kehilangan kation basa.
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013
FERRALIZATION
Pencucian hampir semua kartion
basa dan silika, destruksi
aluminosilicates dan
phyllosilicates
Pengkayaan oksi-
hidroksida Fe dan
Al, seperti
Hematite, Goethite,
dan Gibbsite
Hanya terjadi pada
daerah iklim
basah-panas.

DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .


PROSES GENESIS TANAH

PODSOLISASI
Podzolization is associated with humid cold mid-
latitude climates and coniferous vegetation.
Decomposition of coniferous litter and heavy summer
precipitation create a soil solution that is strongly
acidic.

Larutan tanah yang bersifat masam ini memacu proses-proses


eluviasi dan pencucian yg menyebabkan pengusiran kation basa
larut dan senyawa-senyawa Al dan Fe dari Horison A.

Proses ini mneghasilkan sub-lapisan dalam Horison A yang


berwarna putih hingga kelabu dan terdiri atas pasir silika.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


Podsolisasi
Describes the process by which
fairly acid conditions
(hydrolysis) and organo-metallic
bonding (chelation) translocate
Fe and Al from the topsoil to the
subsurface B-horizons.

Proses ini menghasilkan


permukaan tanah yang
diperkaya dengan silica
(khususnya kuarsa) dengan
warna pucat..

DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .


PROSES GENESIS TANAH
KALSIFIKASI

Calcification occurs when evapotranspiration exceeds


precipitation causing the upward movement of dissolved alkaline
salts from the groundwater. At the same time, the movement of
rain water causes a downward movement of the salts.

Hasil dari proses ini adalah deposisi kation-kation terangkut


dalam Horison B. Dalam beberapa kasus, deposit ini dapat
membentuk suatu lapisan keras yang disebut caliche.

Substansi yang paling banyak terlibat dalam proses ini adalah


kalsium karbonat.. Kalsifikasi banyak terjadi pada lingkungan
padnag-rumput prairie.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


Kalsifikasi

1. Proses ini dicirikan oleh akumulasi


kalsit dalam horison bawah-
permukaan.
2. Ca2+ leached from upper horizons
downward to depth of wetting in the
soil
3. Upon drying, Ca2+ combines with
CO32- to form calcite, CaCO3
4. Proses ini memerlukan evaporasi,
terjadi di daerah iklim semi-arid dan
arid .

Modern California
DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .
PROSES GENESIS TANAH

SALINISASI

Salinization is a process that functions in


the similar way to calcification. It differs
from calcification in that the salt deposits
occur at or very near the soil surface.

Salinisasi juga dapat berlangsung pada


kondisi iklim yang lebih kering.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


SALINISASI

Ions in solution are


concentrated by evaporating
water. Cations and anions
force to combine and form
salts in the soil:

Na++Cl-<=>NaCl
Ca2++SO4=<=>CaSO4

Proses ini penting pada lahan-


lahan di daerah iklim Arid.

DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt


Ask me about the Mesopotamian .
Emp
PROSES GENESIS TANAH

GLEISASI

Gleisasi merupakan proses pedogenesis yang


berhubungan dnegan kondisi drainage ayang
buruk.

This process involves the accumulations of


organic matter in the upper layers of the soil. In
lower horizons, mineral layers are stained blue-
gray because of the chemical reduction of iron.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


Gleization
1. Proses ini mencerminkan reaksi
oksidasi-reduksi dalam tanah
2. Chemical reduction of elements
(mostly Fe, but also Mn) Poorly
drained, anoxic soils:
Fe3+ + e- <=> Fe2+
3. Fe2+ is a mobile valence state
for iron, and it may be
transported as a dissolved
species away from the soil
4. Proses ini menghasilkan profil
tanah yang warnanya hijua,
kelabu, dan umumnya warna-
warna drab
5. Proses ini bukan merupakan
bentuk yang cepat dari
pelapukan kimiawi

DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .


PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH

Adsorption Adsorpsi - Penjerapan:

Proses ini terjadi kalau gaya-gaya tarik


antara permukaan padatan-tanah
(adsorbent) dan komponen larutan-tanah
(adsorbat ) lebih besar dibandingkan gaya-
gaya tarik antara komponen terlarut dan
larutan tanah (solvent), serta gaya tolak
antara permukaan tanah dan spesies yang
dijerap.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH

Aggregation - Agregasi:

Partikel-partikel diikat (dipegang) bersama


menjadi unit-unit yang ukurannya beragam,
bentuknya bebreda-beda, dengan bvantuan
proses-proses fisika, kimiawi dan biologis.

Suatu Agregat dipisahkan dari agregat lainnya


melalui bidang permukaan yang lemah.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Alkalization - Alkalisasi:
Akumulasi kation Na; pembentukan Horison
natrik..

Audification - Pengasaman:
Akumulasi ion-ion H+.

Carbonation Karbonasi (calcification):


Akumulasi kalsium karbonat; pembentukan
Horison Kalsik atau Horison Petrokalsik.

Chelation- Khelasi Peng-khelat-an:


Pembentukan senyawa kompleks logam
dengan agen organik. Logal dijebak dalam
struktur cincin, sehingga menjadi sangat
stabil.
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013
PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Compaction Kompaksi - Pemadatan:
Reduksi fisik kandungan uadar tanah yang
mengakibatkan meningkatnya Bobot Isi.

Cryoturbation:
Pencampiran tanah akibat dari suhu rendah, mis.
Untuk merusak horison, memasukkan bahan organik
ke dalam horison bawah, dan untuk menata batu-
batu.

Dealkalization (solodization):
Pergerakan ion Na ke luar dari bagian tertentu profil
tanah.

Decarbonation (decalcification):
Pergerakan kalsium karbonat ke luar dari bagian
tertentu profil
DIUNDUH DARI: . tanah.
17/2/2013
PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Decomposition - Dekomposisi:
Penghancuran bahan mineral dan bahan organik
secara biokimiawi.

Dehydration - Dehidrasi:
Kehilangan air yang mengakibatkan suatu
senyawa kembali ke keadaan orisinalnya.

Deposition merupakan sedimentasi bahan yang


terangkut:
1. Akumulasi partikel tanah / colluvium
2. Akumulasi unsur hara / Peningkatan KTK
3. Pengkayaan partikel berukuran medium.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Desalinization - Desalinisasi:
Pergerakan garam-garam larut ke luar dari bagian tertentu profil
tanah.

Desilication - Desilikasi:
Pergerakan silika ke luar dari bagian tertentu profil tanah.

Diffusion (into and out of the soil):


Pertukaran udara antara atmosfir dan tanah karena pengaruh
tekanan partial gerakan massa.

Disaggregation - Disagregasi:
Hancurnya agregat atanah.

Dispersion - Dispersi:
Proses hancurnya struktur tanah dalam air dan memisah menjadi
separat komponen-komponennya.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH

Eluviation - Eluviasi:
Movement of material out of a section of the soil
profile (literally washing away of material);
depletion of the material washed away (e.g.
sequioxides, clay minerals, organic material)

Energy influx / outflux: Radiation absorption /


reflection:
1. Suhu Tanah
2. Aktivitas mikroba tanah -> humifikasi,
decomposition, mineralisasi
3. Evaporasi
4. Lengas tanah

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Erosi merupakan proses pengangkutan partikel
tanah (dan bahan organik) oleh air atau angin.

1. Pukulan tetes-tetes air hujan menyebabkan


hancurnya agregat tanah
2. Soil movement / removal of the A horizon
3. Smoothing or levelling of the soil surface
4. Loss of nutrients / decrease of CEC
5. Selective particle transport results in the
relative enrichment of coarse and fine particles
and depletion of medium-sized particles
6. Mereduksi infiltrasi / meningkatkan runoff /
mereduksi kandungan lengas tanah
7. Membentuk kerak di permukaan tanah.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Ferrugination:
Perkembangan warna tanah coklat, coklat kemerahan, dan
kemerahan.

Flocculation:
It is a process where the individual particles of clay are
coagulated to form floccular aggregates.

Gleization:
It involves the reduction of iron and its segregation into
redoximorphic features, or its removal by leaching form the
gleyed horizon; process occuring in poorly drained soil.

Humification - Humifikasi:
Pembentukan HUMUS dari bahan organik segar.

Hidration:
Penyerapan air oleh suatu senyawa dan membentuk senyawa
baru yang hanya sedikit berbeda dengan keadaan orisinalnya.
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013
Humification
1. Mendeskripsikan
penambahan bahan organik,
dan dekomposisi kimiawinya
menjadi dalam humus dan
asam organik
2. HUMUS merupakan material
berwarna gelap, yang
membuat tanah berwarna
hitam atau coklat
3. Breakdown of the humus
and organic acids also
produces high CO2
concentrations in the soil,
leading to carbonic acid and
another form of chemical
DIUNDUH DARI: weathering.
smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .
PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Hydrolysis:
Penggantian kation-kation dalam struktur mineral oleh
kation hidrogen dari larutan tanah.

Illuviation:
Movement of material into a section of the soil profile
(literally washing into or towards); accumulation of material
washed into (e.g. sequioxides, clay minerals, organic
material)

Induration:
Pengerasan sebagian profil tanah akibat asosiasi dengan
cadas besi dan plinthite, dan dengan agen-agen semen
lainnya (Si atau Ca).

Infiltration:
The entry of water into the soil surface
Rainwater infiltrates in the soil with soluble and suspended
DIUNDUH matter.
DARI: . 17/2/2013
PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Interflow (Subsurface flow, through flow, seepage): Lateral subsurface flow.

Lessivage:
Pergerakan mineral liat secara fisik ke arah bawah.

Leucinization (decoloration):
Pencerahan warna pada sebagian profil tanah pembentukan horison albik.

Melanization:
Darkening the color of light-colored mineral initial unconsolidated material
by mixture and accumulation of organic matter; formation of a mollic
horizon due to incorporation of organic matter.

Mineralization:
Pelepasan berbagai bentuk mineral selama dekomposisi bahan organik.

Neutralisasi: Menetralkan ion-ion H+.

Outflow:
Lessivage
1. Transport fisik material berukuran liat dari
horison permukaan ke lapisan bawah
(Translokasi)
2. Leads to reddish coloration and clay-rich
subsurface horizons
3. Iklim basah musiman

Modern California Argentina, 225 Million Year old


DIUNDUH DARI: smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/Lecture%202.ppt .
PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Oksidasi: Pembentukan oksida atau pelepasan elektron.

Pedoturbation: The churning and disruption of horizon formation by


biological, physical and to some extent chemical activity, such as
wetting and drying, swelling and contraction, freezing and
thawing, root pressures, animal burrowing, acitivty of man.

Podzolization: Process by which sequioxides are translocated in a


soil profile. The soluble ferrous iron forms ate the sites of
eluviation, and the insoluble ferric iron forms at the point of
illuviation. Podzolization is a soil forming process resulting in the
genesis of Podzols.

Precipitation (Pengendapan):
Pemisahan dan deposisi substansi padatan dari larutan.

Reduksi: Kehilangan oksigen atau penerimaan elektron.

Salinization:
Accumulation of soluble salts such as chlorides and sulphates of
Ca, Mg, Na, or K.
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013
PROSES PROSES GENESIS TANAH
Silication: Accumulation of silica.
Solifluction: Slow flow of saturated soil on a permanent frozen soil
(permafrost table).

Solution: Dissolving of minerals into solution (e.g. calcium carbonate into


bicarbonate).
Surface crusting (soil sealing): A process which results in the formation of soil
crusts on the soil surface, ranging in thickness from a few mm to perhaps as
much as 3 cm, that is much mor compact, hard and brittle, when dry, than
the material immediately beneath.
Surface runoff (overland flow): Discharge of rainwater over the surface of the
land. Surface runoff is composed of unconcentrated and concentrated flow.

Suspension: The floating of dispersed particles in a medium like water. It is


one of the states of particle transport of eroded sediments, especially for the
smaller and lighter particles such as clay.
Synthesis: Pembentukan senyawa baru secara biokimiawi dengan jalan
kombinasi unsur atau kompkinen-komponen tanah.

Upward movement: Pergerakan kapilaritas substansi terlarut dan tersuspensi.

DIUNDUH Pelapukan:
DARI: . 17/2/2013
PROSES
PEDOGENESIS TANAH
PEDOGENESIS TANAH
(SUMBER: (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10u.html)

Pedogenesis dapat didefinisikan sebagai proses


perkembangan tanah

Jenny believed that the kinds of soils that develop in a


particular area are largely determined by five
interrelated factors:
1.Iklim;
2.Organisme;
3.Bahan induk;
4.Topografi;
5. Waktu .

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
Pembentukan Tanah

Faktor-faktor Pasif
Bahan induk
Topografi / Landform
Waktu
Faktor-faktor aktif
Iklim
Faktor Biotik

DIUNDUH DARI: www.csbs.edu.hk/.../ppt/Soil%20and%20Soil%20Forming%20Proces........5/2/2013


PEDOGENESIS TANAH
(SUMBER: (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10u.html)

Perkemban
gan tanah
dipengaruhi
oleh lima
faktor yang
saling
berkaitan:

1.organisms
,
2.topograph
y,
3.time,
4.parent
material,
and
5.climate.
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013
PEDOGENESIS TANAH
(SUMBER: (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10u.html)

Iklim
Climate plays a very important role in the genesis of a soil. On the global
scale, there is an obvious correlation between major soil types and the
Kppen climatic classification systems major climatic types. At regional
and local scales, climate becomes less important in soil formation. Instead,
pedogenesis is more influenced by factors like parent material,
topography, vegetation, and time. The two most important climatic
variables influencing soil formation are temperature and moisture.
Temperature has a direct influence on the weathering of bedrock to
produce mineral particles. Rates of bedrock weathering generally increase
with higher temperatures. Temperature also influences the activity of soil
microorganisms, the frequency and magnitude of soil chemical reactions,
and the rate of plant growth.
Moisture levels in most soils are primarily controlled by the addition of
water via precipitation minus the losses due to evapotranspiration. If
additions of water from precipitation surpass losses from
evapotranspiration, moisture levels in a soil tend to be high. If the water
loss due to evapotranspiration exceeds inputs from precipitation, moisture
levels in a soil tend to be low. High moisture availability in a soil promotes
the weathering of bedrock and sediments, chemical reactions, and plant
growth.
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013
Faktor-faktor Pembentukan Tanah
FAKTOR IKLIM

Temperatur dan presipitasi (hujan)

Kontrol tidak langsung (mis. Tipe


tumbuhan)

Laju pelapukan

The greater the rainfall amount, the more


rapid the rate of both weathering and
erosion.

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


IKLIM

Pelapukan secara fisika diakibatkan


oleh agen-agen mekanik, seperti
pemanasan dan pendinginan,
pembekuan dan pencairan, abrasi.

Materials are still the same at the


molecular level.
Materials are classified by the way
they have been moved or scattered

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Iklim
Pelapukan kimiawi dihasilkan dari aksi-aksi air,
oksigen, dan CO2 pada batuan induk.

CO2 yang larut dalam air hujan membentuk asam


lemah, mempercepat proses pelapukan bahan
induk.

Materials that have been chemically weathered are


no longer the same at the molecular level.

Example Clay has been synthesized into


something physically and chemically different
from the parent rock.

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Faktor pembentuk tanah yang
aktif - Iklim
Air - Moisture
Aktivitas kimiawi dan biologis
Hujan berlebihan eluviasi dan illuviasi
Penguapan berlebih aksi kapilaritas air
dalam tanah

DIUNDUH DARI: www.csbs.edu.hk/.../ppt/Soil%20and%20Soil%20Forming%20Proces........5/2/2013


Faktor pembentuk tanah yang
aktif - Iklim

Temperatur
Reaksi-reaksi kimiawi
Aktivitas Bacteri
Laju dekomposisi bahan
organik

DIUNDUH DARI: www.csbs.edu.hk/.../ppt/Soil%20and%20Soil%20Forming%20Proces........5/2/2013


Faktor pembentuk tanah yang
aktif - Iklim

Angin - Wind: Faktor Minor


Meningkatkan penguapan air
(evaporasi)
Realokasi tanah (pengangkutan dan
akumulasi)

DIUNDUH DARI: www.csbs.edu.hk/.../ppt/Soil%20and%20Soil%20Forming%20Proces........5/2/2013


PEDOGENESIS TANAH
(SUMBER: (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10u.html)

ORGANISME
Living Organisms have a role in a number of processes
involved in pedogenesis including organic matter accumulation,
profile mixing, and biogeochemical nutrient cycling. Under
equilibrium conditions, vegetation and soil are closely linked with
each other through nutrient cycling.
The cycling of nitrogen and carbon in soils is almost completely
controlled by the presence of animals and plants. Through
litterfall and the process of decomposition, organisms add
humus and nutrients to the soil which influences soil structure
and fertility.

Vegetasi permukaan juga melindungi lapisan atas


suatu tanah dari efek erosi dengan jalan mengikat
permukaan tanah dan mereduksi kecepatan angin dan
kecepatan air yang mengalir di permukaan tganah.
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013
Faktor Pembentukan Tanah
Organisme
1. Tipe-tipe vegetasi alamiah
2. Pelapukan tergantung pada pertumbuhan tetumbuhan

3. Plant and animal activity produces humic acids that


are powerful weathering agents. [acids derived from
chemical breakdown of organic matter]
4. Plants can physically as well as chemically break down
rocks.

5. Tumbuhan menstabilkan profil tanah, Hewan


(termasuk manusia) cenderung meningkatkan erosi.

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Biota
Biota terdiri atas organisme hidup
seperti tumbuhan, hewan, serangga,
bakteri dan fungi.

Plants have the most important affect


because they determine the type &
amount of organic matter.
Animals & insects mix and aerate the soil
as well as add organic matter.

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Faktor pembentuk tanah yang aktif:
Biotik

Vegetasi:
1. Menyediakan hyumus, mengikat
tanah dan mengimbangi perkolasi
melalui transpirasi
2. Maintain fertility
3. Different types of vegetation require
different proportions of bases.
4. Pepohonan: Sedikti Ca dan Mg
5. Rerumputan: Kaya Ca dan Mg

DIUNDUH DARI: www.csbs.edu.hk/.../ppt/Soil%20and%20Soil%20Forming%20Proces........5/2/2013


Faktor pembentuk tanah yang aktif:
Biotik

Mulai dari Bakteri hingga hewan-


hewan besar
Mekanis
mis. Burrowing by earthworms
mis. Excavation by man
Kimiawi
Mis. Asam-asam organik

DIUNDUH DARI: www.csbs.edu.hk/.../ppt/Soil%20and%20Soil%20Forming%20Proces........5/2/2013


PEDOGENESIS TANAH
(SUMBER: (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10u.html)

BAHAN INDUK

Parent Material refers to the rock and mineral


materials from which the soils develop. These
materials can be derived from residual sediment due
to the weathering of bedrock or from sediment
transported into an area by way of the erosive forces
of wind, water, or ice.

Pedogenesis is often faster on transported sediments


because the weathering of parent material usually
takes a long period of time. The influence of parent
material on pedogenesis is usually related to soil
texture, soil chemistry, and nutrient cycling.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


BAHAN INDUK TANAH
1. Alluvium Hancuran Batuan yang halus,
diendapkan oleh aliran air, kebanyhakan
partikel debu dan liat, sebagian kecil
pasir.
2. Marine Deposits finely pulverized rock
laid down under sea. This material has
been thrust up by shifts in the earths
crust.
3. Loess material berdebu , seperti
bubukan- diendapkan oleh angin.
Sebagian besar debu dan liat, hanya
sedikit sekali pasir.

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Factors of Soil
Formation
Parent Material
Chemistry
Mineralogy
Grain size

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


PEDOGENESIS TANAH
(SUMBER: (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10u.html)

TOPOGRAFI RELIEF
Topografi umumnya memodifikasi perkembangan tanah
pada sekala lokal atau regional. Pedogenesis sangat
dipenngaruhi oleh efek topografi terhadap iklim mikro dan
drainage.

Soils developing on moderate to gentle slopes are often better


drained than soils found at the bottom of valleys. Good drainage
enhances an number of pedogenic processes of illuviation and
eluviation that are responsible for the development of soil
horizons. Under conditions of poor drainage, soils tend to be
immature. Steep topographic gradients inhibit the development
of soils because of erosion. Erosion can retard the development
through the continued removal of surface sediments. Soil
microclimate is also influenced by topography.

In the Northern Hemisphere, south facing slopes tend to be


warmer and drier than north facing slopes. This difference
results in the soils of the two areas being different in terms of
DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013
Topography

Topografi mencerminkan lay of the land


atau sudut dan panjang lereng.
Topografi mempengaruhi proses
pembentukan tanah karena ia
mempengaruhi runoff, drainage, dan erosi
tanah.
It also may affect the type & amount of
plant growth (biggest factor in determining
type & amount of organic matter)

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Topografi
Lereng Curam
Laju runoff sangat tinggi
Infiltrasi air hujan kurang
Lebih sedikit vegetasinya
Less organic matter
Increased erosion
Thinner surface soil
Slower formation/development

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Topografi
Kemiringan yang lebih landai
Runoff lebih sedikit
Infiltrasi air hujan lebih banyak
Pertumbuhan vegetasi lebih cepat dengan
menghasilkan banyak bahan organik
Less erosion
Deeper surface soil
Faster formation/development
Excessive water can slow
development

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Faktor-faktor Pembentukan Tanah

Topografi:
Kemiringan muka lahan
Elevasi (Ketinggian tempat)
Aspek lereng (lereng menghadap ke
urata atau ke selatan)

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Faktor-faktor Pembentukan Tanah
Transport material tanah menuruni
lereng merupakan fungsi kemiringan:

Erosion rate = f(S)

Lereng lebih curam, erosi lebih cepat.

The steeper the surface slope, the


more likely any eroded material is to
be transported out of the system.

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Faktor-faktor Pembentukan Tanah
1. Tanah-tanah pada lereng-bukit biasanya mencapai
ketebalan setimbang , sekitar 1m.
2. Soils on flat surfaces, such as floodplains or plateaus,
tend to thicken through time due to weathering rates
being greater than sediment transport rates.

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


PEDOGENESIS TANAH
(SUMBER: (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10u.html)

WAKTU
Time influences the temporal consequences of
all of the factors described above. Many soil
processes become steady state overtime when a
soil reaches maturity.

Proses pedogenesis pada tanah-tanah muda


biasanya mengalami modifikasi aktif melalui
mekanisme umpan-balik positif dan negatif
dalam rangka mencapai kesetimbangan.

DIUNDUH DARI: . 17/2/2013


Waktu

As soon as material has become loose


enough to hold enough water, air,
and nutrients for plant growth, it is
considered a soil.

Pembentukan / perkembangan tanah


dapat berlangsung selama beberapa
abad atau hanya beberapa hari saja.

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Waktu
Tanah-tanah Muda
Asalnya dari bahan vulkanik atau aluvial
Mempunyai kesuburan lebih baik
Profil tanah belum berkembang lanjut
Usually they are highly productive.
Where are the youngest soils in
Louisiana located?

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Waktu

Tanah-tanah Tua
1. Profil tanah berkembang dnegan baik
2. Kandungan liatnya meningkat semakin
tinggi
3. pH tanah lebih masam
4. Nutrients are leached
5. Lower fertility & productivity than
younger soils.

DIUNDUH DARI: freshman.lpsb.org/.../Soil%20Science/....... 10/2/2013


Faktor-faktor Pembentukan Tanah
1. Waktu untuk perkembangan dan destruksi
profil tanah

2. Typical chemical reaction rates are slow


the longer a rock unit has been exposed, the
more likely it is to be weathered

3. Semakin lama material-tanah menunggu


sebelum diangkut, maka ia akan mnejadi
semakin tebal ..

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


PROSES-PROSES
PEDOGENIK
Banyak proses yang terlibat dalam
transformasi bahan induk tanah menjadi
horison-horison tanah.
The exact combinations of these processes
and reactions are however not known.

If the combination is dominated by a


particular process, it is usually assigned a
name. e.g., laterization, podzolization
were commonly used as simplifications.

DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..


Proses-proses Pedogenik yang utama

Proses-proses Pedogenik dapat


dikelompokkan menjadi empat, yaitu:
Penambahan atau Pengkayaan
Kehilangan atau Pengambilan
Translokasi atau Transfer
Transformasi

Each major pedogenic process is made up of


a number of processes acting singly or in
combination

DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..


Penambahan atau Pengkayaan
Enrichment - Pengkayaan
General term for addition of material to a soil
body. e.g., adjoining pedons as in depressions.
Cummulization
Aeolian and hydrologic additions of mineral
particles to the surface of a soil. The effects are
more pronounced in depressions.
Littering
The accumulation of vegetable and associated
faunal debris (litter) including humus on the
mineral soil surface to a depth of less than 30cm
Melanization - Melanisasi
The darkening of light-colored mineral materials
which are initially unconsolidated by admixture of
organic matter. Melanization involves some
translocation.
DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..
Penambahan ke tanah
Input dari luar ekosistem
Input dari atmosfir
Precipitation, dust, deposition
Input Horisontal
Floods, tidal exchange, erosion, land-
water movement

Input dari dalam ekosistem


Seresah dedaunan dan akar-akar yang
mati turnover

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Kehilangan atau Pengambilan

Erosi tanah
surficial removal of material from the
surface layer of a soil This is effected by
raindrop splash, runoff waters, wind,
creep, and other mass wasting
processes.
Pencucian
Pencucian atau eluviasi material terlarut
dari solum tanah.

DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..


Translokasi atau Transfer
1. Eluviasi: Pergerakan material ke luar dari
bagian tertentu profil tanah, seperti pada
Horison Albik.
2. Iluviasi: Pergerakan material memasuki
bagian tertentu profil tanah, seperti pada
Horison Argilik dan Spodik

3. Lessivage: Washing in suspension of fine clay


and lesser amounts of coarse clay and fine silt
down cracks and other voids in a soil body;
leading to the depletion of clay in the A
horizon and enrichment of clay in the B
horizon.
4. Pedoturbation: Biologic, physical (freeze-thaw
DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..
Kalsifikasi
Processes including the accumulation of calcium
carbonate in a Ck and possibly other horizons of a
soil.
Dekalsifikasi
Reactions that remove calcium carbonate from one
or more soil horizons.
Salinization
The accumulation of soluble salts such as sulfates
and chlorides of calcium, magnesium, sodium and
potassium in salty (salic) 'horizons.
Desalinization
The removal of soluble salts from salic horizons.
Alkalization (solonization)
The accumulation of sodium ions on the exchange
sites in a soil.
Dealkalization (solodization)
The leaching of sodium ions and salts from sodium-
DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..
Leucinization
The paling of soil horizons by disappearance of dark organic
materials either through transformation to light- colored ones or
through removal from the horizons.
Braunification, Rubification and Ferrugination-
Release of iron from primary minerals and the dispersion of particles
of iron oxide in increasing amounts; the progressive oxidation or
hydration, giving the soil mass brownish, reddish-brown and red
colors, respectively. (Also transformation).
Gleization
The reduction of iron under anaerobic water-logged soil conditions,
with the production of bluish to greenish-gray matrix colors, with or
without yellowish-brown, brown and black mottles and ferric and
manganiferous concretions.

Podzolization (silication)
The chemical migration of aluminum and iron and/or organic matter,
resulting in the concentration of silica (i.e. silication) in the layer
eluviated. (Also transformation)
Laterization (desilication, ferrugination, ferritization,
allitization)
The chemical migration of silica out of the soil solum and thus the
concentration of sesquioxides in the solum (goethite, gibbsite, etc.)

DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..


Transformations
Decomposition
The breakdown of mineral and organic materials
Mineralization
The release of oxide solids during decomposition of
organic. It concerns the biochemical breakdown of
dead plant tissues by soil micro-organisms to
produce simple-structured soluble organic
substances, purely mineral compounds like nitrates,
and metal cations and gases (mostly carbon
dioxide)
Humification
Transformation of raw organic material into humus.
In this the simple structured soluble organic
substances are grouped into lager molecules by
polymerization They then become poorly soluble
and are stabilized to form a major component of
humus
DIUNDUH
Synthesis
DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..
Paludization:
Akumulasi bahan organik dalam lapisan
tebal (> 30 cm) sebagai mucks dan
peats.

Ripening
Perubahan tanah organik secara kimiawi,
biologis dan fisik setelah udara
menembus deposit organik, sehingga
memungkinkan aktivitas mikroba
berlangsung intensif.

DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..


Transformasi
Decomposition of organic matter
Breakdown to form soluble compounds that can be
absorbed leached away
Depends on input quantity, location (roots, leaves),
environment (temp & precip)
Humifikasi membentuk bahan organik
kompleks

Pelapukan batuan
Pelapukan Fisika / fragmentasi batuan
Freeze-thaw; drying-wetting; fire
Pelapukan kimiawi
Mineral primer Mineral sekunder
DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..
Proses-proses Pedogenesis
Setiap proses pedogenesis dapat mempengaruhi
banyak senyawa dan komponen penyusun tanah.
Misalnya, proses-proses penambahan, kehilangan,
transfer, dan transformasi bahan organik, garam larut,
karbonat dan sesquioksida.
Organic matter may be added to the soil by littering; it
may be transformed by decomposition; it may be
translocated by podzolization and it may be lost by
erosion.
These processes can all be going on singly or in
combination with other processes to give rise to the
soil profile.
However, not all of the processes will necessarily
promote horizon differentiation.
Some of the processes may actually retard or offset
differentiation e.g. pedoturbation.
DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..
Proses-proses pembentukan tanah
Efek kombinasi dari:

Penambahan ke
permukaan
Transformasi
kimiawi
Transfer vertikal
Pengusiran dari
tanah

Peranan relatifnya
beragam

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Perkembangan Horison Tanah
Perkembangan Horison A
Akumulasi bahan organik
Penggerombolan individual partikel tanah
Berbeda dari bahan induk dan lapisan lainnya.

Perkembangan Horison B dan C


Carbonic and organic acids are carried by water into soil
where dissolve various minerals (transformations)
Soluble materials (ions Ca2+, CO32-, SO42-, etc) are
carried by water and precipitate in the soil from upper to
lower horizons (translocation)
Weathering of primary minerals into secondary minerals
Wetting and drying cracks soils and makes structures.

DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..


Perkembangan Horison Tanah

DIUNDUH DARI: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.../soils/Pedogenic%20Processes.ppt ..


Bahan induk (bedrock) mengalami pelapukan
menjadi regolith (tanah + saprolite).

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Tanah (Soil) merupakan campuran bahan mineral
dan bahan organik , struktur batuan induknya
kurang nampak.

Soil

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Saprolite adalah batuan terlapuk yang masih
menampakkan struktur batuan asalnya.

Saprolit
e

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Horizon dan Profil Tanah
Horison Tanah
over time, soil layers differentiate into distinct
horizons
not deposited, but zones of chemical action
Reaksi kimia dan pembentukan mineral sekunder (liat)
Pencucian oleh air infiltrasi (elluviasi)
Deposisi dan akumulasi material yang tercuci dari
bagian di sebelah atas, dalam suatu tanah (illuviasi)

Profil Tanah
Suite of horizons at a given locality

DIUNDUH DARI: gis.ess.washington.edu/grg/courses/ess230/lectures/Soils_2012.ppt ..


Deskripsi
PROFIL
TANAH

. Selanjutnya .

Bundaran Kantor Pusat


Kampus UB