Anda di halaman 1dari 36

1.

11

Fracture Gradients

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 1


Prediction of Fracture Gradients
Well Planning
Theoretical Fracture Gradient Determination
Hubbert & Willis
Matthews & Kelly
Ben Eaton
Comparison of Results
Experimental Frac. Grad. Determination
Leak-off Tests

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 2


Well Planning
Safe drilling practices require that the
following be considered when
planning a well:
Pore pressure determination
Fracture gradient determination
Casing setting depth selection
Casing design

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 3


Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress

Given: Well depth is 14,000 ft.


Formation pore pressure expressed
in equivalent mud weight is 9.2 lb/gal.
Overburden stress is 1.00 psi/ft.
Calculate:
1. Pore pressure, psi/ft , at 14,000 ft
2. Pore pressure, psi, at 14,000 ft
3. Matrix stress, psi/ft
4. Matrix stress, psi
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 4
Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress

S =S PP +

overburden pore matrix
stress
Fracture Gradients
= pressure + stress 1.11- 5
Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress
Depth = 14,000 ft.
Pore Pressure = 9.2 lb/gal equivalent
Calculations:
Overburden stress = 1.00 psi/ft.

1. Pore pressure gradient


= 0.433 psi/ft * 9.2/8.33 = 0.052 * 9.2
= 0.478 psi/ft
2. Pore pressure at 14,000 ft
= 0.478 psi/ft * 14,000 ft
= 6,692 psig
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 6
Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress

Calculations:
3. Matrix stress gradient,
S P psi
S P
or psi/ft
D D D
S P
i.e., 1.000 0.478 psi / ft
D D D

/ D = 0.522 psi/ft
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 7
Formation Pressure and Matrix Stress

Calculations:

4. Matrix stress at 14,000 ft

= 0.522 psi/ft * 14,000 ft

= 7,308 psi

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 8


Fracture Gradient Determination

In order to avoid lost circulation while


drilling it is important to know the variation
of fracture gradient with depth.

Leak-off tests represent an experimental


approach to fracture gradient
determination. Below are listed and
discussed three approaches to calculating
the fracture gradient.
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 9
Fracture Gradient Determination

1 2P
1. Hubbert & Willis: Fmin 1
3 D
1 P
Fmax 1
2 D
where F = fracture gradient, psi/ft
P
= pore pressure gradient, psi/ft
D

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 10


Fracture Gradient Determination

2. Matthews & Kelly:

K i P
F
D D

where Ki = matrix stress coefficient


= vertical matrix stress, psi
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 11
Fracture Gradient Determination

3. Ben Eaton:

S P P
F *
D 1 D

where S = overburden stress, psi


= Poissons ratio

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 12


Example

A Texas Gulf Coast well has a pore pressure


gradient of 0.735 psi/ft. Well depth = 11,000 ft.

Calculate the fracture gradient in units of


lb/gal using each of the above three
methods.

Summarize the results in tabular form, showing


answers, in units of lb/gal and also in psi/ft.
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 13
Example - Hubbert and Willis

1. Hubbert & Willis: 1 2P


Fmin 1
3 D
P psi
The pore pressure gradient, 0.735
D ft

1 psi
Fmin 1 2 *0.735 0.823
3 ft
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 14
Example - Hubbert and Willis

Also,
0.823 psi/ft
Fmin
psi/ft
0.052
lb/gal

Fmin 15.83 lb/gal

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 15


Example - Hubbert and Willis

1 P 1
Fmax 1 1 0.735
2 D 2

= 0.8675 psi/ft

Fmax = 16.68 lb/gal

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 16


Example

P K i
2. Matthews & Kelly F
D D
In this case P and D are known, may be
calculated, and K i is determined graphically.

(i) First, determine the pore pressure gradient.


P
0.735 psi / ft (given )
D
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 17
Example - Matthews and Kelly

(ii) Next, calculate the matrix stress.

S=P+ S overburden, psi


matrix stress, psi

=S-P
= 1.00 * D - 0.735 * D P pore pressure, psi
D depth , ft
= 0.265 * D
= 0.265 * 11,000
= 2,915 psi
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 18
Example - Matthews and Kelly

(iii) Now determine the depth, D i , where,


under normally pressured conditions, the
rock matrix stress, would be 2,915 psi.
Sn = Pn + n n = normal
1.00 * Di = 0.465 * Di + 2,915
Di * (1 - 0.465) = 2,915

2,915
Di 5,449 ft
0.535
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 19
Example -
Matthews and
Kelly

(iv) Find Ki from


the plot on the
right, for
Di = 5,449 ft

For a south Texas


Gulf Coast well,
Ki = 0.685
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 20
Example - Matthews and Kelly
K i P
(v) Now calculate F: F
D D

0.685 * 2,915
F 0.735
11,000
0.9165 psi / ft
0.9165
F 17.63 lb / gal
0.052
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 21
5,449
Depth, Di

0.685

Fracture Gradients Ki 1.11- 22


Example

Ben Eaton:

S P P
F *
D 1 D

S
? ?
D
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 23
Variable Overburden Stress by
Eaton

At 11,000 ft
S/D = 0.96 psi/ft

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 24


Fig. 5-5

At 11,000 ft
= 0.46

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 25


Example - Ben Eaton

From above graphs, S P P


F
D D 1 D
at 11,000 ft.:
S
0.96 psi / ft; 0.46
D


0.46
F 0.96 0.735 0.735
1 0.46
F = 0.9267 psi/ft
= 17.82 lb/gal
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 26
Summary of Results

Fracture Gradient
psi.ft lb/gal
Hubbert & Willis minimum: 0.823 15.83
Hubbert & Willis maximum: 0.868 16.68
Mathews & Kelly: 0.917 17.63
Ben Eaton: 0.927 17.82

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 27


Summary of Results
Note that all the methods take into
consideration the pore pressure gradient.
As the pore pressure increases, so does
the fracture gradient.

In the above equations, Hubbert & Willis


apparently consider only the variation in
pore pressure gradient. Matthews &
Kelly also consider the changes in rock
matrix stress coefficient, and in the
matrix stress ( Ki and i ).

Fracture Gradients 1.11- 28


Summary of Results

Ben Eaton considers


variation in pore pressure gradient,
overburden stress and
Poissons ratio,

and is probably the most accurate of


the three methods. The last two
methods are actually quite similar, and
usually yield similar results.
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 29
Similarities

Ben Eaton:

S P P
F *
D 1 D

Ki P
F
D D

Matthews and Kelly:


Fracture Gradients 1.11- 30
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 31
Experimental Determination of
Fracture Gradient

The leak-off test

Run and cement casing


Drill out ~ 10 ft
below the casing seat
Close the BOPs
Pump slowly and
monitor the pressure
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 32
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 33
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 34
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 35
Fracture Gradients 1.11- 36