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PRESSURE BUILD UP

Persamaan Dasar Tekanan Transient


Sebagai titik tolak dari well testing, perlu
dibahas persamaan persamaan dasar dari aliran
fluida dalam media berpori yang akan menjadi
basis teori tekanan transien
CARA-CARA PENGUJIAN DAN ANALISA

Pressure Build Up Testing (PBU)


Pressure Drawdown Testing (PDD)
Type Curve Matching dan Pressure Derivative
Multiple Rate Testing (two rate flow test, injection rate test)
Multiple Well Testing ( Interference test, Pulse test)
Drill Stem Test (DST)
Well test pada reservoir gas
Persamaan tersebut diatas dikenal sebagai solusi
disaat kondisi reservoir bersifat infinite acting
Fungsi Ei (-x) ini dapat dicari dari Tabel Ei.
Untuk harga x < 0.02, maka Ei (-x) dapat didekati
dengan persamaan dibawah ini dengan ketelitian < 0.6
%

E i ( x ) ln( 1.781 x )
Sehingga Solusi Persamaan diffusivitas
menjadi :
2
q B 1688 ct r
p pi 70.6 ln
kh kt
PBU
Adalah suatu teknik pengujian transien
tekanan yang dilakukan dengan
memproduksikan sumur selama suatu
selang waktu tertentu dengan laju aliran
tetap kemudian diikuti dengan menutup
sumur tersebut.

q tp Dt

t
Tujuan PBU well testing:
Menentukan kemampuan suatu lapisan /formasi untuk berproduksi.
Jika pengujian sumur dirancang dengan baik dan memadai,
hasilnya
dianalisa secara tepat, maka banyak informasi karakteristik
reservoir
yang bisa didapat.

Informasi Karakteristik Reservoir Yang didapat:

1. Permeabilitas Efektif fluida (ko)


2. Kerusakan/perbaikan formasi disekeliling lubang bor (S).
3. Tekanan Reservoir (Pi)
4. Batas suatu reservoir
5. Bentuk radius pengurasan
6. Keheterogenan suatu lapisan
Prinsip Superposisi

q tp dt

t1

q1
q1 berproduksi selama (tp+dt)
q

q q2 berproduksi selama (dt)


(q2-q1)

t1
qB 1688Ct rw2
Pi Pws 70.6 ln 2S
kh k ( tp t )

0 q B 1688Ct rw2
70.6 ln 2s
kh kt

qB t p t
Pws Pi 70.6 ln
kh t
atau
qB t p t
Pws Pi 162.6 log

kh t
qB tp t
pws pi 162.6 log
kh t

y mx b

qB
m 162.6
kh
Buildup Test
Straight Line Analogy

162.6qB
k
mh

tp t
pi b @ 1
t
Horner Pseudoproducing
Time

24Np
tp
qlast
Buildup Test Graph
2000

1900
pi
1800
Pressure, psi

1700

1600 dP slope

dt
1500

1400
10000 1000 100 10 1
Horner time ratio
Estimating Skin Factor From A
Buildup Test

p1hr p wf k
s 1.151 log10 3.23
c trw
2
m
A. IDEAL PRESSURE BUILD UP

If a well is shut-in after it has produced at rate q for time tp and the bottom-
hole pressure pws is recorded at time dt, then a plot of pws versus log (tp
dt)/dt will give a straight line, which is represented by the following equation:

; and the skin factor :


EXAMPLE : Ideal Pressure Build Up
6. Read original reservoir pressure pi = 1960psia.

IDEAL PRESSURE BUILDUP GRAPH.


Exercise 2
Determining permeability and
reservoir pressure from buildup tests
Exercise 2
2800

2750

2700
Pressure, psi

2650

2600

2550

2500
1000 100 10 1
Horner Time Ratio
B. ACTUAL PRESSURE BUILD UP

Early-time region (ETR). In this region, a pressure transient is moving through


the formation nearest the wellbore.
Middle-time region (MTR). In this region, the pressure transient has moved
away from the wellbore into the bulk formation.
Late-time region (LTR). In this region, the pressure transient has reached the
drainage boundaries well.
TECHNIQUE FOR ANALYZE PBU TEST
WELLBORE STORAGE

Well bore Storage is caused when the


flow rate at the wellhead is different than
the flow rate at sandface. It is usually
caused by well bore unloading,
After flow Analysis, or changing fluid
levels. Data affected by well bore storage
effects contain little or no information
about the reservoir.
WELLBORE STORAGE /AFTER FLOW
EXAMPLE Analyzing Single-Phase and Single-Rate Pressure Buildup Test

A single-phase and single-rate pressure buildup test was conducted on an oil


well. The data is given in Table. The following well/reservoir parameters are
given: Bo = 1.224 rb/stb, h = 55 ft, Poro = 0.06, rw = 0.21 ft, co = 1.5 x 10-6,
and Viso = 0.65 cP, psc = 14.65 psia, T = 2000F, re = 1520ft, and Rho0 =
53.51bm/ft3.
Assume the well is draining from the center of a square. Well depth = 4500 ft,
q/ = final production rate at shut-in time = 250 stb/day, and cumulative
production at shut-in time = 141,979 stb.

Determine the following:


1. At what shut-in time At does afterflow cease and boundary effect appear?
2. Formation permeability, k
3. Skin factor, s
4. Additional pressure drop near the wellbore, (Ap)skin
5. Effective wellbore radius, rwa
6. Flow efficiency FE using p*
7. Damage ratio DR using/?*
8. Productivity index, PI
9. Radius of investigation by the shut-in transient at the start and end of the MTR
10. End of wellbore storage distortion.
Log-log single-rate buildup data plot.
Semilog single-rate buildup data plot.
SOLUTION
1. Estimate the pseudo-producing time, tp,

2. Determine end of wellbore storage, time at beginning MTR and end of MTR

From the semilog graph, seems afterflow distortion disappears at (tp+dt)/dt =


2280 or dt = 6.25 hours, because of the end of the S-shaped characteristic
curve.

3. Determine p1hr and p*

p1hr = 4295psia and p* at (tp + dt)/dt = 4577psia

4. Determine permeability
5. Determine other parameter s, dPskin, rwa, FE, DR, PI, rinv.
Data test Pressure Build up yang dilakukan pada sumur US # 01
setelah diplot antara Pws vs (tp+t)/t pada kertas grafik semilog
adalah seperti terlihat pada Gambar 1. Sedangkan Gambar 2
memperlihatkan log-log plot antara (Pws Pwf) vs te.
Data yang lain adalah :
qo = 250 STB/Hari
Cp

RB/STB
Ct = 17 x 10-6 psi-1
rw = 0.198 ft
re = 1.489 ft
Awb = 0.0218 ft2
lbm/ft3
h = 69 ft
Pwf = 3534 psi
1000
Pws -Pwf

100 EOWB = 6 jam


0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0

te
COMPUTATIONAL MODEL

A computational model that describes the relationship between the pressure,


flow rate and reservoir rock and fluids properties In its simplest form is the
diffusivity equation for a well in the center of a circular, homogeneous,
horizontal reservoir, uniform thickness and a 1 phase fluid that obeys Darcy's
law.

While the equation cannot be solved directly, indirect techniques


provide a satisfactory estimate using numerical computation.

The actual reservoir model is constructed from the basic equation but
take into account the geometry of the reservoir (radial, linear, elliptical
or spherical), number and types of fluids and the flow regime.

The flow geometry for that area affected by the test can be the most
common model used to represent the pressure behavior of the reservoir is
radial flow, where all flow occurs radially toward the well between
impermeable upper and lower boundaries at a constant surface flow rate.
The interpretation of test data will yield average reservoir properties even
when reservoir heterogeneities exist.
WELL TEST DATA INTERPRETATION

There are three major steps to a unified approach to well test data interpretation:

1. Identification of the proper model for the classification of the reservoir


(finite, infinite, homogeneous, dual porosity, dual permeability, skin,
fractures).
2. Specific analysis and calculations to estimate well and reservoir
characteristics.
3. Verification of results to ensure that the process resulted in the best
answer.

Well test interpretation is based on patterns of pressure change and


the derivative of pressure change to identify the type of reservoir
behavior.
AN EFFECTIVE WAY TO INTERPRET PRESSURE DATA

1. Use a Diagnostic graph.


A diagnostic graph is a plot of the pressure change and the derivative of
the pressure change versus time on log-log paper. It can be used to
identify each flow period. Behavior specific plots can be useful to
identify heterogeneous behavior, effects of wellbore storage and high
and low conductivity fractures
2. Calculate basic reservoir parameters, such as the kh, skin and well
bore storage capacity. This can be done conventionally, through the
use of specific plots, or with type curves.
3. Compare the result from well to well and from time to time with the
same well for matching or method is to prepare and analyze a
dimensionless semi-log plot .
4. Used calculated parameters as input simulator and run to see if it
matches the input data.