Anda di halaman 1dari 37

AUTOCAD

ACT AN ACADEMY OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Ihr Logo
WHAT IS AUTOCAD ?
AutoCAD is a CAD (Computer Aided Design or Computer Aided Drafting) software
application for 2D and 3D design and drafting. It is developed and sold by Autodesk, Inc. First
released in December 1982, AutoCAD was one of the first CAD programs to run on personal
computers.

AutoCAD is a Computer Aided Design (CAD) program used by just about every Engineering and
Design office in the world. Although there are alternative CAD packages, AutoCAD is by far the
most widely used system. Autodesk's AutoCAD is the industry leader in CAD packages. Used by
Civil Engineers, Architects, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Aeronautical Engineers plus
many other disciplines.

There have been several versions of Autocad over the years, with each new version introducing
new and more powerful features than its predecessor

Here comes your footer Page 2 Your Logo


WHAT IS CAD?

Computer aided design is a creative design process that is based on a computer system. It can

be either hardware or software based; however, it is usually a software based program that is

used for design purposes. This design process uses computer technology to assist certain types

of professionals in the design and drawing of technical drawings. Computer aided design is also

referred to as CAD or Computer aided drafting.

Here comes your footer Page 3 Your Logo


AUTOCAD WINDOW

Drawing Name
Standard Toolbar Object Properties
Toolbar Optional Toolbar
Pull-down Menu
Locations
Cursor Headings

Coordinate
Display
Status Line

Here comes your footer Page 4 Your Logo


Drawing Area
The large area in the center of the screen.

This is where you draw.

The size can be changed at any time.

Model
Switches your drawing between paper

space and model space.

Here comes your footer Page 5 Your Logo


CrossHairs/ Cursor

The movement is controlled by the

movement of the pointing device (mouse).

Use to locate points, make selections and

draw objects.

Here comes your footer Page 6 Your Logo


Command Line
The three lines at the bottom of the

screen.

This is where you enter commands and

AutoCAD will prompt you to input

information.

The number of lines visible can be

changed.

Here comes your footer Page 7 Your Logo


Status Bar
Displays your content settings

The settings can be turned on/off by clicking on the word (SNAP, GRID, ORTHO, etc) or by

pressing the function keys associated with each.

Here comes your footer Page 8 Your Logo


2. Introducing Tool Bars

You can see there is a number of different tool bars on the screen.
The main tool bar which is located under the Menu bar. These are the most frequently used tool bars. If you
place your mouse on it and right click, you will get a list of other tool bars that you may want to display (by
scrolling down and clicking on them).
This tool bar offers

different ways of

This tool bar offers editing your drawing(s).

different shapes *Remember the name of the command that pops up in the
help balloon by putting your mouse over each button.
and objects to
If you remember the command, you can later type it in the
draw. You can command line and achieve the same result.

see what they do

by putting your

mouse on each one

and waiting until

a balloon with

description pops up.

Here comes your footer Page 9 Your Logo


Toolbars
There are many toolbars available in AutoCAD. Go to View > Toolbars from the drop down

menu to see them all. For now make sure that the following toolbars are checked:

Draw - Contains AutoCADs most common drawing tools

Modify - Contains all of the common editing commands such as erase, copy etc.

Object Properties - Contains 'layer' information as well as object colours and line style options.

Standard Toolbar - Contains open & save options as well as zoom & pan options.

Object Snap - AutoCAD's intelligent drawing aid - joins lines at specific points.

Here comes your footer Page 10 Your Logo


CAD Coordinate System
Any point in CAD can be located precisely using X, Y and Z coordinates.

The Cartesian coordinate system has three axes: X, Y, and Z that intersect at the origin (0,0,0).

Coordinate values are always expressed as: (X, Y, Z)

Coordinates in CAD: ANGLES in CAD:

Here comes your footer Page 11 Your Logo


AutoCAD Coordinates System

There is only 3 AutoCAD coordinates system you


should know.
Absolute coordinates

Relative coordinates

Polar coordinates.

Here comes your footer Page 12 Your Logo


Absolute Coordinates
All input points specify in your drawing using standard Cartesian coordinates x and y.

Using absolute coordinate, points entered by typing x,y [Enter]

Here comes your footer Page 13 Your Logo


Relative Coordinates
After first points entered, your next points can be entered by specifying the next

coordinate compare/relative from the first points. The relative coordinate started with

symbol @ tell AutoCAD it was a relative coordinates. Using relative coordinate, points

entered by typing @x,y [Enter]

Here comes your footer Page 14 Your Logo


Polar Coordinates
Polar coordinates used when you need to draw the next points at specify angle. Polar

coordinates system in AutoCAD specifies distance length at which angle. Using polar

coordinate, points entered by typing @distance<angle [Enter]

Here comes your footer Page 15 Your Logo


Function Keys

F1 HELP F7 GRID

F2 FLIPSCREEN F8 ORTHO

F3 OSNAP F9 SNAP

F4 TABLET F10 POLAR

F5 ISOPLANE F11 OTRACK

F6 COORDINATE DISPLAY

Here comes your footer Page 16 Your Logo


Special Function Keys

ESC- Cancels the current command,

menu, or dialog box.

ENTER- Ends a command; or will repeat

the previous command if the command

line is blank

SPACE BAR- Same as the end key

except when entering text.

Here comes your footer Page 17 Your Logo


Coordinate Display (F6)
In the ABSOLUTE mode: Displays the location of the crosshairs/ cursor in reference

to the origin. The first number represents the horizontal (x axis) and the second

number represents the vertical (y axis).

In RELATIVE POLAR mode: displays the distance and angle of the cursor from the

last point entered.

Here comes your footer Page 18 Your Logo


SNAP (F9)
Increment Snap controls the movement of the cursor. If it is off the cursor will move

smoothly. If it is ON, the cursor will jump in an incremental movement. The increment

spacing can be changed, at any time using TOOLS/DRAFTING SETTINGS. The

default spacing is .250

Here comes your footer Page 19 Your Logo


GRID (F7)
The grid is merely a visual drawing aid. The default spacing is 1 unit. You may

change the grid spacing at any time using: TOOLS/DRAFTING SETTINGS.

ORTHO (F8)
When ORTHO is ON, the cursor movement is restricted to horizontal or vertical.

When ORTHO is OFF, the cursor is free to move.

Here comes your footer Page 20 Your Logo


POLAR (F10)
POLAR TRACKING creates alignment paths at specified angles.

OSNAP (F3)
RUNNING OBJECT SNAP- specific object snaps can be set to stay active until you

turn them off.

OTRACK (F11)
OBJECT SNAP TRACKING creates alignment paths at precise positions using

object snap locations.

Here comes your footer Page 21 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
1.Line This command is used to draw the line, you can choose the command from your toolbar or write L at
command prompt

LINETYPE This option is basically used to change the type of line you can change your continuous
line in to center, dashed zigzag and many other types. For this click on the line or any other object you
want to change than select the line type control from properties toolbar as you click on this option all
the line type will show click on the line which you want selected line will change in to that.

LINEWEIGHT This option is use to change thickness of line this change will show only in Printing not
on computer Click on the line or any other object you want to change than select the line weight Control
from properties toolbar as you click this option all weights will show click on the thickness you want
thickness of selected line will change.

COLORCONTROL This option is use to change color of any object click on the line or any other
object you want to change than select the color control from properties toolbar as you click this option
all colors will show click on the color you want color of selected object will change.

Here comes your footer Page 22 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
2.Circle This command is used to draw the circle, you can choose the command from your toolbar or write
C at command prompt.

3. Polygon This command is used to draw the figure of three sides or more than three sides, you can
choose the command from your toolbar or write Pol at command prompt.

4.Rectangle This command is used to draw the rectangle, you can choose the command from your toolbar
or you can write Rec at command prompt

5.Arc This command is used to draw the arc, you can choose the command directly from your toolbar or
write A at command prompt

6.Xline This command is used to draw the construction line, you can choose the command from your
toolbar or write XL at command prompt

7. Erase- This command is used to draw erase the objects, you can choose the command from your toolbar
or can E at command prompt

8. Copy - This command is used to copy the objects, you can choose the command from your toolbar or write
Cp at command prompt

Here comes your footer Page 23 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
9. Move- This command is used to move the objects, you can choose the command from your toolbar or write
M at command prompt

10. Mirror-this command is used to mirror the objects you can choose the command from your toolbar or write
Mi at command prompt

11. Rotate- this command is used to rotate the objects you can choose the command from your toolbar or
write Ro at command prompt

12. Offset- this command is used to offset the objects you can choose the command from your toolbar or
write O at command prompt

13. Array- this command is used to array the objects you can choose the command from your toolbar or write
Ar at command prompt

14. Scale- this command is use to scale the drawing you can choose the command from your toolbar or write
Sc at command prompt.

15. Stretch- this command is use to stretch the drawing you can choose the command from your toolbar or
write Stretch at command prompt

16. Trim- this command is use to trim the two corners you can choose the command from your toolbar or write
Tr at command prompt.

Here comes your footer Page 24 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
17. Extend- this command is use to extend the line you can choose the command from your toolbar or write
Ex at command prompt.

18. Fillet- this command is use join the two corners with the help of an arc you can choose the command from
your toolbar or write F at command prompt.

19. Chamfer- this command is use to chamfer the two corners you can choose the command from your
toolbar or write Cha at command prompt.

20. Explode - this command is use to explode the single identity pf an object. You can explode hatch,
dimensions and blocks any thing which is in group form choose the command from your toolbar or write
Explode at command prompt.

21. Break - this command is use to break the line or circle between the two points choose the command from
your toolbar or write Br at command prompt.

22. Polyline - this command is use to draw the line composed of one or more connected line segments or
circular arcs treated as a single object. Choose the command from your toolbar or write Pl at command
prompt.

Here comes your footer Page 25 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
23. Hatch - this command is use to hatch the close figure. Choose the command from your toolbar or write H
at command prompt.

24. Dtext - this command is use to write the text. Write DT at command prompt.

25. Mtext - this command is use to write the multi line text. Choose the command from your toolbar or write
MT at command prompt.

26. Edit text - this command is use to edit the text you can edit or change both kind of text DT and MT, write
Ed at command prompt.

27. Make Block - this command is use to make the block of some single objects you can use these block in
your drawing any time choose the command from your toolbar or write Block at command prompt.

28. Insert Block - This command is use to insert the block in your drawing choose the command from your
toolbar or write Insert at command prompt.

Here comes your footer Page 26 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
29. Dimension - Now we will study about dimension of the drawing, it is very important that every drawing
should have dimensions so that you can get information about the sizes of drawing. You can choose
dimension from Dimension Toolbar let us study one by one:

Linear dimension-This command is used for the dimensions of straight lines.

Angular dimension- This command is used for the dimensions of angles between two lines or the
angle of arcs and circles.

Radius Dimension - This command is used to give the radius of the circles and arc.

Diameter Dimension - this option is used to give the diameter of the circles and arc.

Centre mark - This command is used to mark the centre of the circles and arc.

Quick leader - This command is used to specify the notes for anything, click on this sign

Dimension style you can change dimension style of dimensions, you can give more than one style
to your dimensions for this you have to click on Format than choose dimension style or you can just
write Dimstyle at command prompt a box will appear, you can create new styles, sets the current style,
modifies styles, sets overrides on the current style

Current Dim style it Display the current dimension style. AutoCAD assigns this style to all
dimensions. If you do not change the current style, AutoCAD assigns the default STANDARD style to
dimensions.

Here comes your footer Page 27 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
30. Layer This command is very useful. We have do lot of work in one drawing for e.g. if make a plan for the
house than we have to give dimensions, furniture position, electrical lining, plumbing and many more we
cannot each every time erase this work for the printout so we do all the work in layers. For each and every
work make different layer. Choose from format LAYER or you can write Layer on command prompt a box
will appear with all the layer it have if you want to make the new layer than click the right button of your mouse
many options will appear choose New Layer - a box with cursor will appear change the name according to you
requirement. You can also change the color, line type and line weight of your layer from this box.

On- bulb sign is used to make on off the layer; layer will disappear from the screen.
Freeze- sign is used to freeze the layer; layer will disappear from the screen.
Lock- lock sign is used to lock the layer, if the layer is lock than you cannot do any work in it.

By default 0 layer is current that means all the work you done is saved in this layer but if you want to do
dimensions than make dimension layer and set it current. if you want to make the new layer current
click the right button of your mouse many options will appear choose set current. Now if you do not
want this layer to be shown in printing make it freeze.
(P.S. You can operate you layer from layers toolbar also)

Here comes your footer Page 28 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
31. There are some more commands which are not so important but you must know about them:

a) Distance this command is used to measure the distance between the two points. Just write Di at
command prompt
Specify first point- click on the first point of line
Specify second point- click on the second point of line
It will display all the information at command prompt.

b) Revision cloud This command is used to make the cloud like structure in which you can write
your remarks or can highlight the particular area select the command from toolbar or write revcloud at
command prompt.
Revcloud
Minimum arc length: 0.5000 Maximum arc lengths: 0.5000
Specify start point or [Arc length/Object/Style]: click to draw the revision cloud, when the start and end
lines meet, the following message is displayed on the command line. (Revision cloud finished.)

Here comes your footer Page 29 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
c) Spline this command is used to measure draw the curve lines select the command from toolbar or write
spline at command prompt.
Spline
Specify first point- click on the first point of line
Specify second point- click on the second point of line
It will display all the information at command prompt.
Specify first point or [Object]: Specify a point
Specify next point: Specify a point Enter points until you have defined the spline curve. After you enter two
points, AutoCAD displays the following prompt:
Specify next point or [Close/Fit Tolerance] : Specify a point, line will complete

d) Point This command is used to make mark the point select the command from toolbar or write Po at
command prompt.

Po
Specify a point: click where you want to locate the point, from point style menu you can select the type of point
you required, for this click on format than on point style a box will appear with all the points just click the
required one.

Here comes your footer Page 30 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
c) Spline this command is used to measure draw the curve lines select the command from toolbar or write
spline at command prompt.
Spline
Specify first point- click on the first point of line
Specify second point- click on the second point of line
It will display all the information at command prompt.
Specify first point or [Object]: Specify a point
Specify next point: Specify a point Enter points until you have defined the spline curve. After you enter two
points, AutoCAD displays the following prompt:
Specify next point or [Close/Fit Tolerance] : Specify a point, line will complete

d) Point This command is used to make mark the point select the command from toolbar or write Po at
command prompt.

Po
Specify a point: click where you want to locate the point, from point style menu you can select the type of point
you required, for this click on format than on point style a box will appear with all the points just click the
required one.
%%c for diameter sign
%%d for degree sign
edit command is used to edit our dimension

Here comes your footer Page 31 Your Logo


Important commands which used for making drawings
e) Ellipse This command is used to draw the ellipse choose command from toolbar or write El at command
prompt.

EL
Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center/Isocircle]: Specify a point or enter the value (@distance
Specify other endpoint of axis: Specify a point or enter the value (@distance
Specify distance to other axis or [Rotation]: Specify a distance by entering a value or locating a point

Specify rotation around major axis: Specify a point (3), or enter an angle value between 0 and 89.4
(P.S. you can also draw isocircle when click right button your mouse at Snap button setting box will open now
select the isometric option and you will be able to draw isocircle)
f) Divide This command is used to divide the line in equal parts write Div at command prompt.
Div
Select object to divide: select he object you want to divide
Enter number of segments: Enter a value; object will divide if you not able to see than change the style of
point.

Here comes your footer Page 32 Your Logo


Primitive Solid
SHAPE COMMAND DESCRIPTION

Creates a solid box after you provide 2 opposite corners and a height.
BOX BOX

Creates a solid sphere from a center point and radius.


SPHERE SPHERE

Creates a straight cylinder from a center point, radius and height.


CYLINDER CYLINDER

Creates a tapered cone from a center point, radius and height.


CONE CONE

WEDGE WEDGE Creates a triangular wedge from 2 opposite points.

Creates a torus (donut shape) based on center point, radius and tube
TORUS TORUS radius.

Draws a solid object with a polygon (3-32 sides) base that rises to a
PYRAMID PYRAMID / PYR central point.

Draws a solid object with width and height as you would draw a polyline.
POLYSOLID PSOLID

Here comes your footer Page 33 Your Logo


Boolean Operations

COMMAND INPUT DESCRIPTION

Joins two or more solids into creating one based on the total
UNION geometry of all.
UNION / UNI
(Boolean)

Subtracts one or more solids from another creating a solid


SUBTRACT based on the remaining geometry.
SUBTRACT / SU
(Boolean)

Creates a single solid from one more solids based on the


INTERSECT intersected geometry.
(Boolean)
INTERSECT / IN

Allows you to increase the size of a solid by extruding out one


EXTRUDE FACE SOLIDEDIT of its faces.

SLICE SLICE Slices a solid along a cutting plane.

3D ALIGN 3DALIGN Aligns 2 3D Objects in 3D space.

Here comes your footer Page 34 Your Logo


Shortcut
Draw Modify
Shortcut Command Shortcut Command
L LINE E ERASE
XL CONSTURCTION LINE CO COPY
PL POLYLINE MI MIRROR
POL POLYGON O OFFSET
REC RECTANG AR ARRAY
A ARC M MOVE
C CIRCLE RO ROTATE
REVCLOUD REVCLOUD SC SCALE
SPL SPLINE S STRETCH
EL ELLIPSE TR TRIM
I INSERT BLOCK EX EXTEND
B DEFINE BLOCK BR BREAK, BREAK AT POINT
W WRITE BLOCK J JOIN
H HATCHING CHA CHAMFER
DT TEXT (SINGLE LINE) F FILLET
T MTEXT (MULTILINE) X EXPLODE

Here comes your footer Page 35 Your Logo


Shortcut
Other Useful Commands 3D Modeling
Shortcut Command Shortcut Command
PE POLY EDIT BOX BOX

OP OPTION SPHERE SPHERE

DI DIST CYL CLYINDER

AREA AREA CONE CONE

MASSPROP MASSPROP WE WEDGE


LTSCALE LINETYPESCALE TOR TORUS

PSLTSCALE PAPER SPACE LT SCALE EXT EXTRUDE

LA LAYER REV REVOLVE


LI LIST 3D 3D SURFACE
Z ZOOM

P PAN

Here comes your footer Page 36 Your Logo


Shortcut
3D Modify

Shortcut Command Shortcut Command


UNI UNION ROTATE3D ROTATE 3D

SU SUBTRACT MIRROR3D MIRROR3D

IN INTERSECT AL ALIGN

SEC SECTION 3DARRAY 3DARRAY

SL SLICE SOLIDEIDT SOLIDEDIT

INF INTERFERE

Here comes your footer Page 37 Your Logo