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Kondisi Transient

Listyawan Adi Pratisto


PT. Pupuk Kujang
Jl. A Yani 39 PO Box 4
Cikampek - Jawa Barat 41373
Email : tisto@pupuk-kujang.co.id
Mobile : 0816861116
Kondisi Transient
terjadi saat ...
Plant Start Up :
Initial Start Up (Plant Commissioning)
Normal Start Up :
Short time Shutdown
Long time Shutdown
Plant Shut Down
Normal Shutdown
Emergency Shutdown
Plant Start Up/Shut Down
hal yg perlu dicermati...
Start up and shut down pabrik merupakan
aktivitas yang sangat kritis berhubungan
dengan plant life time.
During this transient conditions, everything
may go wrong.
Manajemen start up dan shutdown yang buruk
dapat mengakibatkan equipment failures
dan/atau human injures.
Perencanaan yang matang, kompetensi teknis
yang tinggi, serta good leadership merupakan
kunci sukses dari kegiatan start up.
Plant Commissioning
adalah...
Plant commissioning merupakanstart up pabrik yang
pertamakali setelah pabrik selesai dikonstruksi,
Sangat berpotensi menimbulkan Hazard, karena
secara teknis pabrik belum pernah terbukti dapat
beroperasi;
Selalu saja terdapat unknown factors;
Diperlukan perhatian dan kepedulian yang ekstra
dibanding shut downs and startup selanjutnya;
Experience and expertise yang didapat selama first
start-up is digunakan selanjutnya oleh operators
dan personil maintenance.
Proses Commissioning
diterapkan dalam ..
Greenfield Project atau Grassroot Project yaitu
fasilitas yang keseluruhannya baru dibangun;
Ekspansi atau penambahan kapasitas
(Optimasi, Revamping, dll) pada existing
process plants;
Re-commissioning moth-balled plants
(pabrik atau peralatan yang telah lama
dihentikan);
Instalasi dari individual items of plant. seperti:
Boiler; Instrument air compressor dll.
Manajemen Commissioning
penting utk diperhatikan ...

Manajemen start-ups yang buruk dapat


secara signifikan mengurangi Return on
Investment dari sebuah proyek/pabrik
baru:
delay dalam startup berarti delay dimana
seharusnya sdh mulai diperoleh revenue;
extended dan problematic saat startup akan
menambah cost of project, yang pada
akhirnya akan berdampak pada financial
feasibility;
Manajemen Commissioning
penting utk diperhatikan ...
Dampak strategis yang lebih jauh adalah ketidak
sanggupan supply ke customer and market
sebagaimana dijanjikan, sehingga menciptakan
peluang bagi pesaing;
Dari pengalaman perusahaan yang sukses dalam
memanajemeni startup menunjukkan bahwa
dengan well planned startup dapat melakukan
startup pabrik dalam waktu 20-25% dari
construction time;
Poorly planned startup dapat menghabiskankan
waktu 30-35% atau bahkan lebih dari construction
time;
Mencegah Startup Delays

Penyebab utama delay: Rusak Tidak


bekerja
75% disebabkan equipment failure;
Temperatur
20% karena inadequate equipment;kurang
5% karena process failure.
Tiga kunci utama untuk successful
startups:
Planning, planning and more
planning;
Technical competence;
Good leadership and direction.
Plant Startup dan Commissioning
Situasinya selalu berbeda...
Setiap plant startup/commissioning situasinya
selalu berbeda;
Setiap pabrik perlu memiliki prosedur start up dan
commissioning yang unik yang dirancang dan
dikembangkan untuk pabrik itu sendiri;
Hal ini dikarenakan adanya perbedaan pada
specific design, control philosophy, equipment
and machinery yang telah dipilih untuk pabrik
tersebut;
Tidak prosedur startup dan commissioning yang
bersifat general.
Plant Startup dan Commissioning
Apanya yang sama...

The overall process by which we


prepare, plan and execute a startup or
commission a plant;
The way the commissioning process is
managed;
The process by which we prepare
specific plant start-up and
commissioning procedures;
The way we manage the risks
associated with plant startup and
commissioning:
Key Dates
Mechanical Completion ketika pabrik
atau unit secara provisional telah diterima
oleh pemilik (provisionally accepted by the
owner); Input pro
Date when process materials are firstProses
produksi
introduced;
Date when plant is first brought on-line;
Date on which test runs which meet
performacne guarantees are completed to
everyones satisfaction and plant or unit is
fully accepted by the owner.
Konstruksi dan Commissioning
time line yang kita kehendaki..

Mechanical completion
Provisional acceptance
Construction Acceptance

Pre-
commissioni
ng,
Start up
Inspection
and Post
and
Performan commissioni
Operational
ce Bahan
testing ng
Testing produksi
masuk
Konstruksi dan Commissioning
yang terjadi sebenarnya ..

Mechanical completion
Progressive provisional acceptance
Construction Progressive acceptance

Pre-
commissioning,
Inspection and Start up
Operational and Post
Testing Performan commissioning
ce testing
Konstruksi dan
Commissioning
Loading Catalyst
Primary Reformer

Steam Flushing
Urea Plant
Konstruksi dan
Commissioning
Steam Flushing
Ammonia Plant

Loading Catalyst
Ammonia
Converter
Tahapan Start Up Urea
Press Up Reaktor Urea Synthesis Smp 150
160 k
Loop dipompa

Feeding Larutan Carbamate


jadi Carbamate Run Bereaksi dgn
karbamat Pro
Injeksi Ammoniak dan CO2 ta

Normalkan Recovery dan Purification


s.d. 99%
Section
Pemekatan Larutan
Awalnya, diisi air baru diinjeksikan
NH3 & CO2 Section Prill
Feeding Prilling
Blok Diagram Urea
Mixed Gas Mixed Gas Mixed Gas

Urea Solution
Purifikasi Tekanan Purifikasi
Unit Konsentrasi
Menengah Tekanan Rendah

Unit Sintesa
(Reaktor, Car- Prilling/Granul
bamate condenser,
Striiper )
Recovery Tekanan Recovery Process Condensate
Menengah Tekanan Rendah Treatment

Ure
CO2
NH3
a
Ke Utility Plant
Carbamate Carbamate Process Condensate
CO 2 NH 3 Heat (20KG Steam)

Steam
Generation Synthesis Recycle Carbamate Solution
Section

Blok Flow Urea


Ammonium
Carbamate
Heat
(CW, HW)
NH 3
H2O

Purification NH 3, CO 2, H 2O Recovery
Section Section
Heat
(5KG Steam)
Urea, dan
Recovered NH 3 & CO 2
karbamat Process
Heat Condensate
yang keluar Heat
dalam kondisi Slurry Circulation Process
cair sehingga Concentration
Section
Condensate
Treatment
Heat H2O
lebih mudah (5KG Steam) Small quantity of Section
NH3, CO 2, Urea mist
di handel Urea
99.8wt% Heat
(5KG Steam)

Prilling Treated
Section Water

Product
Tahapan Start Up Ammonia
Front End Catalyst Heating
Steam Heating
Feeding Natural Gas ke Primary Reformer
Feeding Process Air ke Secondary Reformer
Start CO2 Removal Produksi CO2
Aktivasi Methanator
LTS Online
Start Refrigeration System
Start Synthesis Loop
Start Up Ammonia Plant
Sebelum dimulainya start up, kebutuhan utilities
harus sudah siap sesuai spesifikasi yg dibutuhkan
utk keperluan ammonia plant start up & operation :
Cooling water
Steam
Instrument air and plant air
Nitrogen
Electric power
gas
Natural gas for process feed and fuel
Penting, untuk m
ogen Ammonia and syn gas from existing facilities. refigeran sy
All chemicals required for boiler water and CO2 removal
system.
Blok Diagram Pabrik
Ammonia
STEAM AIR

NATURAL
GAS Feed Gas NG Primary Secondary Gas Shift
Treatment Reformer Reformer Proses Converter

NH3
Converter Synthesis
Methanator CO2 Absorber
Loop
PGRU

Fuel Gas CO2


H2
Refrigeration Stripper
COLD NH3 to HOT NH3
STORAGE CO2
Semakin lama start
up, maka biaya
Start Up Vents
yang dikeluarkan
semakin banyak
CO2 Gas

PV-1039

HT Shift LT Shift CO2


Reforming
Converters Converter Removal

PV-1005
PV 1004
PV-1029

NH3 Recovery Synthesis


H2 Recovery Methanator
Loop

Ammonia
Front End Catalysts Heating
Front End Catalysts (Reforming and HTS) heated to
normal operation temperature. (termasuk dalam feed
treatment)
The heat source is the heat released from fuel
combustion in the Primary Reformer.
Nitrogen is used as heat carrier until HTS
temperatures are above condensation point of steam
at certain back pressure. (di panaskan hingga
temperatur 300 C dgn kec 50 C / jam kemudian di
ganti dgn steam, reaksi terjadi pd 700 C stlah
mencapai suhu reaksi, gas alam dimasukkan)
Steam can be introduced and heating continues.
When primary reformer temperature is adequate for
steam reforming reaction, natural gas can be
introduced to the system.
Nitrogen Heating Contd
Precondition :
Utility system (cooling water, demin & service
water, MP steam, IA & PA, fire water, nitrogen,
electric power, and fuel system) have been in
service.
BFW system has been in service, steam drum has
filled with BFW. All chemical injection for BFW
system have already run.
Jacket water system of A-107-D (transfer line), A-
103-D (secondary reformer), A-101-C (WHB), and A-
102-C (superheater) have been energized.
Fuel pipings have been purged with N2 to remove
Oxygen.
All instrumentation has been checked and working
Nitrogen Heating Contd
Start up activities :
Arrange position of block valves, control
valves, and blinds to N2 circulation
system.
Purge N2 circulation system with N2 to
remove O2.
Press up circulation system with N2 until
4 kg/cm2 G.
Start ID Fan and FD Fan, stabilize
primary reformer vacuum pressure
Nitrogen Heating Contd
Start Process Air Compressor A-101-J according to
Vendor procedures.
Maintain circulation flow at 23 000 Nm3/ hr.
When circulation has stabilized, start Arch Burner
Sequence to lit up arch burner.
Continue lighting up burners and raise up radiant box
temperature at 50 0C/ hr.
Heating target :
460 0C at Primary Reformer outlet
400 0C at Secondary Reformer outlet
180 0C at HTS inlet.
Temperature difference between carrier gas and
catalyst bed cannot exceed 200 0C
VENT N2 HEATING
HV-1025 V-11008
C
LTS RED.
C
C
C O N2 CIRC O 101-E

102-F1
N2 S.U
C FV-1004
106
JCB C
150-E

105 C
C C
142
F
MOV-1006
103-D 121-J
C
131
C
C
PV-1039
LP HP O C
MOV-1010 O
MOV-1009
A-101-J 101-B 103-D 101-C 102-C
A-150-E HTS
N2
BCX

MOV-1008
N2
JCC C
IA/PA
C C

C C
143 C C
TO INLET LTS
F
101-J
Steam Heating
Steam introduced to primary reformer after
temperature target achieved.
Open drains to ensure all condensate has
blown away.
If HTS catalyst cannot reach 180 0C, activate
steam sparger outlet HTS, vent the steam
through venting valve inlet HTS.
Start to introduce a little flow of BFW through
by pass of A-131-C, to A-103-C1/C2. This is to
prevent overheating in the A-103-C1/C2.
Steam Heating contd
Continue to light up arch burner towards
steam reforming reaction temperature
(740 750 0C at outlet primary reformer).
When flue gas temperature is 450 0C,
introduce steam to process air coil,
maintain temperature below maximum
operating temperature.
Increase back pressure system to 7
kg/cm2G as catalyst temperature
increased.
Desulfurizer Catalyst
Heating
Desulfurizer must be in service before introducing
natural gas to primary reformer.
Desulfurizer catalyst heated by natural gas from
discharge of natural gas compressor through feed gas
preheater.
Start natural gas compressor according to vendor
manual.
When flue gas temperature at TI-1318A/B reach 350
0
C, introduce natural gas to feed gas preheater,
desulfurizer (A-108-D & A-108-DA/DB), and vented to
atmosphere at venting valve outlet of A-108-DA/DB.
The objective of this activity beside desulfurizer
catalyst heating, is to maintain feed gas preheater
temperature and prevent overheating.
Desulfurizer Catalyst Heating Contd

Raised up desulfurizer catalyst


temperature to normal operation at
380 0C, with increment 50 0C/ hr.
H2 rich gas can be introduced to CoMo
hydroteater after normal operation
temperature achieved. The source of H2
rich gas would be synthesis gas from
another plant.
Monitor sulfur analyzer outlet of
desulfurizer.
A-108-D/DA/DB HEATING

A-133-C

A-108-D

A-102-D
A-101-BCF

O C
TV-1305

A-144-F
A-102-J

FV-1041 A-108-DA A-108-DB


KUJANG-1
5-7 K

O V-11000
A-104-F C C

C C A-101-BCX
Feeding Natural Gas to Primary
Reformer
Preconditions :
Primary reformer outlet temperature 700 750 0C
Sulfur outlet desulfurizer below 0,1 ppm.
Introduce natural gas slowly by opening NG
control valve FIC-1001. As steam reforming
reaction occured, primary reformer temperature
will go down. Light up more arch burners.
Typically, the reduction of primary reformer
catalyst starts as soon as feed gas enters the
reformer and is complete in aproximately 6 8
hours at 760 0C.
Feeding Natural Gas to Primary
Reformer Contd
However, trace amounts of sulfur
that are present in the catalyst will
evolve as hydrogen sulfide.
To ensure all sulfur is removed, the
primary reformer outlet
temperatures are to be increased to
816 820 0C at 14 0C/ hr rate.
Feeding Process Air to Secondary
Reformer
Process air introduced to secondary reformer
after natural gas.
Start process air compressor using HP steam
according to vendors procedure.
Empty all process air piping from condensate.
Introduce air and adjust feed rate to 60% steam,
40% NG, and 40% process air. Increase back
pressure to 14 KSCG.
Watch secondary reformer temperatures, keep
outlet temperature below maximum operating of
990 0C.
Feeding Process Air to Secondary
Reformer
Reduction of HTS catalyst occured in this period,
watch HTS temperature increase. Keep temperature
increase below 55 0C/ hr.
Put in service methane slip analyzer at the outlet of
primary reformer and outlet of secondary reformer.
Adjust HTS inlet temperature by regulating TIC-1010.
Increase feed rate to 80% steam 75% NG and 75%PA
to complete HTS desulfurization. After laboratory
analysis confirm that sulfur at the HTS outlet below 1
ppm, reduce feed NG to 50%, PA to 50% while keep
steam at 80%.
A-101-F
Proc air from A- PG ke
101-J HTS
PG from A-101-B

A-103-D A-101-C

A-102-
C
SH ke Superheater
Burner
CO2 Removal
Precondition :
System has been washed by hot and cold
water.
Cooling water has been established to coolers.
Piping from LTS outlet to CO2 absorber inlet
has been purged by nitrogen and O2 content is
below 0,5%.
Piping in the CO2 removal system has been
purged by N2 and O2 content below 0,5%.
All front end start up activites have been
carried out, and gas is vented at CO2 absorber
inlet.
Start CO2 Removal
Fill up CO2 stripper with aMDEA from aMDEA
storage/ sump via mechanical filter.
Press up CO2 stripper with nitrogen untill 0,8
KSCG.
Press up CO2 absorber :
With NG from desulfurizer outlet.
With process gas from CO2 absorber inlet
With nitrogen (only up to 7 KSCG).
Fill up CO2 absorber with aMDEA from CO2
stripper via lean solution pump A-107-J.
After level of absorber and stripper have
stabilized, start circulation of aMDEA solution.
Heating Up of CO2 Removal
When aMDEA circulation has stabilized, the
next step is heating up aMDEA system
towards normal operating temperature.
Heating source is steam in the steam reboiler
A-111-C and gas in reboiler A-115-C.
Activate A-111-C by introducing SLL and send
the condensate to the deaerator.
A-105-C is activated by establishing process
gas flow through A-105-C and vented in
manual vent outlet of A-102-F1. Condensate
level will build up in A-102-F1.
CO2 Production
Once pressure and temperatures of CO2
removal have met normal operation, CO2
production can be established.
Open CO2 absorber inlet, and then
gradually open vent valve PIC-1005 at CO2
absorber inlet and close PIC-1039 and
manual vent at the outlet of A-102-F1.
Monitor PDI of absorber and stripper
during moving vents, this is to avoid
foaming at aMDEA solution.
CO2 to
A-107- Urea
C
A-101-E

PG To fuel
from A-
LTS 116-J
A-102-E

A-131- To
C A-114-
C
A-102-
A-107- F1
A-112- A- JHT
C 108-J
Ke A-101- A-110-
U C A-102-F2
A-109-
C A-107- To
BF
JA,JB,JC Process
W
Condensat
A-106-C A-121-J e Stripper
A-105-C
Methanator
Before start up, methanator is being
blanketed by nitrogen.
Check and make sure total CO and CO2 at
the inlet of methanator was below 2% vol.
Press up methanator by opening inlet by
pass.
Establish a small flow of process gas
through methanator.
Activate A-172-C1, send the condensate to
A-157-F.
Methanator Contd
Nickel carbonyl will be formed at range
temperature of 38 200 0C, with help of
the water vapor presence.
To minimize nickel carbonyl formation :
Increase the catalyst temperature as rapidly as
possible (max 83 0C/ hr).
Keep the system pressure as low as
practicable. This action is also to reduce any
gas leakage from the system.
Reduction of nickel oxide usually begins at
200 0C, and methanation reaction starts at
260 0C.
Methanator Contd
Once the temperature range for nickel
carbonyl formation has been passed, the
methanator system pressure can be
increased to near the CO2 absorber
pressure.
Adjust heat up rate by step by step
opening methanator inlet valve.
After methanator put in normal
operation, activate all analyzers installed
at the synthesis gas outlet of
methanator.
Ke A- Sta
102-J rt
up
Ven
HP t
A- Ste Ke A-
106- am 103-J
D A-
172
-C1

Sta
rt
A-
up A-
A- 104
Ven 115 -F
114
t -C -C
LTS Online
LTS is reheated to above its dew point prior
to admitting HTS effluent gas.
The heating medium is process gas or NG
from desulfurizer.
Establish small flow of process gas by
opening bypass inlet valve and vented at
the LTS outlet.
When catalyst temperatures stabilize close
the by pass and open the inlet valve. Adjust
inlet gas temperature to get target CO leak.
Increasing Plant Load
Increase the plant load to 80% before
starting synthesis loop.
The step to increase the load :
aMDEA circulation
Preocess steam
Natural gas
Process air.
As steam production increased, light up
superheater burner to maintained HP
steam at 515 0C.
Synthesis Loop
Precondition :
Ammonia as refrigerant has been filled
into the refrigeration section.
Refrigerant compressor has been started
prior to starting synthesis loop.
Synthesis gas outlet methanator has met
spesification for synthesis loop (CO + CO2
below 10 ppm).
HP steam product is enough for starting
synthesis gas compressor.
Refrigeration Section
Introduce ammonia from existing facilities
backflow to the refrigeration section.
Start refrigerant compressor A-105-J with
accordance to vendors procedure.
With no load to refrigeration section, the speed
control must set to manual mode.
Remaining noncondensable gas, mainly nitrogen
may accumulate at refrigerant condenser A-127-
C and refrigerant receiver A-109-F.
The noncondensable gas must then vented
through PV-1109 at A-109-F.
Synthesis Loop
Start up activities :
Start A-103-J according to vendors
procedures.
Press up synthesis loop.
Pressure testing of synthesis loop.
Heating up of ammonia converter
catalyst or reduction of the catalyst in
case new charge of the catalyst.
Ammonia production.
Ammonia Plant Catalyst
Catalyst Reduction
Primary, Secondary Reformer, Methanator
NiO + H2 Ni + H2O slightly endothermic
Oxydation using steam
Low Temp Shift Converter
CuO + H2 Cu + H2O highly exothermic
Special reduction treatment, blanketing
High Temp Shift, Ammonia Converter
Fe3O4 + H2 Fe + H2O endhothermic
Special treatment for Ammonia Converter,
blanketing
LTS Converter
LTS is being blanketed with nitrogen before put in
service.
LTS Converter reduction must be accomplished
before the plant is placed in normal service since
process air compressor A-101-J and methanator
preheater A-172-C1 are used in LTS catalyst
reduction.
LTS reduction can be carried out using two method :
Nitrogen circulation using process air compressor
with H2 is imported from exsisting facilities.
Natural gas once through with H2 gas may be
available from A-102-F2 (CO2 absorber inlet)
LTS Reduction, N2 Circulation
Method
Start PA compressor and established N2
circulation of 23 000 kg/ hr.
Increase bed catalyst temperature untill
160 0C by introducing MP steam to A-
172-C1. The heating rate would be 50
0C/ hr.
Add synthesis gas, adjust the flow to
give approx. 0,5% vol of hydrogen in
the circulation.
Check hydrogen consumption by
analyzing gas inlet and outlet of LTS.
LTS Reduction, N2 Circulation
Method
At the first sign in of decrease in the
reduction rate, increase top bed temperature
towards 220 0C. The inlet hydrogen
concentration can then be increased to about
3-5% provided that the max temp. Limit of
230 0C isnot exceeded.
When the reduction appears to be complete,
increase hydrogen to 20%. No temperature
rise should occur, and the max catalyst temp
shouldnot exceed 230 0C.
Reduction is considered finished when
hydrogen consumption has been less than
LTS Reduction, NG Once
Through Method
The procedure of NG once through
method is similar to the N2
circulation method.
The carrier gas is desulfurized NG
from desulfurizer at temp 380 C.
The NG is cooled down by cooling
water at A-172-C1.
Heating up of the catayst is
conducted by step by step opening
bypass of A-172-C1.
VENT LTS REDUCTION
HV-1025

C O

FV-1004
C

JCB FE-1003
A-114-C FI-1102

FI-1101
SYNGAS
142
F

172-C1
LP HP 108-DA/DB
O

6 NG 11021 O
FE-1104A S
A-101-J
106-D
C C

LTS O
JCC C

IA/PA S
102-F2
143 C
F
Synthesis Loop, Catalyst Reduction

Ammonia synthesis catalyst is usually


charged in the oxidized form, generally
magnetite (Fe3O4).
The reduction reaction is slightly
endhotermic with evolution of water.
As far as possible, metallic iron produced
in one part of the bed shouldnot be
exposed to water formed during reduction
of catalyst in other parts of the bed.
Synthesis Loop, Catalyst Reduction

The gas flow is controlled to ensure that


water produced will not come into contact
with the reduced catalyst.
The progress of the reduction is indicated
by the quantity of water in the exit gas. In
general, the lower the water concentration
the better. The max water concentration is
determined by catalyst vendor to avoiid
low activity in normal operation.
Synthesis Loop, Catalyst Reduction

e catalyst reduction may be divided into three perio


Phase Temp . Rate of Approx. Pressur
temp Time e, KSCG
increas length
e
I Once 38 34 3 10 15 30 85
Through
Operatio
n
II Recycle 343 26 60 85
Operatio 427
n
III Heater - - - 85 -
shutdow normal
n
Plant Shut Down
Normal Shut Down
Tahapan proses shutdown adalah kebalikan
dari start up, gas di vent sekuensial melalui
startup vent.
Setelah shut down dilanjutkan dengan cooling
down, purging, dan nitrogen blanketing
Front End Catalyst dilakukan oksidasi dengan
menggunakan steam
CO2 Removal harus disirkulasi /regenerasi
larutan utk memastikan tdk ada kandungan
Hydrogen
Plant Shut Down
Tidak semua alat kontrol bekerja sempurna saat
diperlukan, shg shutdown merupakan kondisi
yang sangat kritis yang memicu terjadinya Hazard
Peralatan statik, rotating, catalyst, lubrikasi, dll
memerlukan penanganan khusus setelah
shutdown
Beberapa hazard yang mungkin terjadi adalah:
backflow fluida, kesalahan hosing management,
gas/liquid trap, kebakaran, dll
Penanganan limbah saat shutdown perlu
mendapatkan perhatian serius
Plant Shut Down
Emergency Shutdown
Diakibatkan oleh : malfungsi/breakdown
peralatan, terhentinya pasokan, kesalahan
operasi, dll
Sangat tergantung kepada kecepatan operator
utk melokalisir permasalahan, dan mengambil
keputusan
Mengandalkan sistem interlock , ESD
(Emergency Shutdown Device);
Operator hrs mengetehui skenario terburuk
Keyword : competence, directive, teamwork
Terima Kasih