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Alkohol dan Eter

Ikatan tunggal Karbon ke


Oksigen
Tata Nama: AlKohol
OH ditunjukkan oleh akhiran ol
Rantai induk adalah rantai
terpanjang yang mengandung C-
OH
Karbon dinomori dari ujung rantai
yang terdekat OH
Contoh
OH
OH
H3C CH2 CH CH2 CH CH3
CH3
F
5-methyl-3-hexanol
CH3
(1R,3S,4S)3-fluoro-4-methylcyclohexanol, or
(1R,3S,4S)3-fluoro-4-methyl-1-cyclohexanol
HO
OH

hex-5-en-2-ol or
3-(1-methylpropyl)-2-heptanol 5-hexen-2-ol
(Note that the OH takes precedence over
the pi bond in detemining the numbering.)
Tata Nama: Eter
Eter sederhana :
nama dua gugus karbon sebagai
substituen, diikuti dengan eter
Sistematik:
nama sebagai alkoksi alkana
Contoh
CH3 CH2 O CH2 CH3

diethyl ether or
ethyl ether
(If both alkyl groups are the O
same, the "di" is often not used.)

phenoxycyclopentane or
O cyclopentyloxybenzene
CH2-CH3
5-ethoxy-2-methylheptane
Gugus Fungsional Alkohol

Tiga lokasi dimana kimia bisa terjadi

. . ..
O
H

Lokasi kaya elektron?


Lokasi miskin elektron?
The Ether Functional
Group
Same as Alcohols, but no O-H

O
C C
Reactions of the C-O Bond
Does this happen?
.. ..
- O
Nuc: + H
Nuc + OH

NO. The C-O is inert toward heterolytic cleavage.


Why?
OH--is too basic to be a leaving group.
Ikatan C-O putus pada kondisi
asam
.. ..
O
Br + H
+ +
H Br + H2O

Substitution

OH
+
H H
+ H2O

Elimination
Kenapa ikatan C-O putus pada
kondisi asam?
H H
O : H OSO3H +
.. O H
H H
.. + HSO4-

H H
O : H OSO3H +
.. O H
.. + HSO4-

Alkohol adalah basa lemah, bereaksi dengan


asam kuat (Bronsted or Lewis).
C-O dari alkohol terprotonasi
bisa putus
.. . . H
O .. +
-
H + HA O
H + A

H
.. +
O
H slow
+ + H2O

+ _
+ A A

Suatu reaksi substitusi nukleofilik


Air sebagai gugus lepas
SN2 jika primer uncrowded
SN1 (seperti terlihat)
Ether Chemistry is C-O
Chemistry
--Just Like Alcohol C-O
Chemistry
O H
X
H + H-X + O
H

H
O X
+ H-X + O
Identical Mechanisms, Too.
Protonation of the O, then Nucleophilic Substitution

H
H-X H
O O
+ X
H X
H + O
H

H-X H H
+
X
O O X O
+
Predicting the Products
Ether cleavage is not usually selective;
both sets of cleavage products are to be
expected. In methyl ethers, the X
preferentially attacks the methyl group.
In excess HX, both C-O are cleaved,
producing water and two C-X bonds. In
phenyl ethers, the benzene ring is not
attacked, even in excess HX.

Ether Cleavage Reactions


CH3 CH O CH2 CH3 + H-I
CH3 excess

O + H-I
excess

CH3
O +H-I
one equivalent

O
+ H-I
excess

+ H-I
O excess
Alcohol Reactions Not
Involving C-O Cleavage

Electron-rich oxygen
The O-H
Reactions of the O-H
Water has the same functional group
.. ..
O
H + :Base

The H is electron-poor.
Are alcohols acids?
Learn from waters chemistry
The Acidity of Alcohols
H-O-H pKa = 15.7
R-O-H pKa = 15 to 16
R-NH2 pKa = 34
CH3 CH2 OH + HO CH3 CH2 O + H2O

CH3 CH2 OH + H2N CH3 CH2 O + NH3


Reaction with active
metals
R O H + M. R O M +2 H2

M can be Na or K

K
OH OK

Na
OH ONa
Other Ways to Convert the OH to
a Good Leaving Group: Halides
OH

+ PBr3

OH
+ SOCl2
Reactions Using the Lone
Electron Pairs of Oxygen

Base?
Nucleophile?
Alcohols and Ethers are
Weakly Basic
They are protonated in strong
acids.O H H + H
O
+ H2SO4

H
O O+
CH3 CH3
+ H2SO4

All oxygenated organic compounds are


protonated by strong acids
Alcohols are Nucleophiles
but not very strong ones.
X
+ +
C R O C R O C R O C
H H
With methyl and primart halides, this
probably happens by an SN2 mechanism

Note that the nucleophile is NOT alkoxide! Like water, alcohols


are not strong acids, so there is no R-O - present. The nucleophile
is the whole alcohol molecule.,

There is no alkoxide (RO-) in alcohol!!


Conversion to Sulfonates
Nucleophilic Substitution by Alcohol at Sulfur!!
SO2Cl
OH O SO2
+

OH O Ts
+ Ts-Cl

H OH H OTs
CH3
H3C + Ts-Cl
H3C
CH3

CH3 CH3
Sulfonate is a Good Leaving
Group
As good as or better than bromide

OTs S-CH3

+ Na-SCH3
+ Ts O
CH3 CH3

H OTs I H
H3C CH2 CH3 + NaI
H3C CH2 CH3 + Ts O
Oxidation of Alcohols:
Preparation of C=O bonds
OH O
H oxidize

OH
HCrO3
CH3CH2CH2 C CH3
H

CH2-OH
CrO3
pyridine

CH2-OH
HCrO3
Three Ways to Make the Alcohol
Carbon More Electrophilic

OH X

Convert to a
better leaving group
OH OTs

H OH O
Oxidize
DEHIDRASI ALKOHOL
Alcohols in Synthesis
Nu

OTs Nu:

Nu
TsCl
X MgX
Mg
OH HX, or
SOCl2 or PBr3
Strong base
H+, heat

oxidize

O
etc.
Reaksi Pembukaan cincin Epoksida
The three-membered ring of epoxides is highly strained and
undergoes ring-opening reactions with a variety of nucleophiles,
as shown below.
Reaksi berkatalisis asam