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Welding Joint Design

Type of Weld joints


Weld strength

Extent of joint penetration


Strength of filler wire / weld metal
Discontinuities in the weld
Weld strength

Matching filler wire


Over-matched filler wire
Under matched filler wire
Weld Penetration

Partially
Penetrated weld t

Extent of fusion in the base material is weld


Penetration
Weld strength

Weld with
defects

Weld with
poor
contour
Weld strength
Using a filler metal that results in weld metal
with matching strength of base material.
Achieving full penetration of the thickness in
a groove weld and the required design size in
fillet welds
Obtaining a sound, defect free weld joint free
from fusion related discontinuities

Achieving a weld with smooth surface


contours and profiles without geometric
discontinuities
Need for Edge Preparation
Penetration

P = or < electrode dia

Root gap increases penetration

SMAW PROCESS
SMAW PROCESS Penetration

P
SMAW PROCESS Penetration

P
Full Penetration can be Penetration
achieved when welded
from both sides

SMAW PROCESS
Full Penetration can be
achieved when the root Penetration
gap is increased by
providing a backing plate

SMAW PROCESS
Penetration

Heat Flow in the joint


Due to small heat
sink the edges of the Penetration
plate is likely to get
burnt

Heat Flow in the joint


Providing a root face
increases the heat sink Penetration
area and prevents
burning of the edges

Heat Flow in the joint


Penetration

Heat Flow in the joint


Method of Penetration
achieving
Full Penetration

Welding from one side


Method of achieving Penetration
Full Penetration

Back gouging from rear side


Method of
achieving Full
Penetration

Welding from rear side


Method of Penetration
achieving Full
Penetration

Use of consumable insert


Method of Penetration
achieving Full
Penetration

Providing a backing strip


Edge Preparation

Full penetration is achieved by Providing

Root gap between joint edges

Chamfer at the joint edges

Suitable root face at the edges


Groove Dimensions
Included angle

Root Face

Root Gap
When welding can be done from both sides,
chamfer can be provided on both sides
Included Angle ()
Depends on
The diameter of the electrode
The position of welding
The thickness of the plates
The type of joint
Excess weld metal due increases with groove angle
Root Face (Rf)
Depends on

The heat input of the process


The thermal conductivity of the material
welded
The diameter of the electrode
Root Gap ( Rg)
Depends on
The heat input of the process
The diameter of the electrode
The thermal expansion/ contraction of the material
Weight (gms)of Weld Metal required per metre
of weld length

Root Gap 1 mm Root Gap 2 mm


Thickness
12 16 20 12 16 20
Design

SV 790 1340 2050 840 1410 2120

DV 424 704 1062 502 830 1222

Included angle - 60 deg.


Selection of Joint Groove Preparation

Thickness
Effect of Edge Preparation on distortion

Strong back
10

Free
Distortion

h1: h2 - 7:3
5 h1

h1: h2 - 6:4 h2

h1: h2 - 1:1
h1: h2 - 4:6

0 1/2 1 1 1/2 2 2 1/2


Plate thick in inches
The choice of Groove type and angle depends on

welding process
Welding Position
Thickness of the section
The thermal properties of the material

The main objective is to achieve the required


penetration with minimum weld metal deposit
Symmetrical Single V-Groove preparation
For welding in down hand position


Asymmetric Groove angle for welding in Horizontal position
to reduce the gravitational effect on the weld pool

S2
2

g

1
s1
= 55
G = 1.6 3.15 mm
S = 1.6 - 3.15 mm

1= 10-15
2= 45-50
Groove angle formation by positioning the
members for welding

g
Groove angle for welding to avoid burning away outer corner
of vertical member

This Groove angle preparation is also used for


minimizing Lamellar tearing
Symmetrical Double V-Groove preparation
For welding on both sides



d2

d1


Compound Groove angle for welding Fixed
in thicker sections

1 = 30 40
2 = 20
Symmetrical and Asymmetrical J-Groove type weld
preparations
Corner joint with different groove preparations
Weld sizing

Improper
selection
Of edge
preparation
Results in
over welding

WRI
Recommended Groove angles in relation to
thickness
Thickness T inch Groove type
T < 3/4 SV
T - 1/2 to 2 DV
T < 3/4 SB
T - to 2 DB
T - 3/4 to 1.5 SJ
T > 1.5 DJ
T - 3/4 to 1.5 SU
T > 1.5 DU
Fillet welds Convexity

Leg Size

Leg Size

Convex fillet weld


Convex
Actual throat fillet weld

Effective throat

Theoretical throat
Convexity
Actual throat

Leg Size

Effective throat Leg Size

Theoretical throat
Convex fillet weld
aa
Concavity
Actual throat

Leg Size

Effective throat Leg Size

Theoretical throat
Convex fillet weld
Double
grooved fillet
weld
0.5 t

60

0.29 t
0.29 t

Combined Groove and filler welds with Partial Joint


Penetration but capable of full strength
Single fillet
weld

13 mm

Weld area = 80 mm 2
Single
grooved weld

13 mm

Weld area = 160 mm 2


Single
grooved
weld with
reinforcing
fillet 13 mm
45

Weld area = 80 mm 2
Single
grooved
weld with
reinforcing 13 mm
fillet
60

Weld area = 90 mm 2
13 Weld area reduces with
mm
grooved fillet welds.
Preparation cost gets
added.

13
13
mm
mm

60
Weld area Weld area
0.5 in 2 0.250 in 2
20
Relative cost
of fillet
Relative cost

10

0 1.5 2.0
0.5 1.0
Plate Thickness in inches
Throat stress, N /mm2 100 150 200
40 30

35 25

Weld throat size in mm


30
20
Weld leg size in mm 25

20 15
15
10
10
5 5

1 2 3 4 5 6
Load, kN / mm
Fillet weld design chart showing strength of welds in terms of
load / mm
Fillet sizing

Fillet sizing with excess root gaps


Results in deposition of weld metal

Effect of root gap


WRI
Design stage

Effect of excessive fillet size

Wt /ft Excess Metal


1/4
0.106 -
1/4
0.133 25%
5/16
3/8 0.159 50%

Wt /ft Excess Metal


5/16
0.166 -
5/16
0.199 20%
3/8
7/16 0.232 40%
Design stage

Effect of excessive fillet size

Wt /ft Excess Metal


3/8
0.239 -
3/8
0.318 33%
1/2
9/16 0.358 50%

Wt /ft Excess Metal


1/2
0.425 -
1/2
0.477 12%
9/16
5/8 0.531 25%
Heat Input of welding Selection of Process
processes

5
Heat Input kJ/ mm

4
3
GW

2
SMAW

GTAW
SAW

1
CO2 PAW
EBW
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Process Productivity

1.5 - 3 kg /hr. 3 - 6 kg /hr. 4 - 8 kg /hr.


Dia 3.15-6.3 Dia 1- 1.6 Dia 3.15- 6.3

SMAW GMAW SAW


Loss associated with Major Arc welding Process

SMAW GMAW SAW


Evaporation loss A A A
Spatter loss A A A
Stub loss A NA NA
Loss due to improper wire
NA A A
feeding
Cut wire loss NA A A
Loss due to bad handling A A A
Loss due to high currents A A NA
Deposition Efficiency for welding processes

Filler metal form Deposition


And process Efficiency %
SMAW electrode
457 mm 60-70
FCAW process with
Solid Wire 80-90

GMAW with solid wire 90-97

SAW with solid wire 95-99


WELDING PROCESS
Welding can be accomplished by application of
HEAT TILL FUSION OR FORGING TEMP.
HEAT + PRESSURE
PRESSURE ALONE

HEAT ENERGY IS PROVIDED BY MANY WAYS


ARC
BEAM
RESISTANCE
FRICTION
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
MECHANICAL
POPULAR WELDING PROCESS

ARC WELDING BEAM OTHERS


WELDING
SMAW FRICTION
LBW
GTAW TMERMIT
EBW
PTAW EXPLOSION
RESISTANCE
GMAW WELDING ULTRASONIC
FCAW SPOT
SAW SEAM
EGW PROJECTION
SELECTION OF WELDING PROCESS
APPLICATION

JOINING
Hard Facing
HARD FACING
REPAIR & RECLAMATION

Assembly
Welding Repair
welding
SELECTION OF WELDING PROCESS

Factors To be Considered

MATERIAL TO BE WELDED
JOINT DESIGN & SHAPE
THICKNESS OF SECTIONS WELDED
POSITION IN WHICH WELDING IS CARRIED OUT
PRODUCTIVITY
COST
SELECTION OF WELDING PROCESS
SELECTION OF WELDING PROCESS
Thank You