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TESTING & Drilling

Introduction
TESTING &
DRILLING

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INTRODUCTION

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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction
Client questions: What is the size of my
reservoir?
How much will it produce?

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What fluids are going to be
produce?
Aim of Well Identification of produced
Testing: fluids.
Determination of reservoir
deliverability.
Data used to predict reservoir
size
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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction
Well Testing determines Production
capabilities Well Testing determines
Reservoir properties

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Well testing is the only technique that examines a
significant portion of the reservoir under dynamic
conditions.
Accurate, long-term projections about a reservoir cannot
be made based on wireline and others static techniques..
Tests on oil or gas wells are performed at various stages
of drilling (after open hole logging), completion and
production, and for different purposes.
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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction
Data acquired when a reservoir is tested:

Flow rates ; oil, gas, water & solids

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Pressure and Temperature , surface & bottom
hole
PVT samples of representative reservoir fluids ,
surface and bottom hole

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TESTING & Drilling
Fixed rigs
Introduction
Jack up Land rig

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TESTING & Drilling
Floating rigs
Introduction
Semi-Submersible Drillship

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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction
Water Depth vs. Rig Types

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TESTING & Drilling
3 categories of well:Introduction

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Vertical

Deviated

Horizontal

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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction

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TESTING & Drilling
Land Introduction
Rig

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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction
Rig Hoisting System

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TESTING & Drilling
Rig Floor Introduction
draw works
dog house

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drive

mouse hole

rat hole
Drillers console

V-door ramp

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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction

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Rotary
System

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TESTING & Drilling
In the Rotary
Table
Introduction Bushings

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Slips

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TESTING & Drilling
Rotating System
Introduction
Kelly & Rotary Table drill 1 joint at a
time.

Power swivel drills in stands (3 x

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30/2 x 45)

Downhole motor does not require


string rotation.

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TESTING & Drilling
BOP stack
Location
Introduction
All Fixed Rigs All Floating Rigs

Just Bellow Rig Floor

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Sea level
Ground level

BOP stack
Sea bed

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TESTING & Drilling
Why do we need aIntroduction
BOP stack ?

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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction
Blow Out Preventers

Main Components
Wellhead Connector

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Pipe Rams
Shear Rams
Blind Rams
Annular Preventers

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TESTING & Drilling
BOP stack Introduction

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(drilling)

(drilling)

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TESTING & Drilling
BOP stack / Pipe Introduction
Rams
Fit a specific pipe size

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Need pipe to make a
seal

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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction
BOP stack / Shear Rams
Both shears drill pipe and seals the
hole

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Capacity to cut through 6-5/8 drill pipe
Emergency equipment

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TESTING & Drilling
BOP stack Introduction
HYDRILL : Annular Preventer
Close/seal on any object

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in the wellbore

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TESTING & Drilling
Tubular Introduction
s

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TESTING & Drilling
Rig Circulating
System
Introduction

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TESTING & Drilling
Drilling Fluids
Introduction
The drilling fluid is an essential part of the drilling and well
control system.
It can be either water or oil based

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Mud is used to:
- Cool the bit
- Remove cuttings
- Lubricate the bit
- Provides a pressure to overcome that of the formation
- Makes a mud cake to seal permeable formation
- Operate down hole motor / turbine
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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction
Mud weights
The mud density is kept at a level to overcome expected
reservoir pressures and keep the well at a positive

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overpressure.
It should be not too heavy or it will crack the formation,
resulting in lost circulation

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TESTING & Drilling
Casin
g
Introduction
Casings start large and
gradually become smaller

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Casing sizes are always
given as Outside Diameter
The Inner Diameter
depends on the weight

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TESTING & Drilling
Casin
g
Introduction

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Liner 5-1/2

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TESTING & Drilling
Cementin
Introduction
g
Cementing is used to fix the casing in place and provide
mechanical strength to the system.

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The most essential use of cementing is to seal one zone
from another.
If the cement is found poor, a squeeze has to be made to
repair the deficit.

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TESTING & Drilling
Logging
Introduction
Logging is a process of obtaining informations about the
formation after the well has been drilled.

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A sensor is lowered into the well on the end of an
electrical cable. This provides power and transmits the
data to the surface where it is presented in the form of a
graph against depth.
- resistivity (high) logs show where the
hydrocarbon may be
- porosity logs show porous zones
- sonic and density logs give information about the
rock types Drilling Operations slide 30
TESTING & Drilling
Testing and
Introduction
Logging
Few logs are useful in Testing operations:

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Gamma ray shows shale & clean zones, gives net &
gross pay
Cement bond logs shows how good the cement is
Corrosion logs shows possible problems inside &
outside casing
Production logs shows flow in the well
CCL shows the casing collars

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TESTING & Drilling
Life of a well Introduction

SEISMIC

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DRILLING / GEOLOGY
LOGGING
DST / TESTING
PRODUCTION / TESTING

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TESTING & Drilling
Life of a well Introduction
Surface Seismic consists of making a noise and listening
for the returning reflected signals

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TESTING & Drilling
Life of a well Introduction

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A surface seismic with the interpreted
model above
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TESTING & Drilling
Life of a well Introduction
In addition to seismic there are:
Geology

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-The geologist goes to identify potential cap and
reservoir rocks
Geochemistry
-The geochemistry tries to identify the source rock
and also the possible migration path to the reservoir
rock

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TESTING & Drilling
Life of a well Introduction
Drilling
The objective of a well is to reach a reservoir zone safely

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and efficiently and then produce the fluids

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TESTING & Drilling
Life of a well Introduction

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Drilled Cased Perforated Produced
Workover Recompleted
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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction
To look at the special animations:

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rotate.avi (rotary table)

Wellinst (drilling a well)

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TESTING & Drilling
Introduction

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The
END

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