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EARTHINGSYSTEM

Earthingisoneofthefirstthings
toconsiderwhendesigningan
electricalinstallation.
Hereweprovideanelectricians
guidetoearthingsystemsandthe
BS7671regulationsrelatingto
them.
STRUCTUREOFEARTH
TYPESOFEARTHINGSYSTEM

TNS
TNCS

TT

TNC

IT
WHATDOTHESECODESRELATE
TO?

T=Earth.DirectionconnectionwithEarth
(FromtheFrenchwordforground:Terre).
N=Neutral.Connectiontoearthviathesupply
network.
S=Separate.

C=Combined.

I=Isolated.Noconnectionwithearth,unless
throughahighimpedance.
TYPEOFEARTHINGSYSTEM
SHOULDBEUSED
Itisimperativethattherighttypeofelectrical
earthingsystemischosensinceitwillaffectboth
safetyandtheelectromagneticcompatibilityof
thepowersupply.
ProvidingaProtectiveEarth(PE)connection
willensurethatallexposedconductivesurfaces
havethesameelectricalpotentialastheearths
surface,therebypreventinganyonetouchingthe
deviceinthecaseofashortcircuitfromsuffering
anelectricshock.Ashortcircuitwillalsocausea
PEconnectiontogiverisetoagreatlyincreased
currentflow,triggeringfusesandcircuitbreakers
anddisconnectingthepowersupply.
TNSEARTHNETURALSEPERATE
TNSEARTHNETURALSEPERATE
Thistypeofelectricalearthingsystemconnects
theneutralsourceofenergywiththeearthat
onepointonly(orasnearaspracticallypossible),
andwiththeconsumersearthingterminal
commonlyconnectedtothemetallicsheathor
armourofthedistributorsservicecableintothe
premises.
WithaTNSthePEconnectionandNare
separateconductorsthatareconnectedtogether
onlynearthepowersource.
TNCSEARTHNETURAL
COMDINEDSEPRRATE
TNCSEARTHNEUTRALCOMBINED
Id
1
2
N 3
N

PEN PE PE

SCPD

Rd
Ud
RB
TNCS(PME)EARTHNETURAL
COMDINEDSEPRRATE
ATNCSearthingsystem,typicallyknownas
ProtectiveMultipleEarthing(PME),connectsthe
supplyneutralconductorofadistributionmain
withearthatcourseandatintervalsalongits
stretch.
Theneutralconductorisalsousedtoreturn
earthfaultscurrentssafelytosourcebythe
provisionofaconsumersearthingterminal
linkedtotheincomingneutralconductor.
TT
TT
Theneutraloftheenergysourceisconnectedas
withtheTNSsystem.
Howeverthereisnoprovisionfortheconsumers
earthing.
Thereforetheymustprovidetheirown
connectiontoearth.
TNCEARTHNEUTRALCOMBINED
TNCEARTHANDNEUTRAL
COMBINED
ThistypesofearthingbothEarth&Neutralare
takenassameconductor.
ThisisotherwisecalledasaProtectiveEarth
NeutralSystem
Thistypesofearthingsystemusedin
ITISOLATEDEARTH
ITISOLATEDEARTH
ItsPrincipletheTransformerneutralisearthed
butistheoreticallyunearthed.
Inactualfactitisnaturallyearthedbythestay
CapacitiesoftheN/WCableand/orvoluntarily
byahighimpedanceofaround1500&
(impedanceearthednetural)
Theelectricalloadframesareearthed.

ThankYou