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SI 7013

Bab II
Basic Concept

Ivindra Pane, PhD


Kantor:
Lab. Rekayasa Struktur
Teknik Sipil, FTSL
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Continuum Fracture Modes
y,v y,v y,v
x,u x,u
x,u

z,w z,w z,w

Mode I Mode II Mode III

Basic modes of crack loading. Positive sense shown for each:


Mode I = crack opening
Mode II = in-plane sliding
Mode III = anti-plane tearing

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2D Crack Tip Fields y
y xy
r x
Williams (1957) expansion of crack tip
stress and displacement fields:
x
Mode I
z 0


n
n 1 n n n n
x r a 2 ( 1)n cos( 1) ( 1) cos( 3) (1)
2 I
n
plane stress
n 1 2 2 2 2 2

n 1
n
n n n n z v ( x y )
y r 2 anI 2 ( 1)n cos( 1) ( 1) cos( 3) (2)
n 1 2 2 2 2 2 plane strain

n n2 1 I n n n n
xy r an ( 1) sin( 3) ( 1)n sin( 1) (3) xz yz 0
n 1 2 2 2 2 2
n
2
r n n n n
u anI ( 1)n cos cos( 2) (4) and where = G
n 1 2 2 2 2 2 and
n

r 2
n n n n 34n, plane stress
v anI ( 1)n sin sin( 2) (5) (3n)/(1n), plane strain
n 1 2 2 2 2 2
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Crack Tip Fields
y xy
Williams expansion of crack tip r x
stress and displacement fields (1957):
Mode II x

n n2 1 II n n n n
x r an 2 ( 1)n sin( 1) ( 1) sin( 3) (6) z 0
n 1 2 2 2 2 2
plane stress

n n2 1 II
z v ( x y )
n n n n
y r an 2 ( 1)n sin( 1) ( 1) sin( 3) (7)
n 1 2 2 2 2 2
plane strain

n n
n
n 1 n n
xy r a ( 1) cos( 3) ( 1)n cos( 1) (8)
II
xz yz 0
2
n
n 1 2 2 2 2 2
n

r 2
n n n n where = G
u anII ( 1)n sin sin( 2) (9)
n 1 2 2 2 2 2 and
n 34n, plane stress

r 2
n n n n (3n)/(1n), plane
v anII ( 1)n cos cos( 2) (10)
n 1 2 2 2 2 2 strain
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Example of Expansion
Along Crack Line, x = r, Mode I
y
y
x

x (r)

a1
x 4a2 3a3 r 8a4 r 5a5r 3 2 (11)
r
a1
y 3a3 r 5a5r 3 2 (12)
r
First (leading), or singular term, a1: contains the stress intensity factor

Second term, a2: contains the T-stress

Third term, a3: the leading higher order term (note: non-polynomial!)
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Definition of Stress Intensity Factor
and T-stress from these Fields
Neglecting all but the first, singular term of this stress field results in the
formal definition of the stress intensity factor:

K I lim yy 2 r (13)
r 0

K II lim xy 2 r (14)
r 0

K III lim yz 2 r (15)


r 0

The so-called T-stress is the constant stress acting parallel to the crack
direction.

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In Cylindrical Coordinates, to 2nd Term

3 T
cos K I cos2 K II sin (1 cos 2 )
1
(16)
2r 2 2 2 2

3 T
cos K I 1 sin 2 K II sin 2 K II tan (1 cos 2 ) (17)
1
rr
2r 2 2 2 2 2

1 T
r cos KI sin KII (3cos 1) sin 2 (18)
2 2r 2 2

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Crack Front Principal Stresses

K1
1 cos 1 sin (19)
2 r 2 2

K1
2 cos 1 sin (20)
2 r 2 2

(21)

2 KI
3 0 or 3 cos Plane stress, or plane strain
2 r 2
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Mode III Fields, Plane Strain

K III K III
xz sin (22) yz cos (23)
( 2 r ) ( 2 r )
1 1
2
2 2
2

x y z xz 0


1
2r
2
K
w III sin (24)
G 2
uv 0
n
for plane stress, let n
1 n

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So Why is the Stress Intensity Factor
so Important?
Under conditions of small-scale yielding, all crack front fields
are dominated (controlled) by the stress intensity factor.

Therefore, all crack behavior:


Stabilitywill the crack tip move?
Trajectory in what direction?
Rate how fast?
is controlled by the stress intensity factor and, maybe,
the T-stress.

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The Concept of K-Dominance:
When is LEFM Applicable?
y
K-Dominant KI
Region y s

yld
yield
2 x

y ys yns

rp x
D
y ns 3a3 r 5a5 r 3 / 2 ...
Inelastic
Region,
Simplified

If rp << D, KI still controls fracture process.

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Energy Release Rate
Recall that, in LEFM, energy release rate (crack driving force) is a
dual of stress intensity. For example, in Mode I:
2
K
GI I
' (25)
E
where
E' E for plane stress
E
E
'
for plane strain
( 1 n )
2

We will first concentrate on computing stress intensity factors, then, later,


energy release rates (and their derivatives!).

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How Well Can We Reproduce These Fields with
Sym. the FEM?
The Griffith Problem

Typical

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LEFM predicts infinite stress at the crack front.
This cannot be true for a real material.
There must be a region near the crack front where nonlinear material
behavior prevails. This behavior might be governed by elasto-plastic, or
microcracking, or any other dissipative mechanisms.
This region is called the fracture process zone.

Physical Observation
Example of an elasto-plastic process zone

See Computational Simulation

Process zone formation in Al-Cu-Mg alloy, From Broek,


Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 3d Edit, 1982.

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Lets Estimate rp
First approximation, call it r*p:

Ignore triaxiality, assume elastic-perfectly plastic behavior,


fy = uniaxial yield stress, assume no stress redistribution, then

KI
y
y
KI
y
2 x 2 x
yield
KI
y fy
2 rp*
rp x
2
KI
rp*
2 f y
2

And a lower bound on r*p


2
K Ic
Is this an upper or lower rp
* (62)
2 f y
2
bound to actual value?
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Better Estimates for rp

Include 1D stress redistribution:


2
K
r Ic 2
**

fy
p

Include stress redistribution and allow for multiaxiality with the von Mises
yield criterion: 2
K Ic
rp in plane strain
3 f y
2

Why difference?
2
K Ic
rp in plane stress
f y2

Next, we want rp to be small. Compared to what? How small?

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Small Compared to What? How Small?
For K, a linear-elastic concept, to dominate the solution, the
process zone must be small compared to all significant dimensions
of the structure containing the crack.

By convention and by reasonableness, small is accepted to mean


less than about 1/25th.

For example, we would want rp to be less than 1/25th of the crack


length, a

2
25K Ic
2
K Ic
a or a 2.5
3 f y
2 f (63)
y

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Necessary Geometrical Conditions for Validity of LEFM in Materials
in Which Elasto-Plastic Process Zone Behavior Dominates

Necessary Conditions:
2
K
a, B, W - a > 2.5 Ic
fY
W/2-a where
B

2a KIc= Plane Strain Fracture Toughness

fy= Uniaxial yield strength

W-a = ligament
W
If all these conditions are met, then
SSY conditions are said to prevail
and LEFM applies.
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Brittleness Numbers
An important concept that emerges from this simple calculation is that of the
Brittleness Number.

A material in a state with a high brittleness number has a small process zone,
e.g. 2

K Ic
r for elasto - plastic material state
p


f y

so the ratio of yield stress to plane strain fracture toughness, fy/KIc, can be
interpreted as a brittleness number for materials in which the process zone is
predominately dissipating energy in plastic strain energy.

Similarly, brittleness numbers for materials which dissipate fracture energy


through other mechanisms have been defined, e.g.
ft = Tensile strength
Lch = EGF/ ft2
GF = Fracture energy
for concrete which dissipates energy through microcracking.

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