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STRENGTH IMPROVEMENT OF LOOSE

SANDY SOILS THROUGH CEMENT


GROUTING

Submitted By
R K Bharadwaj
1st Sem M.E.
Under Guidance of
Dr. Vishwanath B
Assistant Professor
Geotechnical Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
UVCE
CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. Literature review
3. Materials
4. Strength improvement of loose sandy soils through grouting Benny et al.,
2013
5. Improvement of shear strength of loose sandy soils by grouting Santhosh
et al., 2012
6. Bearing capacity improvement of loose sandy foundation soils through
grouting Santhosh et al., 2011
7. Conclusions
8. References
INTRODUCTION
Ground improvements refers to any procedure undertaken to increase
the shear strength, decrease the permeability and compressibility.

The improvement may be accomplished by drainage, compaction,


preloading, reinforcement, grouting, electrical, chemical or thermal
methods.

Among the various soil stabilization procedures, the most suitable


one is selected depending upon the type of soil available, time, cost
involved etc.

Grouting is quite a familiar technique in the field of civil


engineering, especially in foundation engineering.
The primary purpose of grouting is to fill the voids of the formation
level by replacing the existing fluids with the grout and thereby
improving the engineering properties of the medium especially
reducing the permeability.

Grouting is effective in both sand and silt deposits.

As grouting reduces pore size and alters pore structure of soil, the
engineering properties such as strength, stiffness etc, are also
influenced to a great extent.
LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Benny Mathews Abraham et al., (2013) studied the effectiveness of
grouting in the pressure grouted sand bed compacted at its loose and
dense state for various cement content in the grout. Cement
percentages of 2, 4, 6% were used for the grouting. 4% of cement
grout was found to be more effective in medium sand compared to 2
and 6% of cement grout.

2. Santhosh Kumar et al., (2012) gave a alternative or possible


solutions for the foundation problems by improving the properties of
loose sandy soils at shallow depths by cement grouting. The effect
of various additives used in the cement on the shear strength was
studied. The shear strength of cemented grouted loose sandy soils
increase with cement content .
3. Santhosh Kumar et al., (2011) proposed grouting as one of the
possible solutions to the foundation problems of costal areas by
improving the properties of soil by grouting at shallow depths. .
Load tests were conducted for the study of bearing capacity of the
grouted loose sand. The shear strength of loose sandy soils
increases with increase in cement content and also the curing
period.
MATERIALS
SAND
1. Grouting medium.

2. Periyar river, kalady, Kerala.

3. River sand of grade medium


( 425 - 2mm).

4. Classified as per IS 1498-1970.

5. Grain distribution curve is shown


in figure.

Grain distribution curves of sand and cement


CEMENT
1. Ordinary Portland cement.
Properties of the cement used
2. Grade 43.

3. Used for the preparation of


grouts according to IS 8112-
1989.

4. Properties of cement are shown


in the table.
ADDITIVES

1. To improve grout viscosity and


stability. Additives

2. Physical properties of grouts.

3. Studies were also conducted on


the effect of these admixtures
on the strength of grouted
medium.

4. Additives used are shown in


the table.
ADDITIVES

1. Bearing capacity.
Admixtures
2. Additives used are shown in
the table.
Strength improvement of loose sandy soils
through grouting Benny et al., 2013
Benny et al., 2013

METHODS
1. For assessing the groutability.

2. Grout chamber with agitator.

3. Capacity: 50L.

4. 0.3m dia & 0.75m height.

5. Compressed air is allowed to


enter and regulated by
pressure valve.

Section of grout chamber


Benny et al., 2013

1. Grouting nozzle.

2. Inner pipe is made of thin


stainless steel tube of 10mm
dia.

3. Outer pipe is made of PVC


having inner diameter 20mm.

4. Nozzle is stainless steel with


24 no. of 4mm dia holes
through which the grout flows
to the sand bed.

5. Grout flows through the


annular space between the
outer and inner pipe. Section of grout chamber
Benny et al., 2013

1. Grout slurry is poured into the


chamber through the inlet.

2. Compressed air is passed to


the chamber through valve V1
and its pressure is controlled
by valve V2.

3. Opening the valves V3, V4,


V5 and simultaneously
closing water inlet valve
permits the flow of grout.

4. Flow of grout in the vertical


direction can be obtained by Schematic diagram of the grouting setup
opening valve V6 and closing
the valve V5.
Benny et al., 2013

Grouting setup
Benny et al., 2013

Detachable steel tanks of 0.45m X 0.45m X 0.60m and 1m X 1m X 0.60m were


used for the laboratory studies.

The sand bed was prepared in the tank at a unit weight of 13.1kN/m3 (loosest
state).

Cement grout was prepared by adding 10% (by weight of sand + cement) of
water and was poured into the grout chamber.

The grout was pumped into the sand medium by maintaining the pressure at
500kPa.

Once the grouting operation is over, the nozzle was completely withdrawn from
the sand and cleaned with water jet. The hole left in the sand bed which was
already full with cement slurry was filled with dry sand.
Benny et al., 2013

These grouted beds were kept in humid conditions for curing.

Loadsettlement characteristics of grouted sand was studied by conducting load


tests in tanks of size 1m X 1m X 0.6m.

The sand bed prepared at a unit weight of 13.1kN/m3 was grouted using 2, 4 or
6% cement and kept under humid conditions for curing for a period of 28 days.

Samples from different depths and from different radial distances were cut from
this grouted mass for the determination of cement content.

The grouting efficiency was estimated by determining the cement content of


freshly grouted samples as per the procedure given in IS 4332-1973 Methods
of test for stabilized soils - Part VII determination of cement content of cement
stabilized soils
Benny et al., 2013

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Grouting Efficiency From
Cross Section Dimensions
1. A preliminary idea about the
grouting efficiency can be
obtained from the cross section
area of the actual grouted mass at
different depths.

2. The cross sectional area of


medium sand grouted with 4% of
cement (water cement ratio of 2.6)
at different depths are shown in
Figure.

3. It can be seen from the figure that


the cross section area is almost
constant throughout the depth of
grouting. Cross sections of 4% cemented grouted sand
Benny et al., 2013

Grouting Efficiency From


Actual Cement Contents
1. Figure shows the variation of the
cement content with radial
distance from the centre of grout
hole at various depths of 200, 300,
400, 500 and 600mm from the top
of the grouted bed.

2. 4% cement (w/c ratio of 2.6) was


used for grouting this bed of
medium sand.

3. the samples were taken from


distances of 0, 60, 120 and 225mm Variation of cement content with travel distance
from the center of the grout hole. of the grout
Benny et al., 2013

Grouting Efficiency From


Actual Cement Contents
1. A comparison of the flow of the
grout in the lateral direction when
the medium sand is grouted with
cement 2, 4 and 6% cement grouts
at a depth of 300mm from the
surface is given in Figure.

2. It can be seen that 4% cement


grout is more effective from the
consideration of cement content
and is more economical.

Variation of cement content with travel distance of


the grout
Benny et al., 2013

Grouting Efficiency
From Load Tests
1. Loadsettlement characteristics
of grouted sand was studied by
conducting load tests in tanks
of after curing for a period of
28 days.

2. The cured sand bed was loaded


through a plate 200mm X
200mm with the help of a
hydraulic jack.

Load setup
3. Load setup is as shown in
figure
Benny et al., 2013

Grouting Efficiency From


Load Tests
1. Figure 6.5 shows the load
settlement curves in the case of
medium sand grouted with 2, 4
and 6% cement along with that for
ungrouted sand.

2. ultimate stress at the loosest state


(corresponding to a dry unit
weight of 13.1kN/m3) is only
22.7kN/m2.

3. Maximum compaction yielded a Load settlement curves for grouted sand bed
unit weight of 16.2kN/m3 and the (medium sand)
corresponding ultimate stress was
367kN/m2.
Benny et al., 2013

Grouting Efficiency From


Load Tests
1. Sand at loosest state was grouted
with 2% cement, the ultimate
stress became 380kN/m2.

2. The ultimate load corresponding


to 4% cement grout was
611kN/m2, which is around 27
times the ultimate stress at the
loosest state.

3. Sand grouted with 6% cement, the


ultimate stress was 830kN/m2,
which is 35 times the value of that Load settlement curves for grouted sand bed
of the sand at loosest state. (medium sand)
Benny et al., 2013

Grouting Efficiency From


Load Tests
1. Investigations were made to study
the load carrying capacity of
cement grouted beds in the ideal
condition.

2. For this purpose, medium sand


was uniformly mixed with
different percentages of cement (2,
4 and 6% by weight of sand) and
water (10% by weight of sand +
cement).

3. There is a phenomenal increase in Load settlement curves of cement treated medium sand
strength with percentage of
cement.
Benny et al., 2013

Grouting Efficiency From


Load Tests

1. A comparison in strength of
the medium sand beds grouted
with cement (grout pumped
through grout pump), with that
of the uniformly mixed
medium sand beds is given in
figure.

2. Grouting by grout pump could


yield only one-third the load
carrying capacity of that of the
uniformly mixed bed, for a Comparison of load settlement behavior of
cement content of 4%. cement grouted and uniformly mixed sand beds
Benny et al., 2013

Grouting Efficiency From


Load Tests

This figure shows the variation of


ultimate stress of grouted sand
with % of cement for both grout
pumped through grout pump and
uniformly mixed medium

Variation of ultimate stress of grouted sand


with % of cement
Benny et al., 2013
CONCLUSIONS

1. In order to simulate the grouting process in the field, model tests were conducted
on sand beds prepared in steel tanks in the laboratory. For this purpose, a grouting
set up was designed and fabricated.

2. The grouting nozzle was designed so as to facilitate the flow of the grout
smoothly both in the vertical and lateral directions.

3. The efficiency of grouting mainly depends upon the penetration of cement grout
through the pores of sand.

4. 4 % cement grout is more effective in medium sand compared to 2 and 6%, while
considering the travel distance of the grout and the cement contents at various
points in the grouted mass.
.
Improvement of shear strength of loose sandy soils
by grouting Santhosh et al., 2012
Santhosh et al., 2012

METHODS

For initial laboratory tests, soil was filled in tanks of size 25cm X 25cm X 25cm,
in layers.

The different densities were achieved by keeping the tanks filled with soil on a
platform vibrator and compacting it by vibration.

The grout was introduced within the pores of the granular medium by two
methods.

First method was by hand mixing in order to get a uniform grouted bed.

The mix was filled in split moulds of size 60mm X 60mm X 25mm (for
conducting direct shear tests) in layers, with uniform density.

These samples were kept in humid condition for curing.


Santhosh et al., 2012

In second method, prepared sand beds were grouted with different grouting
materials using a grout pump.

Sand bed was prepared in tanks of size 45cm X 45cm X 60cm at the loosest state
(unit weight = 13.1kN/m3 and the corresponding void ratio e = 0.98).

The grout was prepared at a cement/water ratio of 0.1

The grouting nozzle was raised at regular intervals during the grouting operation
in order to obtain uniform dispersion of grout over the entire thickness of the
sand bed.

These samples were kept in humid condition for curing.


Santhosh et al., 2012

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


1. Figure shows the load
settlement curves for medium
sand compacted at different
densities with the vibration
technique.

2. The loadsettlement curves were


obtained for a model square
footing of size 5cm, carried out
in tanks of size 25cm X 25cm X
25cm.

3. At lower densities the peak was


not defined.

4. The ultimate load at the loosest


state was only 22.7kN/m2. Load - settlement curves for sand
Santhosh et al., 2012

1. Maximum compaction yielded a unit


weight of 16.2kN/m3 and the
corresponding ultimate peak load
was 367kN/m2, which was more than
16 times the value for the sand at the
loosest state.

2. In the loosest state (corresponding to


a dry unit weight of 13.1kN/m3 and
void ratio of 0.98), the angle of
shearing resistance () was only 27

3. At the densest state (corresponding


to a dry unit weight of 16.2kN/m3
and void ratio of 0.61), the value
increases to 39.

4. The ultimate stress steadily increases Load - settlement curves for sand
with increase in density
Santhosh et al., 2012

1. Figure shows typical plots of


shear stress against shear strain.

2. The value of shear strength


steadily increased with increase
in cement content and the shear
strain decreased with increases
in shear strength.

Shear stress - shear strain curve


Santhosh et al., 2012

1. The increase in the shear


strength, with cement content
(varying from 2 to 25% by
weight of dry sand) is shown in
figure

2. increases with the curing


period of the specimens.

Effect of cement content on shear strength of


treated medium sand
Santhosh et al., 2012

1. The effect of calcium chloride


(used as an accelerator) on
shear strength of cement-
grouted medium having curing
periods of 7 and 28 days are
presented in figure.

2. Slight reduction in the shear


strength is noted at around 1%
of calcium chloride, but further
increase in percentage of the
salt will cause an increase in
shear strength.
Effect of calcium chloride on shear strength of
treated medium sand
Santhosh et al., 2012

1. The variation of shear strength


with the use of a retarder such
as triethanolamine on cement
grouted medium is shown in
figure.

2. Shear strength increases at


lower percentage of salt
content.

3. The increase in higher


percentage of salt causes a
small reduction in shear Effect of triethanolamine on shear strength of
strength. treated medium sand
Santhosh et al., 2012

1. Figure shows the effect of


aluminium powder (used as
expander) on the shear strength
of the grouted medium for a
cement content of 10%.

2. The present study indicates that


the use of optimum dosage of
this salt increases the shear
strength of the grouted sand.

Effect of aluminum powder on shear strength


of treated medium sand
Santhosh et al., 2012

1. The plot shows that the ultimate


load at loosest state is
22.7kN/m2.

2. At the densest state the


corresponding ultimate peak
load is 367kN/m2.

3. With the addition of a small


amount of cement (2%) grouted
into the sand at loose state, the
ultimate load was increased to
713.5kN/m2 and with 6% Load - settlement curves for grouted samples
cement it increased to
920kN/m2.
Santhosh et al., 2012
CONCLUSIONS

1. The shear strength of cement-grouted loose sandy soils increase steadily with the
cement content. The rate of increases is smaller at lower percentages and
phenomenal at higher cement contents.

2. As expected, the shear strength decreases with increase in initial water content of
the grout as the value of cohesion intercept decreases drastically with water
content. Hence selection of water/cement ratio of the grout is very important with
regard to the shear strength of the grouted medium.

3. Use of admixtures such as calcium chloride, triethanolamine and aluminium


powder along with cement does not adversely affect the strength of the grouted
medium.

4. Loadsettlement curves of the loose sand grouted with cement show considerable
improvement in the bearing capacity to the extent of 30 times even with a small
percentage of 2% of cement.
Bearing capacity improvement of loose sandy foundation
soils through grouting Santhosh et al., 2011
Santhosh et al., 2011

METHODS

The efficiency of the grouting process was also verified through load tests
conducted on ungrouted/grouted sand beds.

The initial tests for the assessment of improvement in load carrying capacity
through densification, were conducted by filling the sand at the desired densities
in small tanks of size 30cm X 30cm X 30cm.

The density at loosest state was 13.1kN/m3 and at densest state, it was
16.2kN/m3.
Santhosh et al., 2011

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Characteristics of the sand used


1. The values of safe bearing capacity computed from the results of direct shear tests
conducted on samples of medium sand compacted at different relatives densities are
given in table

2. the maximum safe bearing capacity achieved by maximum compaction in the


laboratory is only 90.3kN/m2
Santhosh et al., 2011

1. The variations of with cement


content at different normal
stresses are shown in figure.

2. The shear strength increases


with increase in normal
pressure.

Effect of cement content on shear strength of


treated medium sand
Santhosh et al., 2011

1. Stress-strain response
exhibit a linear
relationship prior to the
peak, for all cement
contents.

2. The peak stress value


increases with increase in
% of cement content.

Stress - strain curves for treated medium sand


for different cement contents
Santhosh et al., 2011

1. Stress strain curves of grouted


samples having different initial
water contents are shown in
figure.

2. The peak stress (at failure) goes


on decreasing with increase in
initial water content.

Stress - strain curves for treated medium sand


for different initial water contents
Santhosh et al., 2011

1. The effect of sodium silicate


(used as accelerator) on shear
strength of cement grouted
medium sand having curing
period of 7 & 28 days are
presented in figure

2. Addition of sodium silicate


causes initially a reduction in
shear strength of the cement
grouted soil.

3. This reduction in strength (to Effect of sodium silicate on shear strength of


treated medium sand
the tune of only 10% to 20%)
is within the tolerable limits.
Santhosh et al., 2011

1. The variation of shear


strength with the use of a
retarder like tartaric acid on
cement grouted medium is
shown in figure

2. At smaller percentage (upto


around 0.15%), the value of
shear strength is found to
decrease, but thereafter it
Effect of tartaric acid on shear strength of
increases and almost treated medium sand
reaches the initial value.
Santhosh et al., 2011

1. The results of tests on


specimens cured for 7 days
indicated a marginal reduction
in shear strength compared to
the original value.

2. As the curing period increases


(28 days), the shear strength is
found to increase with increase
in percentage of this salt with a
slight reduction noticed at
around 2% of this salt content.
Effect of aluminum sulphate on shear strength
of treated medium sand
Santhosh et al., 2011
CONCLUSIONS

1. The shear strength of the loose sandy soil steadily increases with increase
in cement content and also with curing period.

2. The rate of increase in shear strength is very high at higher percentages of


cement than at lower percentage.

3. The effect of accelerator (sodium silicate) is to reduce the strength


slightly, but while considering the other benefits such as improvement in
properties like viscosity, stability and the early setting of the grout, this
reduction in strength is within the tolerable limits.

4. One has to be very careful in the use of tartaric acid (retarder) with
cement grout. The results indicate a sharp decrease in shear strength value
when the cement content is less than 0.15 %.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The efficiency of cement grouting depends upon the penetration of
cement grout through the grout medium.

2. 4% cement grout is more effective and economical in medium sand.

3. For making grouting more effective the grouting tools and methods
should be appropriate and more suitable.

4. The shear strength of cement grouted sandy soils increases with


increase in cement content and rate of increase is very higher at
higher percentages of cement than at lower percentages.

5. Shear strength decreases with increase in initial water content of the


grout. So water/cement ratio is important with regard to the shear
strength of grouted medium.
6. There is considerable improvement in bearing capacity of grouted
sandy soils even with a small percentage of 2% of cement grout.

7. Use of admixtures like accelerator, retarder, expander and antibleeder


does not adversely affect the strength of the grouted medium.

8. It can be concluded that cement grouting is an effective technique to


improve the shear strength, bearing capacity and reduce the
settlement of loose sandy soils.
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