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Procedures Manual for

Power System Studies

Emerson Network Power
Power System Engineer
Electrical Reliability Services

7.1 General
Power System Analyses must comply;
IEEE 141 IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution
for Industrial Plants
IEEE 241 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Systems in
Commercial Buildings
IEEE 242 IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and
Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (IEEE Buff
IEEE 399 IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial
Power Systems Analysis (Brown Book)
IEEE 446 IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby
Power Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications
IEEE 551 IEEE Recommended Practice for Calculating AC Short-
Circuit Currents in Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
IEEE 1584 IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations
7.1 General
All data will be clearly documented in the report, along with any
assumptions made.
Assumed values will yield the Worst Case results.
Try not to make unsupported estimates, but make comparisons
to known standards and document them as such.
Data and any assumptions should be adequately documented
in the report and project file such that the calculation or
analysis can be understood and repeated by another engineer.

7.2 Short Circuit Calculations
Short circuit calculations will be made except in cases where
supplied by the customer.
All devices that are part of the coordination study or the short circuit
study will be evaluated by comparing fault current withstand and
interrupting ratings to short circuit duty values.
Our reports must clearly indicate for each device whether it is
adequately rated, under-rated or, for rare cases where no rating
info is available, that it was not evaluated.
Utility sources and rotating machine loads should be considered.
Every effort should be made to obtain actual data before identifying
equipment as being under-rated.
Sequence of equipment operation should get
If a configuration is possible and will yield the worst-case
conditions, use it in the calculations or obtain a reason why it
cannot occur.

7.2 Short Circuit Calculations
Motors should be >=50HP with its own node.
MCCs should treated as a single source.
Induction Motors should be modeled using SKM typical values (IEEE Red book

it may be useful to model the cables connecting the motors to the MCC.
IEEE 242 page 354 a conservative value for the Asymmetrical inrush is 1.76
Generator nameplate data should be used in those models.
Use standard values for larger generator
Use Xd = 0.15 and X/R = 10 for smaller units

7.2 Short Circuit Calculations
If under-rated devices are detected;
1. Recheck all data used in the impedance model,
2. Ask the customer to recheck parts of data that could make a difference,
3. (For projects that involve arc flash) Minimize incident energy to the extent
4. Make sure you can justify all data and assumptions used to make the
impedance model,
5. If the devices are still under-rated, confer with the customer and determine how
the customer would like to proceed. Determine what the best solutions are for
the customer. If possible, get a commitment to fix the problems, write the report
detailing the planned changes, and write the report as if there is no longer a
problem because it is being fixed.

7.3 Guidelines For Coordination - General
IEEE 242-2001 Standard (Section 1.1.2) states:
The objectives of electrical system protection and coordination are to:
Limit the extent and duration of service interruption whenever equipment
failure, human error, or adverse natural events occur on any portion of the
Minimize damage to the system components involved in the failure.
Section goes on to say:
Whether minimizing the risk of equipment damage or preserving service
continuity is the more important objective depends upon the operating
philosophy of the particular industrial plant or commercial business.

7.3 Guidelines For Coordination - General
The following hierarchy should be considered as a guide;
1. Consider safety aspects, including device interrupt and withstand ratings,
damage curves, as well as consequences of a "nuisance trip."
2. Coordinate devices to limit the outage to a minimum scope.
3. Coordinate properly with upstream utility devices so the need to call out utility
personnel to restore power is minimized.
4. Choose settings such that device calibration and maintenance are not overly
Consult with the customer to gather general information about
design and operation of the system.
Often only the customer is in a position to make coordination
decisions based on the unique requirements of the loads being
supplied by the distribution system.

7.3 Guidelines For Coordination - General
Where many devices are in series, the time needed for good coordination
of devices may allow an unacceptable amount of damage to occur.
In other cases the time-current characteristics of devices will not allow for
good coordination. These devices are non-adjustable or are beyond the
control of plant personnel. The recommended settings are often the best
compromise between coordination and protection.
Where two or more instantaneous devices are applied in series, there will
be a lack of coordination if the fault current magnitude exceeds the pickup
value of the devices applied.
When there is an overlapping of the curves it is possible that a high
magnitude fault would cause several devices to trip.
Though the recommended instantaneous settings for the breakers studied
are the best available, this condition may exist in many points throughout
the system.
Fortunately, the lack of coordination due to instantaneous units in series
although very common -- is not usually a significant problem since most
faults involve ground and consequently do not generate high levels of fault

7.3 Guidelines For Coordination - General

7.3 Guidelines For Coordination - General
Using the TCC with the maximum fault magnitude available and starting
with the device nearest the source, the TCCs are analyzed with the
objective of maintaining an adequate coordination interval between
devices in series. Of course, the more devices applied in series the less
likely that adequate intervals can be maintained.
For instances where arc flash incident energies can be reduced without
sacrificing coordination, always make the necessary adjustments to
reduce the arc flash incident energies, even if the actual PPE category
does not change.
Guidelines regarding time current curves and how they should be printed
are provided in our Standard Report Procedure.
either clone the scenario with the existing curve sets and name that
cloned scenario recommended settings or copy the entire SKM file
including in the name recommended settings. Then, review each time
current curve versus the existing adjustable device settings to optimize the
coordination and arc flash incident energies for the equipment throughout
the system, using the guidelines described above.

7.4 Guidelines For Coordination Ground Faults
Ground fault protection equipment does not protect electrical
equipment from ground faults.
Ground fault protection equipment only limits the damage to
equipment after the fault has already occurred.
One important question regarding ground fault settings is: what
is considered to be "acceptable damage?
The ground fault settings determine at what fault magnitude and
at what time duration a fault will be allowed to persist before the
protective device is allowed to operate.
KW Cycle Method
NEMA PB 2.2 Method (480V equipment only)

7.4 Guidelines For Coordination Ground Faults
KW CYCLES = (I) x (E) x (T) Where: I = Fault Current Magnitude
1000 E = Arc Voltage Magnitude
T = Fault Duration in Cycles

Usually damage is measured in the amount of switchgear

destroyed, number of transformers failed, cables burned,
This physical damage is actually related to the amount of arc
energy that was released during the fault and can be
expressed in the form of kilowatt cycles (KW cycles). KW
cycles can be calculated using the following formula:
Typically, the arc voltage magnitude has been measured in
the laboratory as between 60 - 140 volts. Therefore we
assume arc voltage = 100 volts.

7.4 Guidelines For Coordination Ground Faults
To relate KW cycles to equipment damage, measurements have been
made in a laboratory environment. The following table translates
KW cycles to the amount of damage that could be expected.
100 Location of fault identifiable from spit marks on metal and from smoke marks.

2,000 Minimum damage. Probably no damage to hardware. Equipment can usually

be restored to service by cleaning smoke marks and repairing insulation. It
is recommended to keep fault damage below this level.

6,000 Limited damage. Highest acceptable damage when considering ground fault
10,000 More extended damage. Faults probably contained within the metal
20,000 Damage serious. Faults will probably burn through metal enclosure
and spread to other sections of the equipment.
>20,000 Considerable destruction of equipment and fire in proportion to the
total amount of arc energy. Devastating damage.

7.4 Guidelines For Coordination Ground Faults
NEMA PB 2.2 Method (480 V equipment only)
480V ground fault protection is unique in that the voltage level for
solidly grounded 480Y/277V systems is just high enough to sustain an
arc and cause considerable equipment damage but yet also low enough
so that the impedance of an arc significantly limits ground fault currents
and thereby often prevents activation of traditional overcurrent devices.
Due to this duality, specialized ground fault protection is required and
must be properly set in order to limit equipment damage to tolerable

7.4 Guidelines For Coordination Ground Faults
NEMA PB 2.2 Method (480 V equipment only)
Per NEMA PB 2.2,

The damage caused by an arcing fault is a function of the amount of

energy released in the arc. Based on empirical data from tests at 277 volts,
the most practical expression for the damage level is:

Material burned away = k(If)1.5t

If = the single-phase arcing fault current, and
t = the time in seconds during which the fault persists.

Thus, the damage level may be expressed in (amperes)1.5seconds.

7.4 Guidelines For Coordination Ground Faults
NEMA PB 2.2 Method (480 V equipment only)
The results of these tests and mathematical expression are damage lines
that can be plotted on TCCs to help determine the optimum ground
fault pick-up and time delay settings that provide both tolerable arcing
damage and selectivity.
These damage lines (based on the ampere rating of the main
overcurrent device) are available as an ERS custom SKM library device
(NEMA PB 2.2) within the Professional Services Group > Shared
Documents > EMERSON PSE GROUP DOCUMENTS site via the
following link:

7.4 Guidelines For Coordination Ground Faults
NEMA PB 2.2 Method (480 V equipment only)

7.4 Guidelines For Coordination Ground Faults
NEMA PB 2.2 Method (480 V equipment only)

7.5 Assumptions
All engineering studies should be based on the best data
available and the calculations should be performed using
industry standard methods.
If it is necessary to make assumptions because of missing data
or due to calculations for which there are no industry standards,
these assumptions must be documented in our report to the

7.6 Libraries And Device Data
We maintain a library of device data at:

To make unified library of device data on local PSE