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ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL

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Unit-II

DC Drives
Speed control of DC motors
Ward - Leonard scheme - drawbacks
Thyristor Converter fed dc drives: Single, two and four
quadrant operations
Chopper fed DC drives : Time ratio control and
Current limit control - Single, two and four quadrant
operations
Effect of ripples on the motor performance.
DC Motor Speed Control

The Three Methods of speed control:

Armature Voltage Control

Field Flux Control

Armature Resistance Control

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DC Motor Speed Control

Speed Control of Shunt motor:


A. Voltage Control Method:
Variable Voltage Control
Ward-Leonard System
B. Variation of Flux (or) Flux Control Method
C. Armature Resistance Control Method

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DC Motor Speed Control

Speed Control of Shunt motor


A. i. Variable Voltage Control

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DC Motor Speed Control
Speed Control of Shunt motor
A. ii. Ward Leonard Scheme

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Ward Leonard Scheme

The system is operated in two control methods:

Vt Control; In the armature voltage control mode, the


motor current Ifm is kept constant at its rated value. The
generator field current Ifg is changed such that Vt
changes from zero to its rated.

If Control; The field current control mode is used to


obtain speed above the base speed. In this mode, the
armature voltage Vt remains constant and the motor field
current Ifm is decreased to obtain higher speeds .
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DC Motor Speed Control

Speed Control of Shunt motor


B. Flux Control Method

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DC Motor Speed Control
Speed Control of Shunt motor
C. Armature Resistance Control

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Armature Resistance Control

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DC Motor Speed Control
Speed Control of DC Series motor
A. Flux Control Method (Field Diverter)

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DC Motor Speed Control
Speed Control of DC Series motor
B. Flux Control Method (Armature
Diverter)

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DC Motor Speed Control
Speed Control of DC Series motor
C. Flux Control Method (Tapped Field
Method)

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DC Motor Speed Control

Speed Control of DC Series motor


D. Paralleling Field coils

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DC Motor Speed Control

Speed Control of DC Series motor


E. Variable Resistance in Series with Motor

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Drive Types

SCR Phase controlled Drive


By changing the firing angle, variable DC output voltage
can be obtained.
Single phase (low power) and three phase (high and
very high power) supply can be used.
The line current is unidirectional, but the output voltage
can reverse polarity. Hence 2- quadrant operation is
inherently possible.
4-quadrant is also possible using two sets of controlled
rectifiers.

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Drive Types

Switched Mode Drive


Using switched mode DC-DC converter. Dc voltage is
varied by duty cycle.

Mainly used for low to medium power range.

Single-quadrant converter (buck): 1- quadrant

Half bridge: 2-quadrant

Full bridge: 4-quadrant operation

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Single Phase fully Controlled Rectifier Control of
DC Separately Excited Motor

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Two Quadrant Operation of a drive

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Single Phase fully Controlled Rectifier Control of DC
Separately Excited Motor
Continuous Conduction Mode

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Single Phase fully Controlled Rectifier Control of
DC Separately Excited Motor
Discontinuous Conduction Mode

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Single Phase half Controlled Rectifier Control of
DC Separately Excited Motor

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Single Phase half Controlled Rectifier Control of DC
Separately Excited Motor
Continues Conduction Mode

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Single Phase half Controlled Rectifier Control of DC
Separately Excited Motor
Discontinuous Conduction Mode

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Three Phase fully Controlled Rectifier Control of
DC Separately Excited Motor

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Three Phase fully Controlled Rectifier Control of
DC Separately Excited Motor-Rectification Mode

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Three Phase fully Controlled Rectifier Control of
DC Separately Excited Motor-Inversion Mode

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Dual Converter

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Dual Converter Contd..,

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Dual Converter Contd..,

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Dual Converter Contd..,

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Dual Converter Contd..,

The average dc output voltage of converter 1 is


2Vm
Vdc1 cos 1

The average dc output voltage of converter 2 is
2Vm
Vdc 2 cos 2

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Dual Converter Contd..,

In the dual converter operation one


converter is operated as a controlled rectifier
with 90 & the second converter is
0

operated as a line commutated inverter


in the inversion mode with 90 0

Vdc1 Vdc 2

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Operating Modes of Dual Converter

Non-circulating current (circulating current free) mode of

operation.

Circulating current mode of operation.

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Non Circulating Mode

In this mode only one converter is operated at a time.

When converter 1 is ON, 0 < 1 < 900

Vdc is positive and Idc is positive.

When converter 2 is ON, 0 < 2 < 900

Vdc is negative and Idc is negative.

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Circulating Current Mode

In this mode, both the converters are switched ON and

operated at the same time.

The trigger angles 1 and 2 are adjusted such that (1 +

2) = 1800 ; 2 = (1800 - 1).

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Circulating Current Mode contd..,

When 0 <1 <900, converter 1 operates as a controlled


rectifier and converter 2 operates as an inverter with 900
<2<1800.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are positive.
When 900 <1 <1800, converter 1 operates as an
Inverter and converter 2 operated as a controlled rectifier
by adjusting its trigger angle 2 such that 0 <2<900.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are negative.

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Four Quadrant Opeartion

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Advantages of Circulating Current

The circulating current maintains continuous conduction

of both the converters over the complete control range,

independent of the load.

One converter always operates as a rectifier and the

other converter operates as an inverter, the power flow in

either direction at any time is possible.

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Disadvantages of non circulating current
mode
There is always a circulating current flowing between the
converters.
When the load current falls to zero, there will be a
circulating current flowing between the converters so we
need to connect circulating current reactors in order to
limit the peak circulating current to safe level.
The converter thyristors should be rated to carry a peak
current much greater than the peak load current.

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Switched Mode regulators
Supply is DC (maybe from rectified-filtered AC, or some other DC
sources).
DC-DC converters (choppers) are used.
Normally operate at high frequency
the average output voltage response is significantly faster
the armature current ripple is relatively less than the controlled
rectifier
In terms of quadrant of operations, 3 possible configurations are
possible:
single quadrant,
twoquadrant
fourquadrant

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Single Quadrant Drive

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Two Quadrant Drive

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Two Quadrant Drive Contd,

FORWARD MOTORING (T1 and D2 operate)


T1 on: The supply is connected to motor terminal
T1 off: The armature current freewheels through D2
Va (hence speed) is determined by the duty ratio.

REGENERATION (T2 and D1 operate)


T2 on: motor acts as a generator
T2 off: the motor acting as a generator returns energy to
the supply through D2.

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Four Quadrant Drive

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Four Quadrant-Forward Motoring

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Four Quadrant-Forward Motoring

T1 and T2 operate; T3 and T4 off.

T1 and T2 turn on together: the supply voltage appear


across the motor terminal. Armature current rises.

T1 and T2 turn off: the armature current decay through


D3 and D4

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Four Quadrant-Regeneration

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Four Quadrant-Regeneration

T1, T2 and T3 turned off.

When T4 is turned on, the armature current rises through


T4 and D2

When T4 is turned off, the motor, acting as a generator,


returns energy to the supply through D1 and D2.

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Four Quadrant-Reverse Motoring

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Four Quadrant-Reverse Motoring

T3 and T3 operate; T1 and T2 off.

When T3 and T4 are on together, the armature current


rises and flows in reverse direction.

Hence the motor rotates in reverse direction.

When T3 and T4 turn off, the armature current decays


through D1 and D2.

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Four Quadrant- Reverse Generation

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Four Quadrant- Reverse Generation

T1, T3 and T4 are off.


When T1 is on, the armature current rises through T2
and D4.
When Q2 is turned off, the armature current falls and the
motor returns
energy to the supply through D3 and D4.

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Motor Performance

Output dc power (avg. or dc o/p


power delivered to the load)
PO dc VO dc I O dc ; i.e., Pdc Vdc I dc
Where
VO dc Vdc avg./ dc value of o/p voltage.
I O dc I dc avg./dc value of o/p current

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Motor Performance

Output ac power
PO ac VO RMS I O RMS
Efficiency of Rectification (Rectification Ratio)
PO dc PO dc
Efficiency ; % Efficiency 100
PO ac PO ac
The o/p voltage consists of two components
The dc component VO dc
The ac /ripple component Vac Vr rms
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Motor Performance

The total RMS value of output voltage is given by


VO RMS V 2
O dc
V 2
r rms

Vac Vr rms VO2 RMS VO2 dc


Form Factor (FF) which is a measure of the
shape of the output voltage is given by
VO RMS RMS output load voltage
FF
VO dc DC load output load voltage
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Motor Performance

The Ripple Factor (RF) w.r.t. o/p voltage w/f


Vr rms Vac
rv RF
VO dc Vdc
2
V 2
O RMS
V 2
O dc VO RMS
rv 1
VO dc VO dc

rv FF 1 2

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Motor Performance
I r rms I ac
Current Ripple Factor ri
I O dc I dc

Where I r rms I ac I O2 RMS I O2 dc


Vr pp peak to peak ac ripple output voltage
Vr pp VO max VO min
I r pp peak to peak ac ripple load current
I r pp I O max I O min

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Motor Performance

Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)


PO dc
TUF
VS I S
Where
VS RMS supply (secondary) voltage
I S RMS supply (secondary) current
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Motor Performance
Harmonic Factor (HF) or
Total Harmonic Distortion Factor ; THD
1 1

I I
2 IS
2 2
2
2

HF 1
S S1

I S 1
2
I S1
Where
I S RMS value of input supply current.
I S 1 RMS value of fundamental component of
the i/p supply current.
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Input Power Factor (PF)
VS I S 1 I S1
PF cos cos
VS I S IS
The Crest Factor (CF)
I S peak Peak input supply current
CF
IS RMS input supply current
For an Ideal Controlled Rectifier
FF 1; 100% ; Vac Vr rms 0 ; TUF 1;
RF rv 0 ; HF THD 0; PF DPF 1
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