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RE-200-E1

ZXR10 Layer 2 technology——

Layer 2 Technology

V1122

ZTE University

Data Communication Group

ZTE University

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Objectives

working principle of switch/transparent switch VLAN,trunk,802.1q

ZTE University

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Working principles of

transparent bridge

Station A Segment A

Working principles of transparent bridge Station A Segment A 1/1 Segment B 1/2 Station B •
1/1
1/1
Segment B 1/2 Station B
Segment B
1/2
Station B

Switch has the same characteristics as transparent bridge

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ZTE University

The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.

Switch Functions

Switch Functions  Address learning  Forward/filter decision  Loop avoidance ZTE University The information contained

Address learning Forward/filter decision Loop avoidance

ZTE University

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How Switches Learn Host Locations

MAC address table

How Switches Learn Host Locations MAC address table E0 E1 A B 0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.3333 E2 E3
E0 E1
E0
E1
A B
A
B

0260.8c01.1111

0260.8c01.3333

E2 E3 C D
E2
E3
C
D

0260.8c01.2222

0260.8c01.4444

Initial MAC address table is empty

ZTE University

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How Switches Learn Hosts Locations

MAC address table

E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E0 E1
E0: 0260.8c01.1111
E0
E1
E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E0 E1 A 0260.8c01.1111 B 0260.8c01.3333 C E2 E3 D 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444
E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E0 E1 A 0260.8c01.1111 B 0260.8c01.3333 C E2 E3 D 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444
E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E0 E1 A 0260.8c01.1111 B 0260.8c01.3333 C E2 E3 D 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444
E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E0 E1 A 0260.8c01.1111 B 0260.8c01.3333 C E2 E3 D 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444
A
A

0260.8c01.1111

B
B

0260.8c01.3333

E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E0 E1 A 0260.8c01.1111 B 0260.8c01.3333 C E2 E3 D 0260.8c01.2222 0260.8c01.4444
C
C

E2

E3

D
D

0260.8c01.2222

0260.8c01.4444

Station A sends a frame to Station C

Switch caches station A MAC address to port E0 by learning the

source address of data frames

The frame from station A to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E0 (unknown unicasts are flooded)

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How Switches Learn Host Locations

MAC address table

E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E3: 0260.8c01.4444 E0 E1
E0: 0260.8c01.1111
E3: 0260.8c01.4444
E0
E1
A B
A
B
How Switches Learn Host Locations MAC address table E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E3: 0260.8c01.4444 E0 E1 A B

0260.8c01.1111

0260.8c01.3333

C E2 E3 D
C
E2
E3
D

0260.8c01.2222

0260.8c01.4444

Station D sends a frame to station C

Switch caches station D MAC address to port E3 by learning the

source Address of data frames

The frame from station D to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E3 (unknown unicasts are flooded)

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ZTE University

The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.

How Switches Filter Frames

MAC address table

E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E2: 0260.8c01.2222 A E1: 0260.8c01.3333 E3: 0260.8c01.4444 B 0260.8c01.1111 0260.8c01.3333 E0 E1 X X
E0: 0260.8c01.1111
E2: 0260.8c01.2222
A
E1: 0260.8c01.3333
E3: 0260.8c01.4444
B
0260.8c01.1111
0260.8c01.3333
E0
E1
X
X
C
D
E2
E3

0260.8c01.2222

0260.8c01.4444

  • Station A sends a frame to station C

  • Destination is known, frame is not flooded

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Broadcast and Multicast Frames
Broadcast and Multicast Frames

MAC address table

E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E2: 0260.8c01.2222 E1: 0260.8c01.3333 E3: 0260.8c01.4444 E0 E1
E0: 0260.8c01.1111
E2: 0260.8c01.2222
E1: 0260.8c01.3333
E3: 0260.8c01.4444
E0
E1
A B
A
B
Broadcast and Multicast Frames MAC address table E0: 0260.8c01.1111 E2: 0260.8c01.2222 E1: 0260.8c01.3333 E3: 0260.8c01.4444 E0

0260.8c01.1111

0260.8c01.3333

C E2 E3 D
C
E2
E3
D

0260.8c01.2222

0260.8c01.4444

Station D sends a broadcast or multicast frame Broadcast and multicast frames are flooded to all ports other than the originating port

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Objectives

working principle of switch/transparent switch VLAN,trunk,802.1q STP(Spanning tree protocol) IGMP Snooping

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Ethernet Broadcast Domain

Ethernet Broadcast Domain • In a flat network, every device sees every transmitted packet ZTE University

In a flat network, every device sees every transmitted packet

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VLANs

VLANs • A VLAN is a broadcast domain ZTE University The information contained in the file

A VLAN is a broadcast domain

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VLANs establish broadcast domain

Broadcast Domain 2 Broadcast Domain 1
Broadcast Domain 2
Broadcast Domain 1

VLANs plus routers limit broadcasts to the domain of origin

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VLAN Overview
VLAN Overview
3rd floor 2nd floor 1st floor SALES HR ENG
3rd floor
2nd floor
1st floor
SALES
HR
ENG

Segmentation

Flexibility

Security

A VLAN = A broadcast domain = Logical network (subnet)

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ZTE University

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VLAN Operations
VLAN Operations

Switch A

Red Black Green VLAN VLAN VLAN
Red
Black
Green
VLAN
VLAN
VLAN

Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical bridge

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VLAN Operations
VLAN Operations

Switch A

VLAN Operations Switch A Switch B Red Black Green Red Black Green VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN

Switch B

VLAN Operations Switch A Switch B Red Black Green Red Black Green VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN

Red

Black

Green

Red

Black

Green

VLAN

VLAN

VLAN

VLAN

VLAN

VLAN

Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical bridge VLANs can span across multiple switches

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VLAN Operations
VLAN Operations

Switch A

Switch B

Trunk Fast Ethernet Red Black Green Red Black Green VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN VLAN
Trunk
Fast Ethernet
Red
Black
Green
Red
Black
Green
VLAN
VLAN
VLAN
VLAN
VLAN
VLAN

Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical bridge VLANs can span across multiple switches Trunks carries traffic for multiple VLANs Trunks use special encapsulation to distinguish between different VLANs

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VLAN TYPES

Static VLAN

Dynamic VLAN

Port e0/4
Port e0/4
VLAN5
VLAN5
Port e0/9
Port e0/9

VMPS

Trunk

VLAN TYPES Static VLAN Dynamic VLAN Port e0/4 VLAN5 Port e0/9 VMPS Trunk VLAN10 1111.1111.1111 =
VLAN10
VLAN10

1111.1111.1111 = vlan 10

MAC = 1111.1111.1111

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Link Types

Link Types Access Links • An access link is a link that is a member of

Access Links

Link Types Access Links • An access link is a link that is a member of
Link Types Access Links • An access link is a link that is a member of
Link Types Access Links • An access link is a link that is a member of

An access link is a link that is a member of only one VLAN

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Link Types (Cont.)

Link Types (Cont.) Trunk Links • A trunk link is capable of carrying multiple VLANs ZTE

Trunk Links

A trunk link is capable of carrying multiple VLANs

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VLAN Frame Identification

VLAN1

VLAN1 VLAN2 VLAN3 Backbone VLAN1 VLAN3 VLAN2 VLAN3 VLAN2
VLAN1 VLAN2 VLAN3
Backbone
VLAN1
VLAN3
VLAN2
VLAN3
VLAN2

Specifically developed for multi-VLAN, inter-switch communications Places a unique identifier in header of each frame Functions at Layer 2

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VLAN Identification Methods

Green Green Fast Ethernet Blue Blue Green Blue Red Red Red RED VLAN RED VLAN
Green
Green
Fast Ethernet
Blue
Blue
Green
Blue
Red
Red
Red
RED VLAN
RED VLAN

Packets traversing a shared backbone carry VLAN identification within the packet header

VLAN Identification Options:

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Cisco ISL IEEE 802.1Q

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VLAN Identification Using IEEE 802.1Q

Initial MAC

2-Byte TPID

Initial Type/Data

 

New CRC

Address

2-Byte TCI

2-byte tag protocol identifier (TPID)

o A fixed value of 0x8100. This TPID value indicates that the frame carries the 802.1Q/802.1p tag information.

2-byte tag control information (TCI)

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802.1q Tagging

802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone

Performed with ASIC

802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
   
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added

VLAN Tag added

by incoming port

Not intrusive to client

stations, client does not see the 802.1q header

Effective between switches, routers and switches,

switches and servers with 802.1q network interface

802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added

Tagged Link

carries VLAN

identifier

802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
   
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added

cards

802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added

VLAN Tag stripped by forwarding port

ZTE University

802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added
802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added

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802.1q Tagging 802.1Q trunks enable VLANs across a backbone  Performed with ASIC VLAN Tag added

VLAN Configuration Example1

VLAN Configuration Example1 Port 1 of switch A and port 2 of switch B belongs to
VLAN Configuration Example1 Port 1 of switch A and port 2 of switch B belongs to

Port 1 of switch A and port 2 of switch B belongs to VLAN2, port 3 of switch A and port 4 of switch B belongs to VLAN3

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VLAN Configuration Example3

VLAN Configuration Example3 Overlap VLAN Port 1,2,3 be separated with each other,but they all can visit
  • Overlap VLAN

  • Port 1,2,3 be separated with each other,but they all can visit the server

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Review

working principle of switch/transparent switch VLAN,trunk,802.1q

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