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Organizational

Communication
NALAL MUNA, S.I.KOM, M.B.A
Organizational Communication

Organizational Communication:
Focuses on getting work done and meeting organizational goals
Focuses on change and adaptation
Focuses on social aspects and motivation of individuals
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMUNICATION

On the Basis of channel of communication ( Formal and Informal )


On the Basis of Direction ( Downward , Upward , Lateral and Diagonal )
On the Basis of Medium ( Verbal and Non verbal
Formal Communication
refers to the communication that takes place within prescribed organizational
work arrangements. Example: A manager asking his employee to complete a
task
Informal Communication
refers to the communication not defined by the organizations structural
hierarchy. Example : employees talking to each other in the lunch room
General Manager

Marketing Manager Production Manager Finance Manager

Sales Promotion Factory R&D Accounting Finance

EMPLOYEES
Formal Channels

The four formal channels of communication are downward, upward,


horizontal and diagonal
Downward
Flows from higher to lower levels
Key aspectsubordinates react most effectively to those matters judged to be of the
greatest interest to the boss
Selective screening is a problem
Example forms: job instructions, memos, policies, procedures, manuals, etc.
General
ManajerManager

Umum

Manajer
Marketing Manager Manajer
Production Manager Manajer
Finance Manager
Pemasaran Produksi Keuangan

Sales
Bagian Bagian
Bagian Bagian
Bagian Finance
Bagian
Promotion Bagian
Factory R&D Accounting Bagian
Bagian
Penjualan penelitian
penelitian Akuntansi
Akuntansi pendanaan
pendanaan
promosi pabrik

EMPLOYEES
KARYAWAN
KARYAWAN
Formal Channels (cont.)

Upward
Flows from lower to higher levels
Most ineffective of the three channels
Employees need opportunities to be:
Heard
Anonymous
Example devices: suggestion boxes, group meetings, participative decision
making, grievance procedures, etc.
Horizontal
Flows from one level to an equal level
Necessary for coordination of diverse organizational functions
Most effective of the three channels
Example devices: Internet, corporate intranets
General Manager
Manajer
Umum

Marketing Manager
Manajer Production Manager
Manajer Finance Manager
Manajer
Pemasaran Produksi Keuangan

Sales
Bagian Promotion Factory R&D Accounting Finance
Bagian Bagian Bagian Bagian Bagian
penjualan promosi pabrik penelitian Akuntansi pendanaan

EMPLOYEES
KARYAWAN
Diagonal
Flows from one level to different level in different division
Necessary for coordination of diverse organizational functions
Most effective of the three channels
Example : memos,
General Manager
Manajer
Umum

Marketing Manager Production Manager Finance Manager


Manajer Manajer Manajer
Pemasaran Produksi Keuangan

Bagian
Sales Bagian Bagian Bagian Bagian Bagian
penjualan Promotion Factory R&D Accounting Finance
promosi pabrik penelitian Akuntansi pendanaan

KARYAWAN
EMPLOYEES
Informal Channels

Communications within organizations do not necessarily follow


the formal pathways
Many organizations have extensive networks of informal
communications
Since they are ingrained into organizational life, managers should
heed and use them to benefit programs, policies, or plans
Elements of informal channels are:
Grapevine75% accurate
Rumorunverified belief in general circulation
Function of Communication

Informative
Regulative
Persuasive
Integrative
Organization Communication
Channel

Internal Communication with people inside the organization


Memo, bulletin board
External Communication with people outside the organization
Ex: Letter
Media

Oral Communication
Face-to-face, telephone (intercom)
Written
Email, letter, fax
Oral Communication

Advantages Disadvantages
- Quick - No Record
- Instant Feedback - Maybe Hard to
remember
Written Communication

Advantages Disadvantages
- Record kept - No Instant
- Dont have to Feedback
remember - May not be
everything confidential
Consideration in Choosing Media

Consideration in Choosing Media


1. Cost

Is the method cheap or dear?


2. Speed

How long will it take to reach its destination?


3. Secrecy

Is the method confidential?


4. Record

Will a copy of the information exist?


5. Destination

Is it internal or eksternal?

How far is it going?


Internet

E-mail
www
Teleconferencing

Up to 20 people can
talk together.
Video-conferencing

TV link up of sound & pictures for meetings without travel.


Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal communication travels from person to person in face-to-face


and group settings
It is the primary means (75%) of managerial communication
Communication problems can be traced to perceptual and interpersonal
style differences
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)

Interpersonal stylesthe way in which an individual prefers to relate to


othersdiffer among individuals
Good communicators learn to recognize their style and others styles as
well as how to modify their style for effective communication
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)

Since interpersonal communications is largely focused on transmitting


information from one person to another, the different combinations of
knowing and not knowing the necessary facts affects communication.
The four combinations of information known and unknown by self and
others are:
The arena
The area most conducive to effective interpersonal relationships and communications
All information is known to both the sender and receiver
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)

The blind spot


Information is known to receiver but not to sender
Selective perception is related to blind-spot problems
The faade
Information is known to sender but unknown to receiver
The unknown
Information is unknown by everyone

Interpersonal communications can be improved by using:


Exposurebe open and honest in sharing information
Feedbacksender must listen and receiver must respond
Types of Interpersonal Communication

Two types of interpersonal communication are verbal and non-


verbal
Verbal
Oral communication
Conversations in person, telephone, etc.
Major benefitsideas can be interchanged, prompt feedback can be
provided, allows use of gestures, facial expressions, and other emotions
such as tone or voice
Can result in poor communicationimmediacy, not well thought out, not
clearly encoded, noise in the process
Types of Interpersonal Communication
(cont.)

Written communication
Major benefitsallows sender to think about message, reread it, have
others review it, provides a record of the communication
Major drawbackstakes more time to prepare, no interaction, no
immediate feedback, discourages open communication

Non-verbal
Sending and receiving messages by some medium
other than verbal or written
93% of message is via non-verbal content
Examples: voice, face, body, proxemics
Sources

Professional Development Service for Teacher


Western Oregon University Material