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Rigging, Signals, Power

Line Safety & Assembly /

Disassembly in
Construction Safety
Standard WAC 296-155

Chuck Lemon
Crane Safety Manager
Topics to be Covered

Crane Requirements for Const.

Rigging & Signal Person
Part L Changes
Power Line Requirements
Assembly / Disassembly
296-155-Part L
Phase 1- Effective January 1, 2010 (Crane Safety Rule)

Crane Certification
Operator Certification
Crane Types
Includes: Mobile, Articulating, Tower cranes
when used in the construction industry
296-155-Part L
Cranes Included (performing construction activities)
Mobile Cranes Crawler Cranes
Lattice Boom Hydraulic Telescoping Boom
Articulating Rough Terrain Cranes
Tower Cranes Self Erecting Tower Cranes
Derricks Digger Derricks
Exempt (crane certification and operator certification)
Cranes <2000 # capacity Backhoes
Automobile Wreckers Pump Hoists
Forklifts Dedicated Drilling Rig
Permanently installed overhead/bridge cranes
Washington State Crane Rule
Phase 2- Effective February 1, 2012
WAC 296-155, Safety Standards for Construction Workers,
Part L
As effective as OSHA
Incorporated Latest ASME Requirements for Slings and
Rigging Hardware
270 pages
296-155 Part L
Table of Contents (Readers Digest Version)
Crane certification Duties of assigned personnel
Crane proof load testing- Assembly/disassembly
requirements Mobile, Tower, Articulating Overhead
Crane certifier qualifications and cranes , and Derricks
accreditation Wire Rope Inspections
Crane Operator qualifications and Power line safety
certification Training
Signals and Signal person Safety devices and Operational aids
Personnel lifting requirements
Rigging and Rigger qualifications
Rigging and rigging hardware
Crane inspection and operational
Signal Persons Qualifications 296-155-53302
Signal Person (Required as of Feb 1, 2012)
This applies to construction activities which involve cranes,
derricks, and powered industrial trucks which have been
configured to hoist and lower by means of a winch or hook

A Qualified Signal Person is required when:

Point of operation is not in full view of operator
View of direction of travel is obstructed
Site specific safety concerns which the operator or
person handling the load determines it necessary
working near energized power lines and a dedicated
spotter is used, this spotter must also be a qualified
signal person
Signal Person Qualifications

Qualification Requirements:
Know and understand the type(s) of signals
which will be used
Competent in the application of the type of
signals used
Have a basic understanding of equipment
operation and limitations, crane dynamics, and
boom deflection
Signal Person Qualifications

As of February 1st, 2012

Qualification Requirements:
Verbal or written test
AND practical test

Documentation from qualified evaluator

must be on site
A Third Party Qualified Evaluator
An Employer Qualified Evaluator

Employer qualification is not portable

Qualified Rigger (296-155-53306)
What did the Rule say Before?
WAC 296-155-329 Qualified person Rigging.
Qualified person A person who, by possession of a
recognized degree or certificate of professional
standing, or who, by extensive knowledge, training,
and experience, has successfully demonstrated the
ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the
subject matter. Also has authorization or authority by
the nature of their position to take prompt corrective
measures to eliminate them. The person shall be
knowledgeable in the requirements of this part.
Riggers (contd)
Qualification Requirements:
Know and understand the
requirements of applicable ASME
standards (such as B30.9,Slings
and B30.26, Rigging Hardware)
Know and understand the type of
sling and hitches used including
removal criteria for rigging gear
Be competent in the application of
the type of hitches used
Riggers (contd)
Qualification Requirements:
Basic understanding of the applicable
slings, rigging hardware, winch,
below-the-hook lifting devices and
their limitations
Know and understand rigging related
conditions, such as load weight
estimation, center of gravity, effect of
angles on rigging components and
basic hand signals, as applicable.
Riggers (contd)
Qualification Documents:
(July 31, 2012) Changed to:
(February 1, 2013)
Written and Practical test
Documentation from qualified
evaluator must be on site
A Third Party Qualified Evaluator
An Employer Qualified Evaluator
Employer's qualification is not
Qualified Rigger
When required:
During hoisting activities while Assembling or
Disassembling a crane or derrick
Whenever workers are :
Hooking, unhooking, guiding the load or
in the initial connection of a load to a component or
structure and are within the fall zone
This applies to all construction material handling
activities, including cranes, derricks, powered industrial
trucks, excavators, backhoes , loaders, come-a-longs,
chain falls, etc. The Department is looking at developing a
separate set of requirements for Material Handling not
involving Cranes.
Qualified Riggers and Signal Persons
The employer must make the documentation for whichever option is used
available at the site while the rigger or signal person is employed by the
The documentation must specify each type of rigging and signaling type
The documentation must specify each type of signaling
Sample Documentation
Qualified Rigger________________________________ Qualified Signal Person__________________________
Date _______________________ Date _______________________
Rigging Type: Rigging Hardware: Signaling Type: Crane Type:
Chain Slings Shackles Voice Mobile
Wire Rope Turnbuckles Hand Tower
Synthetic Eye Bolts Radio Articulating
Metal Mesh Wire Rope Clips Other_______________ Overhead

Third Party Evaluator Third Party Evaluator _________________________

__________________________ Employer Evaluator ___________________________
Employer Evaluator ___________________________ Evaluator Signature ___________________________
Evaluator Signature___________________________ Evaluator
Evaluator Company____________________________
Power Line Safety 296-155-53408
Power Line Safety Requirements
If the crane, load, or rigging could get closer than 20/50 feet to an
energized power line there are new safety requirements which
If the crane, load, or rigging can not get closer than 20/50 feet to the
power line even if the crane is operated at its maximum working
radius, the 20/50-foot requirement is satisfied.

Minimum approach distance:

Up to 350kv 20 Feet
Over 350KV 50 Feet
Power Line Safety Requirements
(Part L before 2/1/2012)
For energized power lines rated at or
below 50kV the minimum approach
distance shall be 10 ft.

For lines rated over 50 kV., minimum

clearance between the lines and any
part of the crane or load shall be 10
feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kV.
over 50 kV., or twice the length of the
line insulator, but never less than 10
Power Line Safety Requirements
(Table 4)

Minimum Clearance Distances Table

at was
Voltage Minimum clearance distance
up to 50 (kV) 10 (feet)
over 50 to 200 15
over 200 to 345 20
over 345 to 500 25
over 500 to 750 35
over 750 to 1,000 45
Power Line Safety Requirements

Identify the Work Zone

Define the work zone by
demarcating boundaries
such as flags, or a device
such as a range limit
device or a range control
warning device and
prohibiting the operator
from operating past those
boundaries. te F
If the crane or load COULD get closer than 20/50
feet of Power Lines in the Work Zone
Crane operations near power
lines, use one of 3 Options
Option 1 - Deenergize & Ground
Power lines
Option 2 - Maintain 20/50 foot
Option 3 - Obtain power line
voltage from Utility Owner/Operator
and ensure the crane or rigging
does not get closer than the
distances listed in Table 4
Power Line Safety Requirements
Options 2 and 3 require the following:
Conduct a planning meeting with crane
operator, & all workers who will be in the area
of crane & load
This meeting must address the location of the
power lines and the steps that will be
implemented to prevent encroachment-
If tag lines are used they must be
Erect elevated warning line, barricade, or line
of signs, in view of the operator, equipped with
flags or similar high-visibility markings
(opt 2 = 20/50 feet; opt 3 = Table 4)
Nonconductive means that, because of the
nature and condition of the materials used,
and the conditions of use (including
environmental conditions and condition of the
material), the object in question has the
property of not becoming energized (that is, it
has high dielectric properties offering a high
resistance to the passage of current under the
conditions of use).
Power Line Safety Requirements
Options 2 and 3 also requires at
least one of the following:
Proximity Alarm *
Dedicated Spotter that is also a
Qualified Signal Person
Range Control Warning Device
Range Movement Limiter
Insulating Link *
* Currently, Proximity alarms
and Insulating Links do not
meet the National Recognized
Testing Laboratory (NRTL)
Power Line Safety Requirements
If Dedicated Spotter is used, 5 rqmt.
must be met:
1. Spotter must be in continuous contact
with operator
2. Be equipped with a visual aid to assist
in identifying minimum clearance
Examples of visual aid include:
Clearly visible line painted on
ground, clearly visible line of
stations, line-of-site landmarks (such
as a fence post and building corner)
Power Line Safety Requirements
If Dedicated Spotter is used cont.:
3. Be positioned to effectively gauge
the clearance distance
4. Where necessary, use equipment
that enables spotter to communicate
directly with operator, such as radio
or telephone
5. Give timely information to the
operator so that the required
clearance distance can be
Could you get within 20
feet of a power line?


Option #1
Deenergize &
No Further
Option #2 Prevention Measures
Clearance Planning Meeting
If Tag Lines are Used, They Must
Option #3 be Nonconductive
Ask Utility for Elevated Warning Lines,
Voltage and Barricades, or Line of Signs
Use Table 4
(with minimum PLUS (Choose One):
clearance distance)
Proximity Alarm*, Spotter, Range
Control Warning Device, Range
Limiter, or Insulating Link*
Operation INSIDE Table 4
ALL of the following MUST be met: (41 items)
Notify Crane Safety Program at L&I
(360) 902-4943 or
Employer determines it is infeasible to perform
job without breaching minimum approach
After consultation with utility owner/operator it is
determined infeasible to deenergize & ground
power lines or relocate the power lines
Operation INSIDE Table 4 cont.
Power Line owner/operator determines the
minimum clearance distance
Hold a planning meeting with utility
owner/operator to determine the procedures
to be followed in order to prevent electrical
contact procedures must include:
Deactivation of device that automatically
reenergizes circuit in event of power line contact
Employ a dedicated spotter Spotter must:
Operation INSIDE Table 4 cont.
Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in
identifying the minimum clearance distance
Be positioned to effectively gauge clearance
Use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter
to communicate directly with the operator
Give timely information to the operator
Dedicated spotter must be a Qualified Signal
Person (see WAC 296-155-53302)
Operation INSIDE Table 4 cont.
Have an elevated warning line in view of the
operator with high-visibility flags
Use an insulating link* installed at a point
between the end of the load line and the load
All employees who may come into contact
with the equipment must wear gloves rated for
the voltage involved
Use nonconductive rigging
Operation INSIDE Table 4 cont.
Use range limiter (if equipped) that is set to
prevent breaching minimum clearance
If tag line is used it must be nonconductive
Barricade a perimeter at least 10 feet away
from crane to prevent unauthorized entry
Employees must be prohibited from touching
the load line above the insulating link
Operation INSIDE Table 4 cont.
Only essential employees are permitted in the
area of the crane and load
The crane must be properly grounded
Insulating line hose or cover-up must be
installed by the utility owner/operator
Procedures are documented and available on-
The following personnel must meet with the
utility owner/operator to discuss procedures:
Operation INSIDE Table 4 cont.
Crane user, crane operator, ALL workers that will be
in the area of the crane or load
Employer must ensure procedures are
Employer must identify one person who will
direct the implementation of the procedures
If a problem occurs implementing the
procedures or it is found that the procedures
are inadequate, new procedures must be
developed or deenergize power lines
Operation INSIDE Table 4 cont.
All safety devices, operational aids must meet
manufacturers procedures for use
The employer must train each employee and
crew member assigned to work with the crane
as follows:
Procedures to be followed to prevent electrical
Information regarding the danger of electrocution
from the operator simultaneously touching the
crane and ground
Operation INSIDE Table 4 cont.
The importance of the operator remaining inside
the cab except where imminent danger of fire,
explosion, or other emergency that necessitates
leaving the cab
The safest means of evacuating from the crane
that may be energized
The danger of potentially energized zone around
the crane (step potential)
The need for crew in the area to avoid approaching
or touching the crane or load
Operation INSIDE Table 4 cont.
Safe clearance distance from power lines
Power lines are presumed energized unless utility
owner/operator confirms them insulated
The limitations of an insulating link, proximity
alarm, and range control device
The procedures to be followed to properly ground
crane and limitations of grounding
Power Line Safety
Crane assembly/disassembly below energized power lines is prohibited.

Crane assembly/disassembly inside Table 4 is prohibited.

Non-Exempt Crane Exempt Excavator Excavator Forklift W/O Forklift W
Crane 52900-53300 W /rigging W/O rigging attachment hook winch

Crane Follow Follow

Certification Yes N/A EXEMPT EXEMPT 296-863 296-863
Operator Follow Follow
Certification Yes N/A EXEMPT EXEMPT 296-863 296-863
**Qualified When When When When When When
Rigger ** Required Required Required Required Required Required
53306 296-155-55600(1) 296-155-55600(1) 296-155-55600(1) 296-155-55600(1) 296-155-55600(1) 296-155-55600(1)

**Qualified When When When

Signal Required Required EXEMPT EXEMPT EXEMPT Required
Person ** 296-155-53406(1) 296-155-53406(1) 296-155-53406(1)
Power Line
296-155 Applicable Applicable EXEMPT EXEMPT EXEMPT Applicable
Part L
Power Line
296-155 N/A N/A Applicable Applicable Applicable N/A
Part I
Power Lines
Certification 296-155-Part L or Part I


Qualified Rigger
Qualified Signal Person
(Part L 53306)
(Part L 53302)
? ?
Power Lines Operator
296-155-Part L or Part I Certification Qualified Rigger
(Part L 53306)
Equipment ?
Qualified Signal Person Certification
(Part L 53302)

Responsibilities: Duties of Assigned Personnel
Crane Owner: has custodial control of the crane by
virtue of lease or ownership
Crane User: arranges the cranes presence on a
worksite and controls its use there
Site Supervisor: exercises supervisory control over
the work site on which a crane is being used and over
the work that is being performed on that site
Lift Director: directly oversees the work being
performed by a crane and the associated rigging crew
Crane Operator: directly controls the cranes
Crane assembly or disassembly must be
controlled by an Assembly/Disassembly (A/D)
Must comply with:
Manufacturer procedures,
Employer procedures, which must be
developed by a qualified
Preassembly inspection.
Prior to assembling crane components or attachments
the A/D director must visually inspect the components
and attachments to ensure:
Sound physical condition
Meet manufacturers recommendations
Functional per manufacturer's recommendations
Documentation of this inspection must remain at
the job site while the crane/derrick is in use.
Assembly/Disassembly Procedures
Assembly/Disassembly procedures must address:
Ways to prevent unintended dangerous movement or
collapse of any part of the equipment;
Adequate support and stability of all parts of the equipment;
Positioning employees involved in the assembly/disassembly
operation that will minimize their exposure to unintended
movement or collapse of the equipment.
The A/D director must follow any manufacturer
prohibitions that apply to the assembly/disassembly
Assembly/Disassembly Director
Crane assembly or disassembly must be controlled by
an Assembly/Disassembly Director.

An assembly/disassembly director is an individual

who meets the criteria for both a competent person
and a qualified person, or by a competent person
who is assisted by one or more qualified persons.

The A/D director must know & understand the

applicable assembly/disassembly procedures.
Assembly/Disassembly Director

The A/D director must ensure that the crew

members understand all of the following:
Their tasks
The hazards associated with their tasks
The hazardous positions & locations that they need
to avoid
Assembly/Disassembly Director
Assembly/Disassembly Director must cover
12 Key Hazards with their crew:
1. Adequate site and ground conditions
2. Sufficient blocking for load and stability
3. Suitable boom and jib pick points
4. Identify center of gravity
5. Stability for pin removal
6. Consider wind speed and weather
Assembly/Disassembly Director
12 Key Hazards (continued):
7. The suitability of blocking material
8. Verification of the loads for assist cranes
9. Snagging of cables or components
10. Struck by counterweights
11. Boom hoist brake failure
12. Loss of backwards stability
Personnel Lifting Platforms 296-155-547
20 Pages
Personnel Lift Design
Personnel Lifting Hoisting Equipment
Crane Derrick Requirements
Inspections (Platform and Cranes)
Lift proof Load Tests
Trial Lift
Crane Operation Requirements
Employers Responsibilities
Personnel Lift Supervisors Responsibilities
Lifting Personnel
Rigging 296-155-556 - 562
70 Pages
Wire Rope
Metal Mesh
Synthetic Rope Slings, Web Slings, Round Slings
Maintenance & Repair
Rigging 296-155-556 - 562
Rigging Hardware
Eyebolts & Eye Nuts
Swivel Hoist Rings
Wire Rope Clips
Wedge Sockets

Maintenance & Repair
Rigging 296-155-556 - 562
Lifting Device by Types
Structural & Mechanical Lifters
Vacuum Lifters
Lifting Magnets
Maintenance & Repair

Chuck Lemon