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AIR TANAH

Amien Widodo
LATAR BELAKANG
Air merupakan kebutuhan yang sangat penting bagi
kehidupan langsung maupun tidak langsung.
Kebutuhan air secara langsung bagi kehidupan
manusia adalah sebagai air minum, air bersih untuk
memasak, mandi, dan mencuci,
untuk kepentingan secara tidak langsung adalah
sebagai pememenuhan sarana prasarana seperti
untuk industri, pertanian, perhubungan dan lainnya.
Air sehari-hari yang dipergunakan diperoleh dari
sumur, mataair, sungai, danau, dan tampungan hujan.
LATAR BELAKANG
Keterdapatan air di suatu daerah dipengaruhi oleh
kondisi curah hujan, kondisi geologi dan tutupan
lahan di masing-masing daerah.
daerah yang mempunyai curah hujan kecil umumnya
pada musim kemarau air permukaan menjadi langka,
sehingga untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air dengan
mengandalkan airtanah.
daerah yang mempunyai batuan yang padu dan
batugamping pada umumnya merupakan daerah yang
sulit air, baik air tanah maupun air hujan, sehingga
untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air bersih dengan
membuat tampungan air hujan atau mengambil dari
sumber air yang letaknya kadang mencapai kiloan
meter.
Gambar 1 Siklus air tanah
1
2

Gambar 3 Prosesi masuknya air hujan ke akifer


HUJAN EVAPOTRANSPIRASI
(P) (E)

P=E+G+R SURPLUS (R)


Sebagai aliran
permukaan
TOTAL
ALIRAN
Zona lengas tanah
PERMUKAAN
(Soil-moisture zone) IMBUHAN PEMANFAA
(G) TAN (- G)
Zona tengah/kapiler SURPLUS (R)
(Intermediate/cappilary Zone) Sebagai air tanah
Zona air tanah
(Groundwater Zone) AIR TANAH Aliran
air tanah

Gambar 2 Skema diagram keseimbangan air tanah


Natural Factors Affecting
Groundwater Occurrence
CLIMATE
VEGETATION
TOPOGRAPHY
ROCK POROSITY
Effect of Climate to the
Groundwater Occurrence
Effect of Vegetation Cover on
Groundwater Occurrence
Effect of Topography on
Groundwater Occurrence
Effect of Rocks Porosity on
Groundwater Occurrence
Groundwater occurrence in rocks
Vertical zones of subsurface
water

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Characteristics of water in
unsaturated zone

CAPILLARY RISE

2r
hc

2
hc = r cos
Capillary Rise in Unconsolidated
Materials
MATERIAL Capillary Rise
(cm)
Fine Gravel 2.5
Very Coarse Sand 6.5
Coarse sand 13.5
Medium sand 24.6
Fine sand 42.8
Silt 105.5
Porosity
Porosity of Rocks
Fracture Porosity
Porosity, Sr and Sy
Relation between Porosity, Sr and Sy
Rock properties affecting groundwater
Type of Aquifer
Groundwater -- Recharge and Discharge
Water is continually recycled through aquifer systems.
Groundwater recharge is any water added to the aquifer zone.
Processes that contribute to groundwater recharge include
precipitation, streamflow, leakage (reservoirs, lakes,
aqueducts), and artificial means (injection wells).
Groundwater discharge is any process that removes water
from an aquifer system. Natural springs and artificial wells are
examples of discharge processes.
Groundwater supplies 30% of the water present in our
streams. Effluent streams act as discharge zones for
groundwater during dry seasons. This phenomenon is known as
base flow. Groundwater overdraft reduces the base flow, which
results in the reduction of water supplied to our streams.
S. Hughes, 2003
Summary of Groundwater Systems
NOTE: Study each term, and the associated concepts and
geologic processes.

(from Keller, 2000, Figure 10.9)

S. Hughes, 2003
Groundwater Movement -- General Concepts
The water table is
actually a sloping (from Keller, 2000, Figure 10.6)
surface.
Slope (gradient) is
determined by the
difference in water
table elevation (h)
over a specified
distance (L).
Direction of flow is
downslope.
Flow rate depends on
the gradient and the
properties of the
aquifer. S. Hughes, 2003
Groundwater Movement -- Cone of Depression

(from Keller, 2000, Figure 10.10)

Water table

flow flow
Cone of depression

Pumping water from a well causes a cone of depression to


form in the water table at the well site.
S. Hughes, 2003
Occurrence of groundwater

River valley area Water


Course Area
Abandoned/Buried Valley
Extensive Plain
Intermontane Valley
Example: Buried Valley
Example: Extensive Plain
Example: Intermontane Valley

Groundwater Fluctuation

There are several causes of groundwater


fluctuation:
(1). Groundwater abstraction/pumping
(2). Variation of the groundwater flow
(3). Evaporation Transpiration
(4). External load
(5). Tide level
Relation between groundwater and
surface water

(Source: Winter et al., 1980)


SPRING
A spring is concentrated discharge of
groundwater appearing at ground surface as
current of flowing water
To be distinguished from springs are seepage
areas, which indicate a slower movement of
groundwater to the ground surface.

Spring can be divided into :


(1) those resulting from non-gravitational
forces
(2) those resulting from gravitational forces
Non-gravitional Springs

Example: Geysers hot water springs


Type of Gravitional Springs
Depression Spring

Contact Spring

Fracture Artesian Spring

Solution Tubular Spring


Relation between gravitional spring
discharge, recharge and spring catchment
area

100 km2 700 mm/a


750 mm/a

2563 lt/sec 3733 lt/sec

(Source of diagram: Todd, 1980)


Springs Classification
Magnitude Mean Discharge
1 > 10 m3/det
2 1 10 m3/det
3 0.1 1 m3/det
4 10 - 100 l/det
5 1 10 l/det
6 0.1 1 l/det
7 10 -100 ml/det
8 in Todd, 1980)
(Source: Meinzer < 10 ml/det
Groundwater Overdraft
Overpumping will have two effects:
1. Changes the groundwater flow
direction.
2. Lowers the water table, making it
necessary to dig a deeper well.
This is a leading cause for
desertification in some areas.
Original land users and land owners
often spend lots of money to drill new,
deeper wells.
Streams become permanently dry.

S. Hughes, 2003
Gambar intrusi air laut
Gambar pencemaran minyak
Gambar 9 Prosesi septik tank atau resapan masuk ke dalam air tanah
Gambar 10 Pencemaran air tanah akibat perkembangan penduduk dan teknologi