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Sistem Informasi Geografis

Manajemen Basis Data dalam SIG

Aurelio Rahmadian
Sistem Manajemen Basis Data SIG
SIG merupakan perangkat pengelolaan basis
data (DBMS = Data Base Management
System) dimana interaksi dengan pemakai
dilakukan dengan suatu sistem antar muka
dan sistem query dan basis data dibangun
untuk aplikasi multiuser.
SIG merupakan perangkat analisis keruangan
(spatial analysis) dengan kelebihan dapat
mengelola data spasial dan data non-spasial
sekaligus.
Sistem Manajemen Basis Data SIG
Syarat pengorganisasian
data:
Volum kecil dengan klasifikasi data
yang baik;
Penyajian yang akurat;
Mudah dan cepat dalam pencarian
kembali (data retrieval) dan
penggabungan (proses komposit).
Tipe Data
Data lokasi:
Koordinat lokasi
Nama lokasi
Lokasi topologi (letak relatif: sebelah kiri danau A, sebelah kanan
pertokoan B)
Data non-lokasi:
Curah hujan
Jumlah panen padi
Terdiri dari variabel (tanah), kelas (alluvial), nilai luas (10 ha), jenis
(pasir)
Data dimensi waktu (temporal):
Data non-lokasi di lokasi bersangkutan dapat berubah dengan
waktu (misal: data curah hujan bulan Desember akan berbeda
dengan bulan Juli)
Desain Konseptual
Data Model
A data model is a formal specification for the
entities, their attributes and all relationships
between the entities for the GIS.
The purpose of a data model is to make it
possible for both user and GIS analyst agree
on the data definitions which is represented
completely rigorous and unambiguous fashion.
Desain Konseptual
Simple Entity
Building Located on Parcel Relationship
(E-R) Diagram

Entities represented as
Resides Owned rectangles,
by relationship as
Shelf diamonds and
attributes as ellipses.
Upper Plateau
Slope
Occupant Joe Jonesor Owner Apex Co.
Terrace Lower Deep
Slope Rise Ocean
Desain Konseptual
E-R Model 3. Rules for identifying
1. Parts of E-R Model: entities, relationships,
and attributes:
Entities;
Relationships between entities; A common noun corresponds
Attributes of entities or relationships. to an entity type;
A transitive verb corresponds
2. Types of normal relationships: to a relationship type;
An adjective corresponds to
Belonging to; an attribute type.
Set and subset relationships;
Parent-child relationships;
Component parts of an object.
Desain Konseptual
Each entity and its attribute map into one or more relational
tables.

Bangunan kantor
Area terbangun Bangunan rumah sakit Koordinat Letak
Bangunan sekolah Luas
Bangunan pertokoan Milik
Rise

Each relationship is a regular relationship executed by the


relational database query system or a spatial relationship and
if it is not a standard operation then the indicated operation
which usually includes a complex computation need to be
written (using Avenue Script/Macro Language).
Desain Konseptual
Metadata is information about data: (i) describe the
characteristics of the data (entity and attributes) using its
standard name, and (ii) provide information on its accuracy
and its source and its archiving provision.
Important functions of metadata: provide (i) a basic data
description of a data set; (ii) information for data transfer /
sharing; (iii) information for entries into clearinghouses to
catalogue the availability of data.
Metadata should serve as: (i) a documentation and data
management tool; (ii) data definition, source documentation,
management and updating, data archiving and retention
requirement; (iii) information to support database
description for spatial data clearinghouses.
Desain Konseptual
An example of metadata tables:
1. Organization Information 2. Reference Information 5. Attribute Information
Name of Organization Filename Data Object Name
Department File Format Data Attribute Name
Room/Suite# Availability Attribute Description
Number & Street Name Cost Attribute Filename
City File Internet Address Code Set Name
State Metadata Created By Code Set Description
Zip Code Date Metada Created Measurement units
Shelf
Phone Number Metadata Updated By Accuracy Description
Fax Number Date Metadata Updated Comments
Upper Plateau
Contact Person
Slope Metadata Standard Name
or
Extension Number Terrace Comments
Lower Deep
E-mail Address Slope Rise Ocean
Internet Address
Comments
Perencanaan DB
The quality of information
Information is stored in a database;
Bad construction and data error will give Garbage instead
of Geographic Information System;
What kind of map projection will be used;
What scale is the data;
What is the coverage;
How much attribution should be included;
What is the attribute data format;
What is the data reliability;
How fast is it to be retrieved.
Perencanaan DB
Information required for database design:
A complete list of data, properly defined and
checked for validity and consistency (from the master
data list, E-R data model, and metadata entries);
A list of potential data source (maps, aerial photos,
tabular files, digital files) cataloged and evaluated for
accuracy and completeness (from available data
survey);
The list of functional capabilities required from the
GIS (from needs assessment). Such as visualization,
spatial analysis, statistical analysis and modeling.
Perencanaan DB

Entities,
Attributes,
and Spatial
Object
Plateau
or
Terrace Lower Deep
Slope Rise Ocean
Perencanaan DB
Plan for data sharing
Benefits of data sharing include: (i) the development
of much larger database for far less cost; (ii) the
development of more efficient interaction between
public agencies; and (iii) all agencies shared the same
up-to-date database / information.
Database maintenance requires two efforts: ongoing
user training (how to maintain the database) and
user support (who will be responsible for updating
which data).
Perencanaan DB
Designing the Database
Most of databases in GIS software packages
are based on the relational database model;
Two choices of using data table: as much data
in one table or small/compact data in one
table;
How you will represent the data: point, line,
polygon, network, etc.
Konstruksi DB
Database construction/conversion is the
process of building the digital database
from the source data - maps and tabular
files.
The main emphasis is management of the
activity and quality assurance / quality
control of the converted data.
Konstruksi DB
Data Conversion
Manual digitizing using a digitizing tablet and cursor
tool (puck);
Scanning (converts lines and text into series of
pixels);
Raster to Vector Conversion (convert series of pixels
into series of (x,y) coordinates points), this facility is
usually provided by a GIS software;
Hybrid solution (overlaying vector format data with
an image provides a powerful graphic display tool;
Konstuksi DB
Map graphics represent all of the features (entities) on a map
as points, lines, areas, or pixels;
Tabular databases contain the attribute information which
describe the entities (building, parcel, etc.);
A common key (graphics data index) must be established
between the map graphics and the tabular database records
to create a link.
Graphics Data Index
Konstuksi DB
Raster Data (pixels)

Raster GIS Data

Graphics Grid / Raster Value Attribute Table

1 1 1 1 2 2 Cell Value Real World Entity


1 1 1 2 2 2
1 Lake
1 1 2 2 2 2
2 Wooded
1 3 3 3 3 2
3 Built-up
3 3 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3
Konstuksi DB
Vector GIS Data

Vector GIS Data

Vector GIS Polygon Layer Polygon Attribute Table

Polygon Identity Attribute


Numbet
2
1 1 Lake

2 Wooded

3 Built-up
3
Basis Data Relasional
Basis Data relasional menggunakan
tabel dua dimensi yang terdiri atas
baris dan kolom untuk memberi
gambaran sebuah berkas data.
Basis Data Relasional

MHS

NPM Nama Alamat


10296832 Nurhayati Jakarta
10296126 Astuti Jakarta
31296500 Budi Depok
41296525 Prananingrum Bogor

50096487 Pipit Bekasi


21196353 Quraish Bogor
Basis Data Relasional

MKUL
KDMK MTKULIAH SKS

KK021 P. Basis Data 2

KD132 SIM 3

KU122 Pancasila 2
Basis Data Relasional
NILAI

NPM KDMK MID FINAL

10296832 KK021 60 75

10296126 KD132 70 90

31296500 KK021 55 40

41296525 KU122 90 80

21196353 KU122 75 75

50095487 KD132 80 0

10296832 KD132 40 30
Basis Data Relasional
Keuntungan:
Bentuknya sederhana
Mudah melakukan berbagai operasi data
Basis Data Relasional

Sumber:
Dinar D.A. Putranto,
Pendekatan Basisdata
Berorientasi Obyek
untuk
Manajemen Tata Ruang
Kota,
Disertasi Doktor, ITB,
2000.
Hybrid & Integrated System
Pengertian 1: Struktur data vektor dan struktur data raster
dapat dipadukan pada suatu sistem, dengan melengkapi
fasilitas konversi vektor ke raster dan raster ke vektor. Selain
itu juga disediakan fungsi-fungsi untuk mengolah masing-
masing struktur data

Pengertian 2: Data SIG terdiri dari dua bentuk data: yaitu data
grafis yang menyatakan entitas obyek dan data attribut. Data
grafis yang terdiri dari data koordinat dan data topologi
disimpan di berkas yang terpisah dari data atribut. Data
atribut ditangani oleh database management system.
Penggabungan kedua tipe data dilakukan melalui suatu kode
identifikasi, misal kode identifikasi poligon, garis atau titik. Hal
yang sama juga dapat dilakukan linkage antara grid-cell
modules dengan database management system.

Pengertian 3: Operasional SIG secara keseluruhan yang


terdiri dari SIG software, CAD software, Image Processing
software, GPS software, Open-Source components, DBMS
system
Hybrid & Integrated System
Hybrid & Integrated System