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Complex Sentences

Starter:
What is a clause?
Learning Questions:
What can you remember
What is a complex sentence? about FANBOYS?
Why do we use complex sentence? How is a compound sentence
How do we use complex sentences? formed?
A complex sentence has:
The main clause makes
sense on its own. It is
A main clause usually a simple sentence.
If the subordinate clause
A subordinate clause comes first, you need to
use a comma. The subordinate clause
Here is an example: does not. It gives more
Although he was scared, he walked on. information about the
If the main clause comes
He walked on although he was scared. main
first,clause.
you do not usually
need a comma.
Remember this important point:

A subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence because it does


not provide a complete thought. The reader is left wondering, "So what
happened?"

Eg.
After Amy sneezed all over the tuna salad
Once Adam smashed the spider
Until Mr. Sanchez has his first cup of coffee
Who ate handfuls of Cheerios with his bare
hands
A complex sentence is like a truck and
trailer: The toe hitch on the
trailer is similar to the
comma when the
subordinate clause
comes first.

Subordinate clause
Main clause

The subordinate clause cannot function alone. It needs Much like a truck, the main clause
the main clause to make sense. Similarly, the trailer can function on its own. The trailer
needs the truck to move it. contains extra information.
The subordinate clause begins
with one of the following types
of words:

A subordinator
An adverb
A verb (usually an -ing word)
A relative pronoun
How do we use
subordinators
to form subordinate clauses?
TASK: TRY YOUR OWN! Can
Subordinators What they do Sample Sentences you use a different
although, while, even subordinator?
Although _____________,
he was scared, he__________________.
walked on.
though, even if, To show difference
whereas, though
He walked on although
_________________ although
he was ______________.
scared.

Because _____________,
I listen in lessons,_____________.
I will become wise.
because, since To give reasons
I will become wise
_____________ because
because
_____________.
I listen in lessons.

To, so that, in that, in So that _____________,


I get a good job, I_____________.
will work hard.
order that
To explain effects
I will work hard so
_____________ sothat
thatI_____________.
get a good job.

if, unless, provided To explain Unless _____________,


we work hard, we_____________.
will struggle.
that conditions We will struggle unless we
_____________ _____________.
work hard.
after, before, as soon Before _____________,
you leave today, check
_____________.
that you have
To show changes in
as, since, when, while,
until, time underlined your title.
_____________.
Check that you have underlined your title before
you leave today.
Subordinate clauses beginning with a
subordinator
When it snows, we pray for a day off school.
After learning how to use complex sentence, our writing will improve.
If you listen clearly to my instructions, you will learn to write well. TASK: In these examples,
Whether you like it or not, you will stay for a period 7 next week. the subordinate clause
Until I have made a good writer of you all, I will not be content. comes first, and the main
While watching the match, Charlie became furious. comes second. Can you
Although ______________, __________________________. swap them around? What
Because ____________________________, __________________ are the rules with
Before ____________________________, __________________ commas when we do
As ____________________________, __________________ this?
Though ____________________________, __________________
The subordinate clause begins
with one of the following types
of words:

A subordinator
A verb (usually an -ing word)
An adverb
A relative pronoun
How do we use
verb -ing words
to form subordinate clauses?
The rules are the exact same. In this case,
the verb ing word acts as a subordinator:
Going to X-scape, I ran into Mr. Gaulty.
Sitting on the beach, I met my future wife.
Playing C.O.D, I slayed my friend Lewis.
Having uploaded a video of myself singing, I was annihilated by trolls.
___ing ____________________________, ___________________
___ing ____________________________, ___________________
___ing ____________________________, ___________________
___ing ____________________________, ___________________

TASK: Can you swap the clauses around?


The subordinate clause begins
with one of the following types
of words:

A subordinator
A verb (usually an -ing word)
An adverb
A relative pronoun
How do we use
adverbs
to form subordinate clauses?
The rules are the exact same. In this case,
the adverb acts as a subordinator:
Cautiously, I tickled the lions belly.
Daintily,
Sadly,
Furiously,
TASK: Can you swap the
Depressingly, clauses around?
Beautifully,
________, __________________________
________, __________________________
________, __________________________
________, __________________________
The subordinate clause begins
with one of the following types
of words:

A subordinator
A verb (usually an -ing word)
An adverb
A relative pronoun
How do we use
relative pronouns
to form subordinate clauses?

These are tricky.


When we use
relative pronouns
to form subordinate clauses,
they are also referred to as
relative clauses.
Relative Pronouns
that who whose
which whoever whosever
whichever whom whomever
Subordinate clauses with a
relative pronoun:

In the noun being referred to in the main clause is a proper noun, then you need
to include a comma before the subordinate clause:

Nick gave a handful of crisps to Button, who was sniffing around the picnic tables.

In the noun in the main clause is a common or abstract noun, then you
do not need to include a comma before the subordinate clause:

Nick gave a handful of crisps to the dog who was sniffing around the picnic tables.
Which of the following relative subordinate clauses
require a comma:

I hid under the canopy of the willow tree which was over one hundred years old.
I hid under the Eiffel Tower which was a terrible hiding place.

I am going to the cinema with my friend who is a bit of a numpty.


I am going to the cinema with Roberto who is a real film buff.

I look forward to Friday evening with Octavius, whose adventurous nature has
become the stuff of legend.
I look forward to a weekend with my team whose form has recently been terrific.
Relative Pronouns
that who whose
which whoever whosever
whichever whom whomever
TASK: Try forming your own relative
subordinate clauses using the words
above
The subordinate clause begins
with one of the following types
of words:

A subordinator
A verb (usually an -ing word)
An adverb
A relative pronoun
Teacher to create a writing activity connected to current topic. Or

TASK:

Use a range of
complex
sentences to
describe the
following
characters.

Label the main


and subordinate
clauses.
Famous Complex Sentences from
Literature:
If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he
hears a different drummer. Henry David Thoreau

The Scarecrow and the Tin Woodman stood up in a corner and kept quiet all
night, although of course they could not sleep. L. Frank Baum

Because he was so small, Stuart was often hard to find around the house. E.B.
White

He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow. George
Eliot
Complex Sentences

Learning Questions:

What is a complex sentence?


Why do we use complex sentence?
How do we use complex sentences?