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Plant Design

Project
Group 12: The
Douve
Aini Fatihah Anuar Rizal 19174
Hussein Saqaff Alkaff 19496
Jennifer Ng Seow Yean 18880
Muhammad Rais Rosli 19461
Project Objectives
Conceptual process design for Offshore Floating Process
Plant
Capture and utilize abundance of CO2 in Natural Gas
(70%)
Plant requirements:
High value chemical product from CO2 (details process
design)
Prioritize in environment concerns
Low energy consumption
Safe plant operation
Best location as CO2 source
Determine plant capacity
Utilization of CO2
Process Alternative and
Selection

The Fischer-Tropsch Process is the approach used here to


convert natural gas into useful liquid fuels.
The Fischer-Tropsch process is a technology that first
converts natural gas (NG) to syngas (mainly CO and H 2) by
one of the various reformer processes (ATR, SMR, etc).
The syngas is then converted into a liquid mixture of
hydrocarbons (syncrude) in reactors with the presence of
iron or cobalt catalysts.
The syncrude is then upgraded to target fuel quality and
shipped to demand market.
Other Product Benefits

GTL fuels have high energy density which makes them


comparable to traditional fuels such as diesel.
They are clean and sulfur-free making them more
environmental friendly.
GTL diesel has a higher cetane number.
Shipping of products can be done easily to distant markets
via ordinary CPP (Clean Petroleum Products) vessels.
GTL fuels can be mixed easily with crude oil and other
petroleum fuels.
General Process Flow for
FT Synthesis
Pre-Treatment Process

There are a lot of separation process for CO2 from NG. The process are
tabulated in next table.
From our analysis, we are choosing CRYOGINIC process in separating
CO2.
We choose this process based on the suitable number of equipment
and the balance of energy requirement and capital cost.
From the research, there are 4 designs for cryogenic process (Maqsood
et. al, 2014)
The designs of cryogenic
separation process

1. Conventional Cryogenic Distillation


Network in Presence of Additives
(Base Case)
2. Hybrid Cryogenic Networks
Consisting of Single Multibed Chosen because:
Separator with Feed Containing 50
mole% Carbon Dioxide
Minimized energy consumption
3. Hybrid Cryogenic Networks
Consisting of Single Multibed size reduction
Separator Unit with Feed Containing multiple cryogenic beds eliminate
72 mole% Carbon Dioxide the need for using butane as an
4. Hybrid Cryogenic Networks extractive distillation additive
Consisting of Multibed Separators at
Two Locations with Feed Containing
72 mole% Carbon Dioxide
Process flow diagram of Hybrid Cryogenic
Networks Consisting of Multibed
Separators at Two Locations
Cryogenic Packed Bed

Schematic diagram
for cryogenic
packed bed

Physical properties
of cryogenic
packed bed
Column data for multibed
hybrid distillation network
with 72 mole% CO2 in feed
Column composition for
multibed hybrid distillation
network for feed with 72
mole% CO2
Reforming Method of
Syngas

Types of Steam CO2 Dry CO2/Steam


Reformer Reforming Reforming Mixed
(SMR) (CDR) Reforming
Reactant Ratio 1/1/2 1/1/0 Depends on
(CH4/CO2/H20) Syn Gas
composition
Product Ratio 3/1 1/1 2/1
(H2/CO)
Catalysts Nickel / MgO Nickel / Cobalt Nickel / Fe
Main Product Hydrogen Syn Gas Syn Gas

Autothermal Reforming (ATR) and Partial Oxidation of Methane (POM) are


not considered due to requirement of large footprint and expensive
equipment
Reforming Method of
Syngas

Chosen process: CO2/STEAM MIXED REFORMING


Requirement of syngas ratio of 2 (H2/CO) prior to F-T
Synthesis

Syngas can be generated in flexible compositions via this


process

No separation unit required to adjust syngas ratio

SMR produces higher hydrogen yield and CDR produces too


low of a ratio for F-T Synthesis
Reforming Method of
Syngas

Model for combined steam reforming process with dry methane reforming
process.
Reforming Method of
Syngas

Main Equipments :
Heat Exchanger

Plug Flow Reactor

Absorber

Stripper
F-T Synthesis Process

Description Low Temperature High Temperature


FT (LTFT) FT (HTFT)
Product(s) Diesel and waxes Olefins and
Gasoline
Temperature 220 250 deg C 320 350 deg C
Catalysts Fe or Co Fe

hosen process: High Temperature FT (HTFT) Synthesi


High demand in gasoline market to replace gasoline from crude oil
Fe catalyst has lower cost compared to Co catalyst for synthesis reaction
Synthesis
Using SASOL Advance Synthol (SAS)
Reactor

SAS Reactor is a fixed


fluidized bed reactor
Capacity: 11000 bbl/day
for 8m diameter reactor
Process conditions: 340oC,
25 bar
Recycle stream is needed
to achieve reasonable
overall conversion

B.Jager, (2003), Development of Fischer-Tropsch Reactor


FT Synthesis Flow
Diagram

Steynberg, A. P., et al.


(1999). "High temperature
FischerTropsch synthesis
in commercial practice."
Applied Catalysis A:
General 186(1): 41-54.
FT Synthesis Equipment

Main Equipment:
Compressor
Heat exchanger
Synthol reactor
Pump
Steam drum
Air cooler
Distillation column (Separator)
Syncrude Upgrading

Extraction and Purification


Terminal Olefins, Oxygenates, and FT Wax have high value

Hydrocracking
Converts wax into liquid fuels

Oligomerization
Converts light olefins to liquid fuels

Other Reactions
Alkylation, Isomerization, Aromatization, etc.

Polymerization
HTFT ethylene and propylene can be made into polymers

Hydrogenation
Promoted fuel stability
Syncrude Upgrading
Syncrude Upgrading
Plant Location &
Suitability

Over 13 Tscf of hydrocarbon gas


remains undeveloped in high CO2
fields
The individual field CO2 content
ranges from 28% to 87%.
Plant Location &
Suitability