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ETIKA BISNIS

ISU-ISU ETIKA BISNIS

Dosen: Maiza Fikri, ST, SE, M.M


Email: maizafikri@rocketmail.com

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TUJUAN PEMBAHASAN
Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan
pengertian,pendekatan, prinsip, peran dan
manfaat etika bisnis dan penyebab pebisnis tidak
beretika dalam berbisnis

POKOK BAHASAN
ISU-ISU ETIKA BISNIS

SUB POKOK BAHASAN


1. Isu General Etika Bisnis
2. Isu Teoritis Etika Bisnis
3. Isu-isu etika dan Pendekatannya

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Isu-isu General dalam Etika Bisnis

Bagian etika bisnis ini tumpangtindih dengan falsafah


bisnis (Philosophy of business) dimana salahsatu
tujuannya adalah menentukan maksud-maksud dasar
dari suatu perusahaan.

Jika maksud utama suatu perusahaan adalah


memaksimisasi keuntungan bagi pemegang
saham/shareholders, maka kemudian dapat dilihat
sebagai tidak-etis (unethical) untuk suatu
perusahaan di dalam konteks mempertimbangkan
kepentingan dan hak-hak pihak lainnya

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Isu-isu General dalam Etika
Bisnis
Isu-1: Corporate Social Responsibility atau CSR
CSR merupakan suatu istilah dimana letak hak dan
kewajiban yang bersifat etika antara perusahaan
dan masyarakat diperdebatkan,

Isu-2: Professional ethics


Etika profesional mencakup keragaman/banyak masalah
dan fenomena praktik etika bisnis yang timbul dari area
fungsi-fungsi yang spesifik atau dalam relasi dengan
profesi bisnis yang dikenal
(accounting scandals) .

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Isu-3: Ethics of human resource
management
Etika dari Human Resource Management (HRM)
mencakup isu-isu yang muncul disekitar relasi antara
the employer-employee (majikan-pegawai), seperti
hak-hak dan kewajiban yang dimiliki oleh masing-
masing.
CONTOH:
isu-isu discrimination termasuk diskiminasi berdasar
usia (ageism), gender, ras, agama, disability
people/penyandang cacat, berat badan dan
penampilan, sexual harrassment.
Isi-isu yang terkait dengan representasi dari pekerja
dan demokrasi di tempat kerja: union busting, strike
breaking.
Isu-isu yang mempengaruhi privacy karyawan/pekerja
>> workplace surveillance, drug testing.

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Isu-4: Ethics of (sales and) marketing
Pemasaran yang jauh melampaui informasi utama
tentang produk dan akses ke suatu produk akan
mencari celah memanipulasi nilai-nilai dan perilaku
orang/konsumen
Pada taraf tertentu masyarakat dapat menerimanya,
tapi dimana garis etika ditetapkan?

Etika pemasaran tumpangtindih secara ketat dengan


media ethics, karena pemasaran menggunakan media
besar-besaran. Namun, media ethics adalah suatu topik
besar dan di luar cakupan etika bisnis
(Pricing: price fixing, price discrimination, price skimming).

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Isu-5: Ethics of production

Daerah etika bisnis terkait dengan kewajiban suatu


perusahaan untuk menjamin bahwa produk dan proses
produksi tidak menyebabkan kerusakan.

Beberapa dilema yang parah dalam area ini muncul dari


fakta bahwa selamanya ada suatu derajad bahaya dalam
suatu produk atau proses produksi dan sangat sulit
untuk mendefinisikan suatu derajat yang dapat
dibenarkan, atau derajad pembenaranyya akan
tergantung pada perubahan kondisi dari teknologi atau
perubahan persepsi sosial atau penerimaaan tingkat
resiko.

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Isu-6: Ethics of intellectual property, knowledge &
skills

Pengetahuan dan keterampilan merupakan sesuatu


yang sangat berharga tetapi tidak mudah menjadi
obyek yang dimiliki/kepemilikan.
Tidak selalu jelas siapa yang memiliki hak lebih
besar terhadap suatu ide/gagasan: perusahaan yang
melatih karyawan atau karyawan itu sendiri.
Negara dimana tanaman tumbuh atau perusahaan
yang menemukan dan mengembangkan potensi
medis dari tanaman tersebut yang memiliki hak
inelektual?

Sebagai akibat, upaya untuk memperoleh hak


kepemilikan dan etika bisnis menimbulkan
perselisihan tentang kepemilikan tersebut (HAKI)
Batik, Tempe, Tahu, patung bali.
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Isu-isu Teoritis dalam Etika Bisnis

1. Konflik Kepentingan
Etika Bisnis dapat diamati/diuji dari beragam perspektif,
termasuk perspektif karyawan, perusahaan komersial,
dan masyarakat sebagai suatu keseluruhan.
Tidak jarang, muncul situasi dimana ada konflik antara
satu atau lebih pihak, dimana pelayanan terhadap
kepentingan satu pihak adalah merugikan/merusak
kepentingan pihak lain.
sebagai contoh, suatu luaran hasil tertentu mungkin
sangat menguntungkan karyawan, tetapi berdampak
buruk bagi perusahaan atau bagi masyarakat, atau
kebalikannya
Menurut beberapa ahli etika/ethicists PERAN
UTAMA DARI SUATU ETIKA ADALAH SEBAGAI
PENYEIMBANG dan REKONSILIASI KONFLIK
KEPENTINGAN ( Henry Sidgwick)
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Ethical issues and approaches (1)

Philosophers and others disagree about the purpose of a


business in society.
For example, some suggest that the principal purpose
of a business is to maximize returns to its owners, or in
the case of a publicly-traded concern, its shareholders.
Thus, under this view, only those activities that increase
profitability and shareholder value should be encouraged.
Some believe that the only companies that are likely to
survive in a competitive marketplace are those that place
profit maximization above everything else.
However, some point out that self interest would still
require a business to obey the law and adhere to basic
moral rules, because the consequences of failing to do so
could be very costly in fines, loss of licensure, or company
reputation.
The economist Milton Friedman was a leading proponent
of this view. 10
Ethical issues and approaches (2)

Other theorists contend that a business has moral duties


that extend well beyond serving the interests of its owners
or stockholders, and that these duties consist of more than
simply obeying the law.

They believe a business has moral responsibilities to so-


called stakeholders, people who have an interest in the
conduct of the business, which might include employees,
customers, vendors, the local community, or even society
as a whole.

They would say that stakeholders have certain rights with


regard to how the business operates, and some would
even suggest that this even includes rights of governance.

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Ethical issues and approaches (3)

Some theorists have adapted social contract theory to


business, whereby companies become quasi-democratic
associations, and employees and other stakeholders are
given voice over a company's operations.
This approach has become especially popular subsequent
to the revival of contract theory in political philosophy,
which is largely due to John Rawis' A Theory of Justice,
and the advent of the consensus-oriented approach to
solving business problems, an aspect of the quality
movement" that emerged in the 1980s.

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Contract Theory
Professors Thomas Donaldson and Thomas Dunfee
proposed a version of contract theory for business, which
they call Integrative Social Contracts Theory.
They posit that conflicting interests are best resolved by
formulating a "fair agreement" between the parties,
using a combination of:
macro-principles that all rational people would agree
upon as universal principles, and,
micro-principles formulated by actual agreements
among the interested parties. Critics say the
proponents of contract theories miss a central point,
namely, that a business is someone's property and not
a mini-state or a means of distributing social justice.

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Ethical issues can arise when companies must comply
with multiple and sometimes conflicting legal or cultural
standards, as in the case of multinational companies that
operate in countries with varying practices.
The question arises, for example, ought a company to
obey the laws of its home country, or should it follow the
less stringent laws of the developing country in which it
does business?
To illustrate, United States law forbids companies from
paying bribes either domestically or overseas; however,
in other parts of the world, bribery is a customary,
accepted way of doing business. Similar problems can
occur with regard to child labor, employee safety, work
hours, wages, discrimination, and environmental
protection laws.
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Business ethics in the field
Corporate ethics policies
As part of more comprehensive compliance and ethics
programs, many companies have formulated internal
policies pertaining to the ethical conduct of employees.
These policies can be simple exhortations in broad, highly-
generalized language (typically called a corporate ethics
statement), or they can be more detailed policies,
containing specific behavioral requirements (typically
called corporate ethics codes).
They are generally meant to identify the company's
expectations of workers and to offer guidance on handling
some of the more common ethical problems that might
arise in the course of doing business.
It is hoped that having such a policy will lead to greater
ethical awareness, consistency in application, and the
avoidance of ethical disasters.
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To be successful, most ethicists would suggest that an
ethics policy should be:

Given the unequivocal support of top management, by


both word and example.
Explained in writing and orally, with periodic
reinforcement.
Doable....something employees can both understand and
perform (able to be done or achieved).
Monitored by top management, with routine inspections
for compliance (aggreeing to do something) and
improvement.
Backed up by clearly stated consequences in the case of
disobedience.
Remain neutral and nonsexist.
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Ethics officers
Ethics officers (sometimes called "compliance" or "business
conduct officers") have been appointed formally by
organizations since the mid-1980s. One of the catalysts for
the creation of this new role was a series of fraud, corruption
and abuse scandals that afflicted the U.S. defense industry
at that time.
This led to the creation of the Defense Industry Initiative
(DII), a pan-industry initiative to promote and ensure ethical
business practices. The DII set an early benchmark for
ethics management in corporations. In 1991, the Ethics &
Compliance Officer Association (ECOA) -- originally the
Ethics Officer Association (EOA)-- was founded at the
Center for Business Ethics (at Bentley College, Waltham,
MA) as a professional association for those responsible for
managing organizations' efforts to achieve ethical best
practices. The membership grew rapidly (the ECOA now
has over 1,100 members) and was soon established as an
independent organization. 17
TUGAS KELOMPOK
Issues regarding the moral rights and duties
between a company and its shareholders

1. Stakeholders concept vs Sharegolder concept.


2. Hostile take-overs vs Industrial espionage (Ethical issues
concerning relations between different companies)
3. Corporate governance vs Political Contributions made by
corporations (Leadership issues)
4. Corporate Manslaughter ( Law reform, such as the ethical
debate over introducing a crime of)
5. The misuse of corporate ethics policies as marketing
instruments

The misuse of corporate ethics policies


as marketing instruments
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BAHAN BACAAN
1. Amartya Sen. 1991 . On Ethics & Economics. Basil
Blackwell Ltd. UK
2. A.Sonny Keraf. 1998 . Etika Bisnis. Pustaka Filsafat.
Penerbit Kanisius. Jakarta
3. Ketut Rinjin. 2004 . Etika Bisnis dan Implementasinya.
Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta
4. Laura Hartman, Burr Ridge, 2004. Perspectives in
Business Ethics,, IL: McGraw-Hill.
5. Robby I.Chandra. 1995 . Etika Dunia Bisnis. Penerbit
Kanisius, Yogyakarta.
6. Sterling Harwood, Belmont, CA, 1996. Business as Ethical
and Business as Usual, : Wadsworth Publishing.
7. Sudiro Suprapto. 2005. Etika : Rahasia Sukses Manajer
Masa Depan. Progres. Jakarta.
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