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MANAGING THE PRIMARY

ESL CLASSROOM (TSL 3109)


THEORIES OF INSTRUCTIONAL
MANAGEMENT
(JACOB KOUNIN)
GROUP MEMBERS

DEFINITION/ DESCRIPTION OF THEORIES


Syarifah Norasyikin bt Sayed Noordin

APPROACHES / STRATEGIES THE THEORIES OFFER


Fadzilah bt Aziz

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE THEORIES


Nooramisah bt Abdul Rahim

PRACTICALITY OF THE THEORIES IN


A LOCAL ESL CLASSROOM
Sharifah Yusfida bt Syed Ariffin
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THEORIES
OF
INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT
(JACOB KOUNIN)

DEFINITION/
DESCRIPTION OF
THEORIES

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Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model,
Lesson Movement.
Jacob Kounin Ideas and Principles
a classroom management theorist.
1946, educational psychologist at Wayne State
University.
was highly influenced by Glasser, and it can be seen
throughout his work.
possibility of discipline and instruction being utilized as
one.
explained how you have to incorporate different aspects
from each to create an effective classroom.

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Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model,
Lesson Movement.
based around a teachers ability to organize and plan in their
classrooms while using proactive behavior and high student
involvement.
believes that teachers need to be attentive to all aspects of the
classroom.
effective teachers keep students attentive and actively
involved.
how teachers handle misbehavior is how they handle their
class from the beginning of each school year.

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Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model,
Lesson Movement.
One day while Kounin was teaching a class, he told one student
to stop reading a newspaper and to pay attention to the lecture.
While Kounin only told this one student to get on task, other
students who were not on task suddenly put away what they
were doing and started listening to the lecture. This effect
become known as the "Ripple Effect," which is when one
student's behavior is corrected it often influences another
student's behavior nearby.

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Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model,
Lesson Movement.
Kounin wrote a book, "Discipline and Group Management in
Classrooms," to sum up his beliefs about effective and
ineffective classroom managers.
came to the conclusion that the key to a successful classroom
is not the way a teacher handles misbehavior when it occurs,
but instead what teachers do to completely prevent classroom
management problems from ever occurring within the
classroom at all.
good organization and planning are also keys to effective
classroom management while getting students highly involved
and also using proactive behavior.
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Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model,
Lesson Movement.
teachers should have good lesson movement in order for
teachers to have an effective connection between teaching
and classroom management.
lesson movement is achieved through the five things as
follows: withitness, overlapping, momentum, smoothness,
and group focus. The term "withitness" was Kounins word to
describe that teachers always know what is going on within
his/her classroom. This can be done by scanning the
classroom every now and then so students will believe you are
always looking at what they are doing.

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Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model,
Lesson Movement.

studies on organizational and


management skills.

Done by videotaping many hours in


classrooms that did not have very
many misbehaved students and then
also videotaping in classrooms that
had misbehaved students.

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Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model,
Lesson Movement.
The tapes were then analyzed to see what these teachers did
differently.
Shockingly, there was no such difference, which came to the
conclusion that effective classroom managers and poor
classroom managers were not different in controlling and
responding to students who were disruptive to the class.

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Kounin's key ideas that help make an effective
classroom:
1. If a teacher can correct a misbehavior by using one student as
the instigator, other students within the classroom normally will
correct their misbehavior as well! - "ripple effect".

2. All teachers should be aware of what is taking place within all


parts of the classroom at any given time. - "Withitness"

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Kounin's key ideas that help make an effective
classroom:
3. If the teacher can create little chaos between activities, keep on
task, and utilize good time management skills they are modeling
effective group management.

4. All educators should be able to maintain group alertness, as


well as hold each member of the group accountable for
understanding the content of the lesson then all students have a
chance for optimal learning.

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Kounin's key ideas that help make an effective
classroom:
5. To avoid students getting bored or uninterested, the teacher
should give assignments and tasks that provide the students with
a feeling of progress or accomplishment when completing the
assigned work. Kounin also stresses the importance of creating a
diverse curriculum, as well as a change in environment
regularly.

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To keep students
actively involved in the
lesson, teachers can
lecture for about 10-15
minutes and then do a
group activity on what
they just learned.

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This will give students the
chance to collaborate with
other students and to
orally express what they
just learned.

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Hands-on activities may
have an impact on some
students which can help
them remember what they
learned better than just
sitting and listening to a
lecture for an hour.

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Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model,
Lesson Movement.
Fact: If students think that the teacher is alert/aware of what is
going on within the classroom, they are not likely to
misbehave. This is because the teacher has effective
classroom management skills that leaves little room for
misbehavior or discipline to occur. By having a teacher-
directed curriculum where the classroom students know who
is the "boss" they are less likely to try and take over the
classroom.

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Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model,
Lesson Movement.
If misbehavior occurs, it is crucial to correct the problem within a
timely manner in order for the discipline to be effective. It is
always beneficial to try your best to discipline the correct student, if
you misjudge and correct the wrong student, your tactics will be
less likely to work on future problems within the classroom. Always
make sure that those who truly are in the wrong are the ones
who get punished, otherwise students who did nothing wrong will
begin to not enjoy being in your classroom.

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THEORIES
OF
INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT
(JACOB KOUNIN)

APPROACHES /
STRATEGIES
THE THEORIES
OFFER
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APPROACHES AND STRATEGIES

The Instructional Approach is a well-planned and well-


implemented instruction that will prevent most classroom
problems.

Students will not engage in disruptive behavior because


they engage with the learning process with activities that
meet their interest, needs and abilities.

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THE KOUNIN MODEL

It focus on preventing classroom problem once they arose and


aware of everything in the classroom environment.

It kept students actively engaged and conducted well-planned


lessons with smooth transitions.

A good and better classroom managers are because of skill in four


areas :
a) withitness
b) overlapping activities
c) group focussing
d) movement management.
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WITHITNESS

Skill to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all


times.

withit teachers respond immediately to student misbehaviour


and know who started first.

withit teachers dont make timing errors or target errors.

withit teachers prevent minor disruptions from becoming


major.

withit teachers know who the instigator is in a


problem situation.
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OVERLAPPING

Handling two or more activities or groups at the same


time.

The ability to monitor the whole class at all times.

Keeping a small group on task and helping other


students with their seatwork.

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MOVEMENT MANAGEMENT AND GROUP FOCUS

Ability to make smooth lesson transitions.

Keep an appropriate pace

Involve all students in a lesson.

Keep student alert by holding their attention , by


holding them accountable and by involving all students
in the lesson.

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THEORIES
OF
INSTRUCTIONAL
MANAGEMENT
(JACOB KOUNIN)

STRENGTHS AND
WEAKNESSES OF THE
THEORIES

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STRENGTHS
1. Encourages mutual respect between student
and teacher.
Example: A student is more likely to respect
a teacher who is on top of things rather
than one who is oblivious or chooses to
ignore the disruptive behavior present in
the classroom.

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2. Encouraging students to remain actively
engaged in the lesson.
Example : The teachers who use group
alerting are ensuring students keep on
their toes or in suspense. During this
activity, the teacher will move around and
look at the progress of their group work.
So, every student must take part in the
group activity, such as giving opinions,
ideas and group presentation.

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3. Overlapping provides teachers with control
over several activities. The teacher keeps the
learning activities going without being
distracted. The teacher can change the
direction of the lesson after concerning
students. It requires teachers to make their
lesson flow in a logical manner and not
breaking the continuity of the classroom.

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4. Students misbehavior decrease.
When students know that they will be held
accountable for their learning and behavior and
teachers know how each student is progressing,
students will behave themselves as the teacher
can use many ways to measure, such as:
-record and keep their tasks.
Teacher can record all the activities and keep it
as a proof.

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5.The good action taken by the teacher will influence
the other students to follow.
Example : A teacher asks a student in his classroom
to put something away. The other students followed in
focusing their attention.

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WEAKNESSES
1. The model is very teacher centered, with the
value of student compliance. The teacher
controls the students activities.
2. Only little information about techniques of
corrective discipline.
3. This model takes extreme amount of effort by
the teacher. Constantly surveying the
classroom and being on top of multiple
situations can become tiring.
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WEAKNESSES
4. The teacher cannot handle two or more
problems at a same time.
5. The teacher cannot always get every student
involved in a lesson.
6. The teacher can lose control over a
disruptive student.

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THEORIES
OF
INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT
(JACOB KOUNIN)

PRACTICALITY OF THE
THEORIES IN A
LOCAL ESL CLASSROOM

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THE REAL WORLD
WILL KOUNINS MODEL
WORK?

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WITHITNESS
SITUATION 1 SOLUTION
The Year 3 students Mr Chew called the
were making a lot students who make
of noises when Mr. those noises by
Chew was teaching calling their names.
English . He always make eyes
contact with all the
students in the class.

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SOLUTION
RIPPLE EFFECT Encik Jamil managed that
behaviour problem by punishing
SITUATION 2
her. She was asked to go in
Siti was not paying front of the class and recited a
attention in the class. She poem aloud. The other students
always disturbed her who make a lot of noises in the
friends and loved to play class tend to behave well
around in the class. because they did not want to be
punished by En. Jamil.

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The situations/problems mentioned
above happened in most of the local
primary ESL classroom.
They arise due to the misbehavior of the
students.

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The instructional management strategies
help the teacher to solve the problems or minimize
inappropriate behaviors in the local primary
classroom effectively.

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It is seen that the strategies suggested by
Kounin is working in both situations, the
students negative behaviours are put to stop
almost immediately to ensure the teaching
and learning processes runs smoothly.

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CONCLUSION
In conclusion , the theory proposed by
Kounin is very effective in promoting a
conducive atmosphere to learning.
The strategies suggested are very helpful in
dealing with the students misbehavior.
However , the teacher should be aware that
every student is different, thus the teacher
needs to modify or improves the techniques
to make it compatible with the students.
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THANK YOU.

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